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Is, fig. 1, on which, in the absence of a metal plate, the strings are hooked, is also, by the tension of the wires, liable to separate from the end plank M. In two instances, where this had occurred, previous to applying the rods, bolts with their heads resting inside at ii were passed through the block 1:, plank M, and a broad substantial plate of polished brass N, on the outside of which they were evenly rivetted. .
The foregoing plan for keeping piano-fortes straight was, I have
been informed, mentioned to Messrs. Baoanwoon AND Co. in London; but from what they said, I am inclined to think, was in the absence of drawings, or written description, imperfectly explained to them. They observed, that “they found the iron bar, as offering a resistance to the pull of the strings of the piano-forte, would best effect the purpose.” If the iron bar here alluded to is that which props between the block bearing the turning pegs and the metal plate on which the strings are hooked, it must be well known to those who are conversant with the mechanism of piano-fortes, that although it may be of some service, it is quite inadequate to prevent warping in India. A piano that had warped an inch and a quarter, but which had been fitted with one of those bars, was straightend by weight and other means, and secured with a set of three rods, when the iron bar, no longer reaching its original bearings, required to be lengthened before it could be again applied. _ The rods have been successfully applied to five piano-fortes, and approved of by judges competent as well by their musical as by their mechanical skill. Although possessing powerful command over the instrument, they do not, as it may be supposed solid iron bars would, at all check, as far as the vibrations of sound are concerned, the elasticity of the pianos.
When a piano-forte warps, a corresponding twist is gradually communicated to all the keys, throwing them out of their places, and cansing them to stick : it also detaches the hammers partially from their own strings, and makes them touch those of the neighbouring notes ; thus occasioning an unpleasant discord.
Piano-fortes would probably, without detriment to their tone, be greatly preserved and defended against the effects of climate, particularly the damp atmosphere of the rainy season in India, by the application of good oil varnish, such as is used by coach-makers, not only to the under sides and backs of pianos, which are invariably found in the state left by the jqiner’s plane, but also to the beds, side, ends, and blocks within, wherever it can be spread, prior to the putting in of the sounding board, keys, dampers, &c. &c.
V.-—Notice of two beds of Coal discovered by Captain J. R. OUSELEY,
P. A. to the Commissioner at Hoshangabdd, near Bara Garahwtira, in the Valley qflhe Narbada, 5th Jan. 1835, PI. LIII.
Hearing of black stones being found near Mohpdni, seven or eight rniles from Chicheli, and 12 or 14 from Garahwrira proper, on the Sakar, I went there, and found, as they described, black stones; but placing them on the fire, they did not burn. They are in strata of 10 feet to 15 feet thick, solid masses, perpendicular, (strata,) as if thrown up by some convulsion of nature, intermixed with strata of grey yellow and brown sandstone, mica-looking grit, (vide A, plan of coal bed.) and marl, on the left bank of the Sita Rewa, which flows along the bottom. I proceeded up the bed of this nalla for about two miles, when I came upon what appears to me to be a very fine bed of coal.
The river Sita Rewa, flowing from the south, here emerges from the bills at the N. E. angle of Nimbuagarh, a name given to one of the hills within half a mile of the coal bed. The current has unco-. vered for 100 yards the coal: its thickness is unknown as yet; that exposed, being about 14 feet thick. After so many attempts at discovering coal, which only proved to be mere seams of anthracite, I felt much gratified at discovering so large a bed. The road by which I proceeded up and along the river, I found very bad; but I returned by a most excellent one, being that used by the villagers for bringing wood from the jungles: the whole way being a plain, and practicable for any kind of carriage.
At the junction of the Hard and Sakar rivers, I also discovered a bed of coal, seemingly of as good quality: the seam about three feet thick ; but on account of the magnitude of the other bed, this became an object of less inquiry. I ascertained also that limestone and iron ore were in abundance.
Vl.—Speci'fic name and character qf a new species of Cervus, discovered by B. H. I-lonoson, Esq. in 1825, and indicated in his Catalogue by the local name of Bahraiya.
In the catalogue of the Mammalia of Nipal, a new species of Cervus is designated by the local name of Bahraiya, and it is therein remarked, that the species forms, with C. Wallichii, a chain of connexion between the Elaphine and Rusan groups. The horns, which at once fix the specific character and its novelty, were sometime back given in the journal. But these notices having failed to fix attention, and the animal in question being still confounded with the Saumer, Jerow, or Jara'i, it may be as well to define the species more precisely, and to give it a scientific name.
Genus—Ce1zvns. Sub-Genus Elaphus, (English Regne Anim.) Cervus Elaphoides. Stag-like deer, mihi.
C. El. brown-red deer, with moderate-sized, stout, pale horns, branched at the summits, as in Elaphus; but with no bezantler, and only one browantler to each beam. In stature and aspect, mediate between Hip elaphus and Elaphus. Icon penes nos, 'lI3‘ahraiya of the Cat. lglip. Mam., called Mdha in the Western
Remarks.-—The horns of this animal differ from those of any known species. In size, curvature, and thickness, they agree with those of the Hippelaphus of Du Vatican and of Cuvmn: and are considerably less large than those of Elaphus. But in colour and rugosity, they depart from the former, to approach the latter, with which they have, besides, a strict correspondence in the numerous snags crown-' ing their summits, and also in the anteal insertion and forward direction of the browantler. The absence of the median process, and the singleness of the basal one, are points of similitude with the I-lippelaphiue or Rusan group, in which, however, the basal or browantler has always an oblique insertion and upward direction.
WALL1cu’s deer, again, has two browantlers directed forwards; but has only a single superior process from the beam ; and it is almost deprived of tail, whilst that member is more developed in the Rusan than in the Elaphine group. The dark and shaggy coat of the Rusans is not traceable in Wallielzii, which is even paler than the European red deer. In these respects, our animal more nearl_v than Wallichii approaches the European stag; but in the singleness of his hrowantler, he recedes further from the European type than does Wallichii. He serves, in all respects, to form a fresh and striking link of connexion between the Hippelaphine and Elaphine groups, which groups, H. SMITH supposes to be respectively the Asiatic and European types of Cervus. The first discovered link in this connexion was WAr.r_.1ca’s deer. Elap/m'z'des, (mihi,) constitutes another, equally distinct and remarkable. In the synoptical arrangement of the English Regne animal, Elaphoides must havea place immediately after or before C. Wallichii; with which species our’s will serve to smooth the transition from Elaphus to Rusa. The crowned summits of the horns, each of which bears four or five processes, inclusive of the point of the beam, at once distinguishes Elaphoides from the Jerows, Jarais, or Saumers of the continent and islands of India. All the latter belong to the Rusan group, and in their manners are remarkable for exclusive adherence to the heaviest forest jungle, whence they frequently penetrate into the proximate mountains or hills. On the contrary, Elaphoides (the Bakraiya or Malia‘) never was known to enter the mountains; nor does he, save casually, resort to the depths of the forests. His lair is on the skirts of large forests, amid the grassy and swampy glades which abound in such vicinities. Lastly, his female is of a whitey-brown or pale dun hue: whereas the females of the Rusans are dark-hued, as the males.
Explanation of Plate LIII.
Fig. 3. Cernus Elaphus, Nipalese Sril forest: vulgo, Brira Sinlia, type of Cervus.
Fig. 4. Cernus Elaphoidec, mihi: vulgo, Bahraiya and Malui, Nipalese and Western Tarais ; osculant. '
Fig. 5. Cervus Hippelaphus : type of Ruea.
Note.——All three heads on an uniform scale. The stag's horns shew the two basal processes, and the median on either beam ; but the terminal crown of snags is not developed, owing to youth. Each horn has but one superior process from the beam, instead of three or tour, '