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held it in possession, without any attempt being made, either by the Kalmnks to regain their lost authority, or by the natives, to assert their independence. Subsequently, however, the Chinese began to oppress the people to such a degree, as to excite much discontent, and a general feeling of dislike towards them. Taking advantage of this state of things, Ar Known, a descendent of the ancient princes of the country, and a Syed of noble family, to whom the Kalmuks, as well as the whole of the Muhammedan population, were much attached, ‘headed a rebellion against the Chinese, and opposed them with various success for some time ; but was, at length, forced to retire before their superior number. The Chinese are said to have made a cruel use of the advantage they had gained, and massacred the Muhammedans in every quarter where the least resistance was apprehended. _
A1 Known, and his followers, finding it impossible to continiie the contest, fled to Badaksluin ,- but the prince of that country betrayed him, and gave him up to the Chinese, who put him to death. In retribution for this treachery, his country, the people of Yiirkand believe, has been visited with the miseries that have since befallen it, and fell an easy prey to MUHAMMED Muslin Bno, of Kundtlz, who
some years ago invaded and conquered it. When A1 Known was thus delivered into the hands of the Chinese, his son, and his grandson, JEnA'No1'a Known, fled to Andejzin. Some years afterwards, Ar Known’s son died, leaving his son Jnniuoia Known, then a youth, under the care of the Knin of Kokan. About 10 or 11 years ago, observing how unpopular the Chinese had become, he formed a plan for regaining the possessions of his forefathers. Having succeeded in bringing over to his cause Ensi BAnA'nU_a, one of the influential men of Andejzin, who joined him with a large body of the Khirgiz, and being supported also in his attempt by the Kain of Kokan, who sent a force of about 8000 horse to assist him; he advanced into Chinese Tartary, and attacked the Chinese in their cantonment at K askgar. The Chinese, and Yums Wane, who was then the Usbek hakim of K ashgar, took refuge in the fort ; but the Chinese apprehending that this chief and the Muhammedans would join Jnninoin, put Yums Wave, and many of the inhabitants, to death. This inhuman proceeding, however, failed of its object; for it did not deter the rest of the inhabitants, who were Musalmans, from going over to Janinoia; who, thus strengthened, attacked the fort, and carried it by storm: the Chinese, who were taken by surprise, being either driven out, or cut to pieces.
Jnnincin Known then marched to Ydrkand, where also he was well received by the inhabitants. The Chinese, after sustaining several defeats, abandoned the country. Encouraged by his success, the Known then proceeded to Kboten, and expelled the Chinese from that province. Whenever he made his appearance, the Chinese either gave way, or, resisting, were put to the sword. Thus Janineia acquired possession of the whole country, which remained in his hands for five or six months; but, abusing his power, he tyrannised over the people, and oppressed them. He became, in consequence, disliked, and was not supported by the inhabitants in opposing the Chinese, who returned with an army estimated at about 60,000 men, besides many Kalmuk horse. Being unable to check their progress, the Known retired to the mountains, and his Khirgiz and Andejdn allies retired to their own countries, carrying away with them property of immense value, of which, on the approach of the Chinese, they had plundered the inhabitants. Shortly afterwards, Isnix Known, of Kasbgar, being jealous of Jnninoia, betrayed him into the hands of the Chinese general at Auksii, by whom he was sent to Peclzin, (Pekin,) where he was put to death by order of the Emperor. For the service which Isnix Knomn had rendered, he received from the Chinese, the oflice and title of Wave, or prince
of Kaskgar. The real cause of the defeat of Jnniiuoin Known was, that the Usbeks of Chinese Tartary were divided into two tribes,
the A/c Tak, to which he belonged, who are of the Nags}:-bandf sect, and the Kura Tak, who are Kadaris, and who never cordially joined the other. Isnin Known was the chief of the latter. Sometime subsequent to his being appointed governor of Kashgar, he was called to Pe/tin, but never heard of after. It is sdpposed the Chinese were afraid of his influence, and that he was got rid of by poison.
Revenue—Albaum, orLand Ta.z-—and Customs.—-The revenue derived by the Chinese, or rather the payment made to them by their subjects in Chinese Tartary, is denominated “ Albaum," which consists of a capitation tax of one rupee from each man, per month, and a tenth of the produce of the land.
S3/eds, mzillahs, pirz¢ideIcs,faqu'irs, soldiers, &c. are excused from paying the “ Albaum,” according to the laws of GENGHIS Kniu. Formerly, land customs were levied on merchandize in transitu through the province ; and were collected at the rate of 2% per cent. on the value, (or as the narrator described it, “ 1 in 40, that is, of 40 pieces of cloth, one was taken ;") but, about twelve years ago, this
duty was entirely abolished, by order of the Emperor of China, and merchandize now passes free of impost.
