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of the Hindu faith, whereas the emblem and inscription could have proceeded only from an authority strictly Vaislmavf.

Fig. 22, from the Savior collection, would appear to be an interloper in the Upper Provinces; since the majority of this type have hitherto been found in Ceylon, some in the palace at Candy, others by Colonel MCKENZIE at Dipaldinna. They all however belong to the genuine Hindu réjas of that island, judging from the alphabet and the name.

The rude outline on the obverse, is intended, probably, for a rfija holding some mace or warlike weapon in his right hand. On the reverse he is seated in a lounging position, with a view to make room for the inscription on the side. This in the specimen before us is ‘Y! Unit ‘R: W Sri mayd traya mallu. The second word is read by MARSDEN, in a specimen very like it, {Q daya. And on another coin he finds the name of VIJAYA fiifiil (H! P) well known in the history of Ceylon. Mr. WILSON does not attempt to read the names on his coins, which are badly drawn ; but on comparing them, they appear not essentially to differ from Colonel S'rAcY's. No family of the name of Malia occurs in the Indian genealogies except in Nipfil, where, from the 13th century to the Gorkhfi conquest, the reigning prince almost always bore the aflix of Malia. In the honorable Mr. Tuanoulfs catalogue of the Ceylon monarchs, I do not find any such name.

Figs. 24 and 25, are two more modern copper pieces, selected from many of a similar nature in Colonel S'rAoY's cabinet, as forming a good land-mark in judging of the antiquity of other Hindu coins. The rude attempts at a human figure in 24, are far inferior to any thing we have yet seen, unless in its companion 25, where we can hardly pronounce them to be other than signs and symbols. The name and date on most of these coins are distinct enough, and in the present type of Ndgarf, ’fi€!ITfl iii “Fe, Sri Sangrdma Sinha, 1580 (samvat). Sometimes the name is written 8.1111. and at others 8-1117, Sangrama and Sangama, variations to be expected in such imperfect samples of the engraver's art.

Fig. 27, is of the latter description, having the name Sangama preceded by the letters will. The reverse of this coin has the figure ofa heart, which is very common on copper money dug up in the Sagur district, of the Muhammedan princes of the Berar provinces. Arabic letters are clearly distinguishable above the heart.

From the date of these coins, we recognize them as belonging to the celebrated SANGRKMA Smn, or SINKA of the Moghul historians, who for a short period successfully resisted the victorious Bursa at Biana.

A romantic account of the chivalrons adventures of his youth is given by Colonel Ton*. He succeeded.to the throne of Mewdr, in S. 1565, (A. D. 1508,) and is accounted by the Riijput bards the " kalsa," or pinnacle of its glory. His encounter with Benn. at Kanha occurred on the 5th Kartik, S. 1584, (=l5th October, 1527,) four years subsequent to the striking of these coins, which, by the way, are no very convincing evidence of the flourishing state of the arts in Chitdr at the summit of its splendour and glory.

Fig. 26, is a small square copper coin in Colonel SucY’s cabinet, also of modern fabrication ; on one side inclosed in a. marginal frame, which proves that the whole inscription is before us, are the Nfigari letters W THU bk lie. It may be that lis is the name of a coin of which the specimen represents the unit; or possibly it should be read Iqifqq ekiilis, the fortieth or rather forty-first of the current silver coin of the place P The division of the field on the reverse into upper and lower compartments, so far resembles a gold coin from Canouj, described by Mr. WILSON, as fig. 52-, Plate III. The letters are H“ #6?! an unintelligible compound.

Fig. 28, is another rude Hindu paisa of a late period. A human figure on the obverse, holds a staff in his right hand; on the reverse are the letters 1:‘ Q In 8 I it basan sar ji, an unknown and doubtful name.

Plates XXXVI., XXXVII. Rtijput Coins.

In the two following plates, I am again indebted to Colonel Snot’: numismatic zeal for the greater part of a very curious series of Hindu coins, on the one hand linked by the subject of their impression with the Indo-Scythic series, and on the other gradually mixed with and transfused into the Arabic currency of the first Mohammedan conquerors of Central India.

Now that I am myself in possession of nearly 100 of these coins in silver, it appears strange that they should hitherto have escaped so completely the notice of our Indian numismatalogists; neither Mnnsnnn, WILSON, nor Ton, having published a single engraving of them. When therefore I first received a sealing-wax impression of one from Dr. Swmnr, in August, 18331‘, it is not surprising that I should have announced it as an unique. Colonel S'rAcY's letters soon taught me to consider it in a. very contrary light, and now on reference to Colonel Ton’s personal narrative, I find that they had

“ Rajasthhn, i. 295. 1- See Journal, Vol. II. page 416, and fig. 11, Plate XIV. of the same volume 5 I then supposed the coin to he of gold; it was of silver.

not escaped him in his travels, although he has not favored the public with any drawings of them, or any comments on their age and locality.

Munshi Momm LA’!/s collection of coins made at C'a'bul, afforded me a favorable opportunity of ascertaining the accurate names and readings of the silver group, but unfortunately these do not embrace so much variety as the copper coins. The reason for this may be, that the munshi's collection was discovered in a foreign country. A treasure accidentally dug up, however numerous, would naturally consist of the money then current, with a small admixture of that of preceding reigns: in fact, out of 100 coins, 65 belong to one type (figs. 3. 4. 5,), 25 to another (figs. l, 2,), and only three or four to a third (figs. 6,7,). Colonel STACY on the other hand had the advantage of exploring the very field in which they must have been at one period current, and his series is, therefore, much more complete, though rarely so numerous in any particular species. A letter from this gentleman to my address, dated 2nd August, 1834, suggests, that “ as the figures both on the obverse and reverse of these coins are evidently made up of letters, either of Sanscrit or some other Hindu characters, they should be submitted to the kind attention of the professors of the Hindu college. The great variety, and the general distinctness of the characters on them, holds out fair hopes of our becoming acquainted with the dynasty they belong to, as well as with many of the individuals of that dynasty. The names placed against each by pandits, to whom they have been shewn, are worthy of no reliance. The natives possess neither enterprize nor invention ; when they find a letter or letters wanting, they will not attempt to fill up the blank."

The opinion here broached, that the outline figures were made up of letters, is supported by the authority of Colonel Ton, who remarks in the only passage I can find on the subject, (vol. i. p. 698.) “ My envoys brought, from Nadolaye, a small bag full of curious hieroglyphical (if I may so use the term) medals of the Ckoban princes. One side represents a warrior on horseback, compounded out of a character to which I have given the above term; on some there was a bull; while others, retaining the original reverse, have on the obverse the titles of the first Islamite conquerors, in the same manner as the currency of France bears the etfigies of LOUIS XVI. and the emblems of the republic. Whoever will pay a visit to Nadolaye, will find his labour amply rewarded; I had only leisure to glean a few of these relics, which yet formed a rich harvest.”

When the singular contour of the horseman and bull is traced back to its original type in figures 1, 2, where the whole substance of the figure is filled up, there does not's'eern to be much reason for imagin-- ing--any intention of mystifying/the device, otherwise than i by‘ the I - clouds ‘of ignorance; when the engraver retained only suflicient idtiiowledgéiof-h'is craft to cut‘-the outline of his device-‘in relief, and Yilatterly even seems himself to have lost sight of its meaning altogeth'er, ' 'as‘in' figs. 48, cum multis aliis ,-%certain it is, that the title of hiero‘ glyphic has been earned and won for this‘ coin even from the anti_qua'.rians ‘of -the west-; witness the followinglhighly curious passage, .bi_-ou"ght' -to my notice! by Dr. SwmnY,,in‘an- American~work on scrip,1_ut'é'=geo'g'raphy*,'~‘applied to a wood cut of acoiniin all respects the o_0i1nterpart‘o-fxiur-figure 3, which may have found its way to Egypt, in. the course of commercial dealings, eight or ten centuries ago :—

“ This_-.is'.m .. extremely curious medal, of silver, struck in Egypt before the reignsof the_P'ro1.nu_nis. It represents on one side, a man _on horse-back, and on the other, an-or of the humped kind lying down : between his horns is the lunar crescent, and within that is a globe. These symbols clearly refer this ox to Egypt. - Th_e_ man on horse‘-back is the most singular part of. thismedal ; none of the countries adjacent having adopted the type of a horseman. There is every

reason to believe that the letters o'n this medal are Persian, and that the person . _l§epresent_ed is A-nyvnrnns, governor of Egypt under D.\n.ins,_ the last king of

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