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With respect to the first there are specified three sorts of depuratory medicaments, the purging medicaments are of four kinds, the emetics are of two sorts.
VVith respect to physical (or chirurgical) operation, against wind: the smearing of the body with butter, &c. and cauterising in the Hor (or Turkish) manner. Against bile : phlebotomy, and cold water (or bathing in ditto). Against phlegm : warm applications, and cauterising.
Specifications of the several kinds of cures against wind, bile, and phlegm. They amount to 98 (compared to so many leaves). If the physician is skilful and diligent in his application, and the patient obedient and respectful, so will the latter soon be delivered from disease.
Sixth Chapter. Recapitulation of the three last chapters. According to the former metaphor or allegory of the Indian fig-tree, there are three roots (or trunks) : 1, the root, place, or ground of the disease; 2, that of the symptoms, and 3, that of the manner of curing.
There arise from the first trunk (or root) two stems: that of the unchanged state of the body, and that of the changed or diseased state of the body.
From the 2nd trunk (or root) there arise three stems, namely: those of looking on, feeling, and asking (or of inspection of the tongue and urine; of the feeling of the pulse ; and of asking after the circumstances of the disease).
On the 3rd trunk there arise four stems : those of the food; of the manner of living or conduct of life; of the medicaments used ; and of the operations performed. Therefore, from the three trunks (or roots) their arise nine stems.
The number of the boughs or branches :
Those branching from the stem of the unchanged body are : disease, the seven supports of the body, and the faeces.
On the stem denoting the changed or diseased state of the body, there are the following 9 boughs : cause of disease, accessory causes, beginning or injured parts, place, way, time of arising (or of the fit), fruit or consequence, causes of transition from one into another disease ; the reduction of all diseases to heat and cold.
On the stem denoting the symptoms of diseases, there arise the following eight boughs : 2 of inspecting the tongue and urine. Of feeling the pulse, there are 3: wind-pulse, bile-pulse, and phlegm-pulse. And in asking after the circumstances of the disease, there are 3. Altogether eight.
On the stem denoting the manner of curing, there arise the following boughs or branches : 3 of food or meat; 3 of drink or potion ; 3 of the manner of living or of the conduct of life ; 6 of physio with respect to taste and eflicacy; 6 of the assuaging mixtures, with respect to taste and eflicacy; 3 of depuratory physio.
There are also 3 boughs of medical (or chirurgical) operations. Thus in all there are 47 boughs or branches.
The number of leaves (or of leafy branches) issuing from the 47 boughs:
lst. On the top of the unchanged stem, the enumeration of 25 diseases.
2nd. On the top of the stem denoting the changed or diseased state of the body, 63 symptoms or tokens of iudisposition.
3rd. On the top of the stem of inspection (or examination of the tongue and
urine), 6 branches or leaves of inspection.
4th. On the top of the stem of feeling, three sorts of pulse (or three manners of
beating of the pulse). 5th. On the top of the stem of asking the patient about the circumstances of the disease, 29 questions.
6th. On the top of the stem denoting the food (diet, meat, and drink or potion) of the patient, there are the enumeration of such, as : 14 in respect to wind; 12 to bile; and 9 to phlegm.
7th. On the top of the stem of the conduct of life, 6.
8th. On the top of the stem of physic nine tastes and nine efiicacies are enumerated, together 18 ; 3 kinds ofsoup or broth; 5 Kinds of medical butter or sirup ; 4 kinds of potions ; 4 kinds of powders; 2 kinds of pills; 5 kinds of powdered aromatics ; 9 sorts of depnratory application. Total,=50 kinds of physio.
9th. On the top of physical (or chirurgical) operations, 7 leafy branches.
A summary exhibition of the above specified leaves :
1. On the trunkdenoting the place and ground of diseases, there are 188 leaves. 2. On that denoting the symptoms, 38.
3. On that denoting the manner of curing, there are 98 leaves. Altogether making 224.
There are two blossoms : health and a long life.
There are three fruits: moral perfection (or good morals), wealth, and happiness.
These are the contents of the six chapters of the first part of this medical tract.
There are four things to be treated of in the doctrine of curing or healing: 1, What is to be cured or healed? 2, With what is it to be cured? 3, In what manner is it to be cured ? 4, By whom is it to be cured P
lst Chapter.—With respect to the first question, What is to be cured? the answer is: the disease in the human body. 2, By what means: By diet or regular food, exercise, medicament, and by chirurgical operation. 3, In what manner is it to be cured ?— so that the patient recovering from his sickness, may remain long alive. To this place belongs the examination of the symptoms, the rules of curing, and the manner in which the cure is performed. The contents of this part of the treatise are reduced to four roots, and to 11 branches or minor parts.
