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filial, &c.; y final is a vowel; u has the sound of y consonant, (yoo,) in virtue, cure, &c. ; u is w in quick, colloquy, &c. ; w at the end of a

; syllable is never a consonant, &c. &c.

REPEATER. 5. A short line drawn across the middle of any letter indicates a repetition of the same consonant with preceding vowel. This symbol is necessary only in the case of straight-line characters, when both are thick or both thin; as when p comes before p, b before b, s before 8, d before d, &c. ; w and y (small) may be joined to the repeater in such words as quaker, tutor, &c; w being represented by a hook on the right, y by a hook on the left end of the repeater.

VOWELS. 6. The principle of consonant notation renders unnecessary any separate indication for VOWELS, except when they are DOUBLE, as in aerial,or FINAL after full sized consonants, as in airy, in which cases a dot is written opposite the centre of the adjoining consonant. Two dots must be written in the case of double final sounds, as in area.

FINAL SYLLABLES ENDING IN VOWELS. 7. Final syllables ending in vowels such as cy, gy, ly, ty, &c., are represented by their consonant written very small, (without a dot,) opposite the centre of the preceding letter, or the last preceding full sized letter. It will generally be unnecessary to indicate vowels before these terminations, in such cases as acy, ally, ity, &c. The following Table contains the principal syllables of this class. b

ly, ally |s cy, acy, icy w uy (colloquy) dy m my, emysh

shy y

ue, (=yoo) ify n

ny, anyt ty, ety, ity j gy, ogy p

pyth

thy, athy
chyr
ry, ary / v

vy

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8. VOWEL-WORDS AND ARBITRARY WORD-SYMBOLS. The following Table contains symbols for the eight English words which contain no consonant, and for the same number of words represented arbitrarily.

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Twelve important Prefixes and Terminations are represented by six symbols, as in the following Table. Symbols.

Prefixes.

Terminations. hook, (joined)

com, con

tion, sion dot, (at end)

ex, (expose)

ted large dot, (at end)

ex, (exist)

tude two dots, (at end)

inex, unex

ment ring, (joined)

circ, circum

(ing) semi-circle, crossing concavely)

tious, scious semi-circle, (crossing convexly)

enter, inter

exter, tra

ness

10. All derivatives and compounds of these prefixes and terminations are denoted by minute alphabetic additions to the symbols. Thus:

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11. DERIVATIVE WORDS. Derivative words formed by the addition of s, ed, &c. to words ending in vowel-sounds (such as pray-s, pray-ed, chew-s, chew-ed, &c.) should be written by adding the s, d, &c. in tick size to the radical word. In this way, prays, pries, &c., will be distinguished from praise, prize,&c.; prayed, pried, &c. from proud, pride, &c.; chews from choose, chewed from chide, &c.

12. The alphabetic characters have no difference of signification dependent on the mode in which they are written, as upwards, downwards, &c. Each line has its regular absolute value in all combinations, however the writer's taste or convenience may vary the modes of junction. As a general rule, consecutive letters are best written in opposite directions—p up before 1 down, f up before b down, &c. The plates in the “ Popular Stenography” illustrate this rule, even in the writing of thick letters upwards. "This, however, can only be done with a pencil—but it is never necessary. It will be convenient to add here the following

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE JOINING OF LETTERS. In writing with a pen, thick letters must always be written downwards: with a pencil they may be written either upwards or downwards, but the latter mode is the more natural and easy, and therefore to be preferred in reporting. The following directions show the various ways in which the letters may be joined, and the preferable modes in particular combinations. b write always downwards. ch (=tsh) may be written with the hook either to the right or left. The first mode will

generally be the most convenient, except before m, r, s, and upward p or f, when the second mode should be employed. The first mode should always be used

at the end of a word, as the latter expresses “t tion." d write always downwards. f may be written either upwards or downwards,—but the former mode is generally

preferable, except before m and s. g write always downwards. h may be written either way in most cases : it is best upwards before g, k, sh, th. j may be written with the hook either to the right or left. The former mode is best

before all letters except m, r, s, and upward p or f. The former mode must always be used at the end of a word, as the latter expresses

d tion." k is generally written downwards ; before n, r, and th, it may, however, be written up

wards. 1 being a voice consonant is correctly a thick letter, and of course written downwards ;

but it may for convenience be written thin and upwards, since the breath correspondent of 1 (ll in Welsh, and 1 final after consonants, in French, as in siecle) does not occur in English. The upward I will generally be best after b and v; also when initial before k, g, t, d and th; it may be used otherwise as most convenient.

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10. All derivatives and compounds of these prefixes and terminations are denoted by minute alphabetic additions to the symbols. Thus:

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11. DERIVATIVE WORDS. Derivative words formed by the addition of s, ed, &c. to words end

, ing in vowel-sounds (such as pray-s, pray-ed, chew-s, chew-ed, &c.) should be written by adding the s, d, &c. in tick size to the radical word. In this way, prays, pries, &c., will be distinguished from praise, prize, &c.; prayed, pried, &c. from proud, pride, &c.; chews from choose, chewed from chide, &c.

12. The alphabetic characters have no difference of signification dependent on the mode in which they are written, as upwards, downwards, &c. Each line has its regular absolute value in all com

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