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both parties. The Puryum, or marriage gift, to the relations of the bride, is a pair of oxen; to the west only one bullock, and sometimes a cloth, as a present to the mother of the bride. Incontinency is however very predominant, and separation between man and wife, not unfrequent, subject often to caprice. If a man feels an inclination to alienate himself from his wife, he has only to make his intention known to her parents, who receive her back with an offer of a pair of oxen. To the west she is turned over, simply with a Vatti, or metal dish, in use, to eat victuals out of. In case a woman is displeased with her husband, and absolutely wishes to part from him, she is at liberty, only she must leave all her golden trinkets, if she has any, to her husband; those of silver she takes, being considered as her own property. To the west, however, the wife is only permitted to take back such articles as she may have possessed before marriage, and if she has any children, they are left behind as the sole property of her husband. Should such separation take place, when the Woman is in a state of pregnancy, (and in the interim, be married to another man,) the child then born must revert to the legitimate father. The care and expense of weaning it, to the east, is recompensed by a donation of 30 fanams ; towards the west, it is delivered to the father, on his demand, and no recompense made: the children of such a connection are allowed to grow up, and then as if by instinct return to their real father, who is bound to receive and protect them. A woman may marry as often as she chooses, but can have only one lawful husband at a time, though she may bestow her favors on another, provided he be of the same caste : any sexual connection with a man of another tribe would tend ultimately to expel her from the caste. A man may marry, if his circumstances will admit, as many wives as he pleases; for concubinage is not permitted : and to a man of some opulence, two or three women are necessary in his domestic affairs; they are also very useful in the fields, as the toilsome labour of weeding and watering devolves chiefly on them, Among the western Kunnuvers, a circumstance rather singular is supposed to prevail, in case of an estate devolving on a female, which is likely to occur from the default of male issue; she is prohibited marriage, but undergoes the ceremony of being betrothed to some part of the dwelling; she is however allowed to have an intercourse with the opposite sex, and to the offspring of such a connection, if a male, the estate devolves. The women of the eastern parts are very uncouth, and wear brass and metal necklaces, with a profusion of bangles on their arms and legs, and bore the membrane between the nostrils ; the latter is also peculiar to the women of the west, who are
rather superior, and more modest in the wear of ornaments: a few stone or glass beads around the neck, called Kulpashy, and rings, are their only decoration ; they wear a white cloth, not very clean, from above the shoulders, knotted in front, and made fast round the waist with a bandage; those to the east wear theirs similar to the females of the low country. The men are very simple in their finery, having a couple of cloths, one worn round the head, and the other about the waist; they seldom or ever wear sandals, and by way of ornament, display a few golden trinkets, pendent from their ear. Their dialect is the Tzimul, which they speak fluently ; but are otherwise illiterate. The Kunnuvers burn their dead, with the exception of barren women, and those who may die of the small-pox, who are buried.
The Kdrakat Velliilers.-This class of people are the primitive inhubitants of Anjinad, or five counties, or portions into which this division appears to have been divided on their first settlement in these regions: they are considered a people of superior caste, their custom and manners being indicative of it, though not in any manner esteemed above those of the same caste in the low country. Abrzihman usually performs the duties at their temple, and the other ceremonies, &c. &c., as marriages, &c. are performed by a Pandarun or priest of their own caste. They speak the low Témul, but are most of them illiterate. AT:imul schoolof late has been established atMura\'ir. They are a very abstemious race. Rice constitutes their principal food, as also tyre, milk, and butter. They have no aversion to fowl or animal food, and use ghi as a substitute for oil; with it they also anoint themselves previous to bathing. They are not addicted to spirituous or fermented liquors. Opium is in use among them in moderation, and they chew and smoke tobacco. The apparel worn by both sexes does not differ in the least from the inhabitants of the plains, and consists chiefly of coarse white cloths; the women, besides the small ornaments worn in the nose and ears, decorate their arms with silver bangles, and such whose circumstances will not admit of their being of silver have them made of brass. A few of the men have the exterior membranes of the nose bored; and all invariably decorate their ears with rings: sandals for their feet are prohibited them. They are known to associate with the Kunnuvers, to the east : though their customs and manners greatly difl"er. Both castes make no scruple about eating what is cooked by either. But a Kunnuver, when invited to an entertainment by a Karakat, is not admitted to that part of the house, where the meats are dressed, nor is he allowed to touch any of the cooking implements. This class, by the laws of their sect, are contracted in marriage, when very young; it however happens, when the parties are at an advanced age, (owing, it is said, to a deficiency in the number of females,) that some of the men are obliged to lead a life of celibacy. A plurality of wives is not uncommon. It is only admitted, however, in case the first proves barren ; but a connection of such a nature cannot take place without the consent of the first wife, which must be obtained eventually. A widow is by no means restricted, she being at liberty to marry another man, if she feels inclined to do so. It is not uncommon for them to prefer remaining in widowhood. Chastity. among the fair sex does not appear to be a leading virtue among them; they are supposed, unknown to their husbands, to bestow favors on their male relatives, as well as on their neighbours. But in the event it is ascertained, that a female has had sexual connection with an individual of a lower caste, she is immediately expelled, and banished beyond their limits, when she becomes the property of some Kunnuver, who is always happy to aflbrd her an asylum : in case an individual of this class debases himself by cohabiting with a woman of another caste, he also undergoes the sentence of banishment from his native soil. In the primitive times this crime was punished with death. The marriage ceremony is performed at the house of the bride : a Pandal being raised before the door, under it the parties about to be consummated undergo oblation : they then retire into the house, and are seated on the floor, previously garnished, with their faces towards the east; a lamp is kept burning on a stool, also a measure full of paddy, and a symbol of Vignashner, made of cow's dung, on the head of which are stuck two blades of the Acruvumpulla grass, to which the bride and bridegroom prostrate themselves ; on rising, the relatives present the Tully, a small golden trinket, to the bridegroom, who ties it round the neck of the bride. A bason of milk being introduced, in which are steeped some areca leaves, ficus religiosa, with some of which the elder relations sprinkle the heads of the bride and bridegroom; they then get up and prostrate themselves before their joint relations, and the marriage concludes with an entertainment. On distributing betel and areca to the company the bridegroom, accompanied by his bride, retires to his own house, where the day after he entertains his friends and relatives. The Puryum or marriage gift is 30 fanams, and a cloth given by the bridegroom to the bride’s relations. The money is converted into jewels to adorn her person. Estates invariably devolve to the eldest son. In case there be two"'0r more, the property is equally distributed among them. They purchase the polians as slaves; price of a male 30 fanams ; that of a female, 50. She is considered of more value on account of the dhildren she may bear, who when born are the property of the master.
These coins are found, like the former, in greatest ‘abundance in
the vicinity of Kanouj. Ten of them were picked out of a remittance from;the Cawnpur collectory. The Asiatic Society possesses some _£/'ound.at Allahabad by Dr. A.;T.YTLEl1; I have several from Azimgark, and other places, besides. four» of _gold in KERiA'lVh_\'1‘, AL1"s collection from the Panjab ; Col. SMITH, Dr. SWINEY, .Lieut. Cunnmannzvr, also possess specimens, and I have examined those in C01. WrLLoUonnY’s cabinet; but the most plentiful supply, of gold, silver, and copper exists in Col. S'rAcY’s cabinet, whence I have selected most of the specimens now engraved. / _ _ .r_ _ It is rather_~singular thatno mention of a species /of coin -compara-l tively so common, is to be found in MARsn1~:N’_s Numismata Orientalia. .The,only published drawings of them are, Ibelieve, those. accompanying Mr. WrLsoN’s notice, in the seventeenth vol. Asiatic Researches,.which were taken from coins in his and my own cabinets. This gentleman was the first to attribute th_em_. to ‘their’ rightful place’ in history, ‘although he had but one well ascertained i1ame.iG0cindu_Chanct_ra) to guide his judgment. Upon alcareful examination of the several_collections mentioned above, I have now succeeded in adding five new _;James to his list, so rapid is the progress and success of the efforts nowdirected to this line of research.
The figure on the obverselof all these coins is of precisely the same character ;-a rudely executed front view of a male or female (it is difiitcnlt -to saypwhich), seated in the native fashion, with a glory round _therhead,= and some unintelligible objects in her hands. Prof. WILSON names 1her Laxmi, on the ground that the princes of _the Rahtore dynasty were of the Vaishavt-sect. In this case, we may recognize in her the female holding the cornucopia of the f0rrner_Can0uj group, jadly altered for the -worse in point of execution.
;~ ,.Tlfieinscriptions on the reverse are, with one exception, easilylegible ;