2nd Chapter.——Cure is ordained for the well-being of the body. The origin or generation of the body. Cause, and accessory causes thereof. Tokens or signs of birth.
The cause of the generation of the body is stated to be: the father’s seed, the mother’s blood, and the arising of consciousness. If the first be predominant, there will be born a son; if the second, a daughter; if both are equal, then a her
maphrodite. Should it happen that the blood be formed into two masses, then twins will be born.
Out of the semen are formed: the bone, the brain, and the skeleton of the body. Out of the mother’s blood are generated the flesh, blood, heart, with the other four vital parts, (lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys,) and the six vessels or veins. From the soul or vital principle arises consciousness through the several organs.
After the body has been thus conceived, aié cause of its increase is in the two veins on the right and left sides of the womb, in the small vessel containing the mother’s blood for menstruation, and in the chyle formed from the mother’s food, which successively descending into the womb, concurs to the coagulation
or union of the semen, blood, and the vital principle, and to their increase, in the same manner, as water is conveyed, by certain canals, from a watering pond, to a field, for the production of corn.
The body, by the agitation of the (inward) air, being changed during 38 weeks, goes on continually increasing, for nine months.
The continual increase of the foetus, or embryo, is thus: In the 1st week, it is like a mixture of_mi1k and blood. In the 2nd week, growing somewhat thick, it is of a ropy or tenacious nature. In the 3rd week, it becomes like curds. In the 4th week, from the form, which the embryo takes, is conjectured whether it will be a son, daughter, or hermaphrodite. In the lst month, the mother suffers both in her body and mind several disagreeable sensations.
In the 2nd month, in the 5th week, the navel of the body is first formed. In the 6th week, the vital vein (or artery), depending on the navel. In the 7th week, the forms of both eyes appear. In the 8th week, in consequence of the forms of the eyes the form of the head arises. In the 9th week, the shape of the upper and lower parts of the trunk or body is formed.
In the 3rd month, in the 10th week, the forms of the two arms and sides (or hips) appear. In the 11th week, the forms of the holes of the nine organs become perceptible. In the 12th week, the five vital parts (heart, lungs, liver, spleen, veins,) are formed. In the 13th week, those of the six vessels.
In the 4th month, in the 14th week, the marrows in the arms and thighs are formed. In the 15th week, the wrists of the hands and the legs of the feet are perceptible. In the 16th week, the 10 fingers and the 10 toes become visible. In the 17th week, the veins or nerves, connecting the outer and inner parts, are formed.
In the 5th month, in the 18th week, the flesh and fat are formed. In the 19th week, the tendons or sinews and the fibres are formed. In the 20th week, the bone and the marrow of the feet are formed. In the 21st week, the body is covered with a skin.
In the 6th month, in the 22nd week, the nine holes of the organs are opened. In the 23rd week, the hair on the head and on the body, and the nails commence to grow. In the 24th week, the viscera and vessels become entirely finished ; and then pleasure and pain is felt. In the 25th week, the circulation or motion of air or wind commences. In the 26th week, the memory of the mind begins to be clear.
In the 7th month, the 27th to the 30th week, the whole body comes to entire perfection, or is completely formed.
In the 8th month, from 31st to 35th week, the whole body, both within or without, greatly increases.
In the 9th month, in the 36th week, there arises a disagreeable sensation in the womb. In the 37th week, there arises : nauseous sensation. In the 38th week, the head turning to the entrance of the womb, the birth takes place. But, though the months are completed, yet, on account of the mother’s menstruation, and of wind, birth may for some time be delayed.
Farther it is stated, that if the right side (of the pregnant woman) is high, and the body light, there will be born a son; if the left side is high, and the body heavy, then a daughter ; if they both are in an equal state, an hermaphrodite. And if the middle or both the sides are high, then twins will be born.
The tokens and circumstances of approaching birth are then described.
3i§Ql'QE5] “ d,Gah-vo m,rial h,jug" Nanda entering into the womb.)
3rd Chapter.-—The several members of the body are likened to certain things, 32 in number.
The manner of the existence of the body, under four distinct heads : 1. The quantity (in measure or weight) of the several constituent parts of the body, and the manner of existence of those parts on which the body depends. 2. The state of the veins and nerves. 3. On the nature of diseases, the enemies of the body. 4. The holes or openings for the circulation of the air, &c.
With respect to the 1st :
1. The quantity of the wind or air (in the body) is equal to one full bladder : that of the bile to the quantity of ordure once discharged ; that of the phlegm— to one’s three two-handfuls (the two hands three times full) ; that of the blood and ordule to seven ditto ; that of the urine and serum to four ditto; that of the grease and fat to two ditto; that of the chyle and the semen to one handful; that of the brain to a single handful ; that of the flesh:500 hand-fuls ; (one handful being as much as can be enclosed once in a single hand.) Women have an excess of 20 more on account of their thighs and breasts.
