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animal from gnawing the rope. The beast hangs suspended in the air at the mercy of the villagers, who dispatch him by means of clubs or bamboos hardened in the fire, and pointed at the end so as to resemble pikes.
Arrived at the highest point of the ascent over Koyandowng, the large and pretty town of Rambree, surrounded with hills and divided by a creek that is seen in the distance meandering towards the sea, appears spread out to view in the vale below.
III.—Memorandum of an Excursion to the Tea Hills which produce the description of Tea known in Commerce under the designation of Ankoy Tea. By G. J. Gonnoxv, Esq.
[Communicated by Dr. N. Wxnmcn, Sec. Com. Tea Cultui-e.]
Having been disappointed in my expectations of being enabled to visit the Bohea hills, I was particularly anxious to have an opportunity of personally inspecting the tea plantations in the black-tea district of the next greatest celebrity, in order to satisfy myself regarding several points relative to the cultivation on which the information afforded by different individuals was imperfect or discordant.
Mr. GUTZLAFF accordingly took considerable pains to ascertain, for me, from the persons who visited the ship, the most eligible place for landing with the view of visiting the Ankoy hills ; and Hwuy Taou bay was at _leugth fixed upon as the most safe and convenient, both from its being out of the way of observation of any high Chinese functionaries who might be desirous of thwarting our project, and from its being equally near the tea-hills, as any other part of the coast, at which we could land. As laid down in the map of the Jesuits, there is a small river which falls into the head of this bay, by which we were told we should be able to proceed a good part of our way into the interior. We should of course have preferred proceeding by the Ankoy river, which is represented in the same map as having its source to the west of Ngau-ki-hyen and falling into the river which washes Sneu-chee-foia, were it not for the apprehension of being impeded or altogether intercepted by the public functionaries of that city. In order to make ourselves as independent as possible of assistance from the people, we resolved to dispense with every article of equipment which was not necessary for health and safety. The weather had for some days been comparatively cold, the thermometer falling to 55° at sunrise and not getting higher than 66° during the day, so that warm clothing not only became agreeable, but could not be dispensed with during the nights; arms for our defence against violence from any quarter, formed likewise a part of our equipments, and, trusting to money, and Mr. GU'rz1.AFs’s intimate knowledge of the language and of the people for the rest, we left the ship on the morning of Monday, 10th November, proceeding in the ship's long boat towards the head of the bay, where the town of Hwuy Taou is situated.
The party in the boat consisted of Mr. Gurznns, Mr. Rvnna, (second officer of the “ Colonel Young,”) Mr. NICHOLSON, late quartermaster of the “ Water Witch,” whom I had engaged for the projected Woo-re journey, and myself, one native servant and eight lascars. The wind being unfavourable, we made rather slow progress by rowing, but taking for our guidance the masts of some of the juuks which we observed lying behind a point of land, we pulled to get under it, in order to avoid the strength of the ebb tide, which wfi now setting against us. In attempting to round the point, however, we grounded, and soon found that it was impossible to get into the river on that side, on account of sand-banks which were merely covered at high water, and that it was necessary to make a considerable circuit seaward to be able to enter. This we accomplished, but not till I A. M. At this time a light breeze fortunately springing up, we got on very well for some time, but were again obliged to anchor, at 7‘; past 2, from want of water. As the tide rose we gradually advanced towards the town of Hwuy Taou, till we came to one of those bridges, of which there are several along the coast, that extend over wide sand-flats that are formed at the mouths of the rivers. These bridges are constructed of stone piers with slabs of stone laid from pier to pier, some extending over a space of 25 feet and upwards, and others being from 15 to 20 feet space. As the length of this bridge cannot be less than three quarters of a mile, the whole is very striking as a work of great labour, if not exhibiting either much skill or beauty. We were informed by some boat people that we should not find water to carry us beyond the bridge, but observing some tall masts on the other side, we resolved on making the experiment and pushing on as far as we could. It was almost dark when we passed under the bridge, and we had not proceeded far when we were again aground. This, however, we attributed to our unacquaintance with the channel, and as the tide floated us off, we continued advancing, notwithstanding the warning of a friendly voice from the bridge that entreated us to return to the town, promising us comfortable quarters, and a guide, 810. Being rather distrustful of the motives for this advice, however, we proceeded for some time longer, but at length found it impossible to proceed farther, the ebb having at the same time commenced. We therefore spread an awning, and prepared to make ourselves as comfortable as possible for the night. The day had been the warmest we had experienced for a month past, but the night was very cold, and our boats, as may be imagined, far from commodious for so many people. At day-light we found that there was not six inches of water in any part of the channel, and from the boat we stepped at once upon dry sand. The survey from the bank showed us plainly that it would be impossible to proceed any further by water. We accordingly prepared to march on foot, taking with us three lascars who might relieve each other in carrying our cloak-bag of blankets and great coats, as well as some cold meat. We ordered the people to prepare a. meal as fast as possible, intending to make along stretch at first starting, and Mr. NICHOLSON was directed to remain in charge of the boat with five lascars, to move her down under the bridge on the return of the flood, and there to wait our return for four or five days. Crowds of people now began to crowd round the boat, moved by mere curiosity. Mr. GUTZLAFF induced some of them to get ducks and fowls for the use of the boat's crew, and strange to say prevailed on one man to become our guide, and on two others to undertake to carry our baggage, as soon as we should be a little farther otf from the town and out of the way of observation.
After a little, an old gentleman made his appearance on a chair who proved to be the head man of the town: he inquired whence we came and whither we were going, which we freely told him. With these answers he seemed perfectly satisfied, probably from finding them correspond with what he had been already told by some of the people with whom we had communicated on the subject in seeking information and assistance. He measured our boat with his arms, but offered us no obstruction nor even remonstrance. We observed him, however, after he had interrogated us, sending off two or three messengers in different directions, which made us the more anxious to be ofl". It was however past 9 o'clock before Mr. RYDER had completed his arrangements for the boat’s crew, and the sun was already powerful. We were soon joined by our guide and the coolies, and our cavalcade winding along the foot paths, which are the only roads to be met with, made an imposing appearance. Mr. Gurzmmr and the guide led the way, followed by a. lascar with aboarding pike ; next came the baggage, attended by a lascar similarly armed. I followed with pistols, and attended by a lascar armed with a cutlass, and Mr. RYDER. carrying a fowling piece and pistols brought up the rear. Skirting the town of
Hwuy Taou, we proceeded in a N. N. E. direction at a moderate pace for an hour and a half, when we stopped ata temple, and refreshed ourselves with tea. Nothing could be more kind or more civil than the manners of the poeple towards us hitherto, -and if we could have procured conveyance here so as to have escaped walking in the heat of the day loaded as we were with heavy woollen clothes, we should have had nothing farther to desire ; as it was, my feet began already to feel uncomfortable from swelling, and after another hour's marching, I was obliged to propose a. halt till the cool of the evening. Fortunately we found, however, that chairs were procurable at the place, and we accordingly engaged them at half dollar each. These were formed in the slightest manner, and carried on bambu poles, having a cross bar at the extremities, which rested on the back of the bearer's neck, apparently a most insecure as well as inconvenient position ; but, as the poles were at the same time grasped by the hands, the danger of a false step was lessened. We had not advanced above a mile and a half before the bearers declared they must eat, and to enable them to do so, they must get more money. Vi/'ith this impudent demand we thought it best to comply, giving them an additional real each. After an hour’s further progress we were set down at a town near the foot of the first pass which we had to cross. There the bearers clamourously insisted on an additional payment before they would carry_ us any further. This we resisted, and by Mr. Gu'rzt.Ar1v's eloquence gained the whole of the villagers who crowded round us, to join in exclaiming against the attempted extortion. Seeing this the rogues submitted and again took us up. Mr. G. mentioned that while we were passing through another village, the people of which begged the bearers to set us down that they might have a look at us, they demanded 100 cash as the condition of compliance. The country through which we passed swarmed with inhabitants, and exhibited the highest degree of cultivation, though it was only in a few spots that we saw any soil which would be deemed in Bengal tolerably good; rice, the sweet potatoes, and sugar-cane were the principal articles of culture. We had now to ascend a barren and rugged mountain, which seemed destined by nature to set the hand of man at defiance ; yet, even here there was not a spot where a vegetable would take root, that was not occupied by at least a dwarf pine, planted for the purpose of yielding fire-wood, and a kind of turpentine; and wherever a nook presented an opportunity of gaining a few square yards of level ground by terracing, no labour seems to have been spared to redeem such spots for the purpose of rice cultivation. In ascending the pass we soon came to places where it was difficult for our bearers to find a footing, and where they had consequently to pick out their steps as they advanced. To assist themselves they gave the chair a swinging motion with which they kept time in raising their feet.
This was far from agreeable, and the first impression felt was that it was done merely to annoy, but we very soon saw that the object was different. The highest point of the pass 1 should conjecture to be about 1200 feet above the plain, and the descent on the north side to be nearly equal to the ascent from the south, say 1000 feet. At halfpast four we arrived at a rather romantic valley,_which was to be our halting place for the day. We proposed to the bearers to carry us on another stage next day, but for this they had the impudence to ask five dls. per chair. This of course we would not listen to for a moment, and were afterwards happy that we got rid of such rascals, as good bearers and on moderate terms were procnrable at the place. The name of this village is Lung-tze-kio. It seems once to have been a place of greater importance than now, exhibiting marks of dilapidation and decay. Even the foot-path over the pass must have been at one time an object of attention, as we found in several places the remains of a sort of pavement, and of bridges which were now nearly destroyed. The inn at which we stopped afl"orded as few and mean accommodations as could well be imagined, but we were able to get some fowls deliciously grilled, on which, with the aid of sweet potatoes, and of the salt beef which we brought with us, we made a most hearty repast. Among the people who came to see us at the inn was a very respectable looking young man, a student, who won Mr. GU'rzL.\rr’s heart by asking him for instruction in religion. Unfortunately the whole contents of a box of religious tracts, and other books had been distributed in the morning, and Mr. G. was unable to supply him with any. The request was no doubt prompted by the report of the people who had accompanied us, and who had themselves partaken of Mr. G.’s liberality before they volunteered. This young man strongly recommended to us to alter our course, magnifying the distance of Twa-Bo to which we were bound to 100 12' or 30 miles, and telling us that at the distance of 4011' or 12 miles to the S. W. we should find tea plantations of a very supe~ rior description. The exaggeration of the distance led me to suspect the accuracy of the information in other respects, and I had heard enough of contradictory evidence already, not to be swayed by it in the present instance. '
Nov. l2th.——Got into our chairs at a quarter past six A. M. and proceeded along a narrow rugged dell to a. town called Koe-Bo. Several nice looking hamlets were seen on the way. The people were engaged