Population and Language.—The native population of the country is Usbek, divided, as before stated, into two distinct classes, the Ak Tak, and Kura Tak. The language generally spoken is the Jaghatai Tnrki, which the Kalmuks also understand. This is probably the purest dialect of the Turki language, there being less admixture of Arabic and Persian, than in any of the others. A collection of a few common words will be found annexed to this memoir, which will show its great aflinity to the other branches of that widely diffused tongue.
Chinese Troops_.—The military force stationed by the Chinese in their provinces, is said to amount to between twenty and thirty thousand men.
Nature of the Government.—The Chinese government is represented to be very unpopular, at the present time, throughout these countries. There seems to be nothing in its system calculated to conciliate, or productive of advantages tending to reconcile the people to subjection to foreigners. The feeling of dislike, with which the Chinese are regarded, has been latterly much increased, in consequence of their carrying on vast works of fortification, and building walled towns, by the forced labour of the natives. The Musalman princes, chiefs, &c. are said to occupy, by the natives who had passed through India, nearly the same political position under the Chinese residents, or Umbauns, and stand in the same relation to them, as they supposed the Nawébs, Réjas, &c. of this country do to the residents of the English government, the Chinese interfering little in the direct management of the people, and leaving to the native princes the administration of the government and laws. The revenue, however, is realized entirely by the Chinese, the princes, &c. having large landed assignments.
English in India.--It is known at Ydrlrand, that India is governed by a nation of Europe (Feringis) ; and, it is said, that the Chinese entertain a high notion of the power of the English, which they view with feelings of apprehension, connected with an idea, that is prevalent in the country, of its being destined to fall into their hands.
Chinese Tartary accessible to European travellers.-It is said, that provided a person would dress as a native, allow his heard to grow, and accompany pilgrims on their return from Mecca, there would not be much difliculty in penetrating into Chinese Tartary ; but that the easiest way would be by way of Kokan and Kashgar, as large kzifilés of merchants pass that way. The person must, however, be able to speak Tnrki, as very few of the natives of the country understand Persian ; whereas, in the Kokan country, in Independent Tartary,
the population of whole towns speak nothing else. It would not be diflicult for the individual to go even to Pekin, in China. All that is requisite is to get a pass from the governor, by paying a few tenkehs to the Chinese officers, giving out that his object is trade. My informants stated, that some years ago, a European made his appearance at Ycirkand, in a native dress. He was discovered accidentally, and brought before the governor, who threatened him with torture if he did not confess who he was; but assured him that he would be well treated, if he spoke the truth. He admitted that he was a European, and was sent out of the country.
The foregoing particulars were elicited from various natives of the country, and at different periods, as they happened to arrive at Bombay, in their way on a pilgrimage to Mecca. One of these individuals was a prince of the country, another a pfrzddeh, both persons of considerable education and information : the first was a native of Auksu',- the second had travelled to Badakshdn, Kurratigin, Dervziz, and Kokdn. Another was an inhabitant of Eelc/12', in Khoten.
At the time this information was collected, 1 had not seen the works of Lieut. BURNES, or TIMKOWSKY, nor the papers by the Baron HUMBOLDT, and Monsieur KLAPROTH, in the Journal Asiatique.
[t is remarkable, however, and perhaps, may add to the value of this information, that the accounts given me generally corroborate those of the above-named distinguished characters, with the exception of what Lieut. Bunuss’ informants told him respecting the troops in Chinese Tartary being Tungaiiis, which mine say is not the case; and the reason given by them seems to prove the truth of their assertion.
Collection of Words-_ of the Turki dialect, spoken at Ydrlcand.
Water Su Well Kuduk and\Light Taghaltek
a 1:21 eep . out 1 ag 18
Arm Kul Ice Muz Five Bash.
II.--Some Account of the Hill Tribes ofthe Piney Hills in the Madam District. Extracted from the MS. Journal qf the late Major Warm. Madras European Regiment, communicated by Capt. T. J. TAYLOR,
The primitive inhabitants residing in the Varshagherry and Kumnundaven mountains, are the Kunnuver Villélers, in number amounting to about 4000 of both sexes, who resorted to them, it is supposed, about four centuries ago. They may be classed with the Vilialers of the plain, yet differ in their habits and manners, scarcely having any intercourse with each other, or forming any connection by marriage. This latter circumstance may, however, in some degree be attributed to the difference of climate, the extreme cold of which the inhabitants of the low lands are unable to endure. It is still more singular that even among themselves they have peculiar habits and customs, which distinguish those in the east from their western neighbours : the latter consider themselves as something superior, and have no communication with each other. In their marriages, the Kunnuvers of the east invariably use a teak-wood stool when performing the ceremony by way of distinction: those of the west are not so particular, the bride ‘and bridegroom are seated on stools, the floor of the house being previously garnished with cow-dung, and fantastically ornamented with streaks of flour. When the operation of sprinkling saffron-water is over, the husband performs the most important part of tying the tally, a small golden ornament, around the neck of the bride;the whole concludes with an entertainment to the relatives and friends of