There are 23 sorts of bones; in the back-bone, 28 are distinguished. There are 24 ribs; 32 teeth; 360 pieces of bones. There are 12 large joints of limbs ;—small joints, 250. There are 16 tendons or sinews, and 900 nerves or fihres ; 11,000 hairs on the head; 11 millions of pores of the hair on the body. There are five vital parts (or viscera) (as the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and the reins or kidneys) ; six vessels, and nine openings or holes.——In Jambudwipa the measure of a man’s height is one fathom or four cubits--deformed bodies have only 3% cubits, measured by their own.
\lVith respect to the 2nd section, showing the state of the veins. There are four kinds of veins or nerves: 1, that of conception ; 2, of sensation; 3, of connexion, and 4, that of vitality. I
The 1st: From the navel there arise or spread three veins or nerves, one of them ascends to the brain, and is acted on by the dull part of it, generating the phlegm in the upper part of the body. Another nerve (or vein) entering into the middle, forms the vital nerve, and depends for its existence on the vital nerve of passion and blood; that part of it, which causes bile, resides in the middle. The third nerve (or vein) descends to the privy parts, and generates desire both in the male and female. That part of it, which produces wind, resides in the lower extremity.
The 2nd: There are four kinds of the nerves of existence or sensation.
For rousing (or exciting) the organs, in their proper place, there is in the brain a principal nerve, surrounded with 500 other smaller ones. Another nerve for making clear the organ of recollection or memory, resides in the heart, surrounded with 500 other smaller ones.
That nerve, which causes the increase and renovation of the aggregate of the body, resides in the navel, surrounded with 500 other smaller ones.
That nerve, which causes the increase of children, and descendants, resides in the privy member, together with 500 other smaller ones——-and comprehends or encompasses the whole body.
The 3rd: The nerve of connexion consists of two kinds, white and black. There are 24 large veins (or nerves), which, like as so many branches ascending
the principal stem of the vital principle, serve for increasing the flesh and the
blood. There are eight large hidden veins or nerves for making the connexion of the diseases of the viscera and vessels.
There are 16 conspicuous veins connecting the outward limbs, and 77 others spreading from them, called qqlvg bleeding veins (that may occasionally be opened to let out blood).
There are 112 hurtful or_pestilential veins (or nerves); of a mixed nature, there are 189 others. Thence originate 120 in the outer, inner, and middle parts, that spread into 360 smaller ones. Thence smaller ones encompass the body as with a net-work.
There are 19 strong working nerves, which, like roots, descend from the brain, the ocean of nerves; from among them there are 13 that are hidden, and connect the intestines—six others, connecting the outward parts, are visible; from them spread 16 small tendons or sinews.
There are three vital nerves (or veins) in a man. The one encompasses both the head and the body; the second, associating with respiration, moves accordingly; the third is the principal, and connecting the veins or canals, for the circulation of air and blood, is occupied with generating or increasing the body, and being the vital nerve, is called, by way of eminence, the artery or the principal vital nerve.
With respect to the third point:
Diseases of consequence happen in the flesh, fat, bone, tendons, nerve, intestines, and veins.
Such diseases are counted in the flesh, 45 -, in the fat, 8; in the bone, 32 ; in the tendons or sinews, 14; in the intestines, 13; in the veins, 190. On the head, there are 62; on the neck, 33; in the trunk of the body, 95; in the four hanging members (two hands, two feet), 112. Thus important diseases are reckoned 302, of which 96 are said to be very dangerous, which cannot be cured by any expence or skill. There are 49 that are dangerous in a middle degree, but which may be cured by learned physicians. The rest may be cured by others also; since they are of no great consequence, though they also be reckoned among diseases of magnitude.
With respect to the fourth point :
Of the several orifices or passages for the conveyance of air, blood, drink, and food, both within and without, are enumerated 13 in males and 16 in females.
Through inconvenient food and exercise, these passages being hurt, there arises a distemper of the body, by the humours being either too much increased, issued, or hindered ; or by taking wrong direction, confusion is produced. When the passages are clean, and free from any hurt, then the body is in a healthy state.
5th Chapter.-—Characteristic description of the body. There is a two.f<;1d division; 1, Those parts which are subject to injury (the body). 2, Those things by which they are injured (bad humours or diseases). First, of those that are subject to injury. These are thus distinguished: the supports, (or those parts which keep the body together), seven in number; as, the chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, and semen. Excrements, as ordure, urine, and sweat ; also the dirt of the teeth, and under the nails, and the impurity issuing from other openings or passages.
lstly. The oflice of the seven supports of the body, and of the three_excrements, is thus described: