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binations, however the writer's taste or convenience may vary the modes of junction. As a general rule, consecutive letters are best written in opposite directions—p up before 1 down, f up before b down, &c. The plates in the “ Popular Stenography” illustrate this rule, even in the writing of thick letters upwards. This, however, can only be done with a pencil—but it is never necessary.

It will be convenient to add here the following

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE JOINING OF LETTERS. In writing with a pen, thick letters must always be written downwards: with a pencil they may be written either upwards or downwards, but the latter mode is the more natural and easy, and therefore to be preferred in reporting. The following directions show the various ways in which the letters may be joined, and the preferable modes in particular combinations. b write always downwards. ch (=tsh) may be written with the hook either to the right or left. The first mode will

generally be the most convenient, except before m, r, s, and upward p or f, when the second mode should be employed. The first mode should always be used

at the end of a word, as the latter expresses t tion.d write always downwards. f may be written either upwards or downwards, but the former mode is generally

preferable, except before m and s. g write always downwards. h

may be written either way in most cases : it is best upwards before g, k, sh, th. j may be written with the hook either to the right or left. The former mode is best

before all letters except m, r, s, and upward p or f. The former mode must always

be used at the end of a word, as the latter expresses - d tion." k is generally written downwards ; before n, r, and th, it may, however, be written up

wards. 1 being a voice consonant is correctly a thick letter, and of course written downwards ;

but it may for convenience be written thin and upwards, since the breath correspondent of 1 (ll in Welsh, and 1 final after consonants, in French, as in siecle) does not occur in English. The upward I will generally be best after b and v; alsó when initial before k, g, t, d and th; it may be used otherwise as most convenient.

10. All derivatives and compounds of these prefixes and terminations are denoted by minute alphabetic additions to the symbols. Thus:

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11. DERIVATIVE WORDS. Derivative words formed by the addition of s, ed, &c. to words ending in vowel-sounds (such as pray-s, pray-ed, chew-s, chew-ed, &c.) should be written by adding the s, d, &c. in tick size to the radical word. In this way, prays, pries, &c., will be distinguished from praise, prize, &c.; prayed, pried, &c. from proud, pride, &c.; chews from choose, chewed from chide, &c.

12. The alphabetic characters have no difference of signification dependent on the mode in which they are written, as upwards, downwards, &c. Each line has its regular absolute value in all combinations, however the writer's taste or convenience may vary the modes of junction. As a general rule, consecutive letters are best written in opposite directions—p up before 1 down, f up before b down, &c. The plates in the “ Popular Stenography” illustrate this rule, even in the writing of thick letters upwards. This, however, can only be done with a pencilbut it is never necessary.

It will be convenient to add here the following

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE JOINING OF LETTERS. In writing with a pen, thick letters must always be written downwards: with a pencil they may be written either upwards or downwards, but the latter mode is the more natural and easy, and therefore to be preferred in reporting. The following directions show the various ways in which the letters may be joined, and the preferable modes in particular combinations. b write always downwards. ch (=tsh) may be written with the hook either to the right or left. The first mode will

generally be the most convenient, except before m, r, s, and upward p or f, when the second mode should be employed. The first mode should always be used

at the end of a word, as the latter expresses " t tion." d write always downwards. f may be written either upwards or downwards, but the former mode is generally

preferable, except before m and s. g write always downwards. h may be written either way in most cases : it is best upwards before g, k, sh, th. j may be written with the hook either to the right or left. The former mode is best

before all letters except m, r, s, and upward p or f. The former mode must always

be used at the end of a word, as the latter expresses “d tion." k is generally written downwards ; before n, r, and th, it may, however, be written up

wards. 1 being a voice consonant is correctly a thick letter, and of course written downwards ;

but it may for convenience be written thin and upwards, since the breath correspondent of l (ll in Welsh, and 1 final after consonants, in French, as in siecle) does not occur in English. The upward I will generally be best after b and v; also when initial before k, g, t, d and th; it may be used otherwise as most convenient.

m being a voice consonant, is correctly a thick letter ; but, as its breath correspondent

does not occur in English, it may be written thin and backwards when con

venient as before n and s. n being a voice consonant, is correctly a thick letter ; but, as its breath correspondent

does not occur in English, it may be written thin and backwards when convenient

-as before m and s, and after k or g. p may be written either upwards or downwards ; the former mode will be best before

downward 1. r being a voice consonant, is a thick letter, and written downwards. s may be advantageously written from right to left, before or after k, before r and th,

and after downward 1; in other cases it should be written from left to right. sh is generally written downwards ; but, it will be best upwards before k, g, and r; and

when final after r, as in harsh." t may be written either upwards or downwards, as convenient. th (breath) may be written either upwards or downwards ; the former mode will be best

before t, d, 1, (downwards) and r. th (voice) is correctly a thick letter, but it may be written thin and upwards, in cases

where it will not be liable to confusion with its breath correspondent. v write always downwards. w being a voice consonant, is correctly a thick letter, but it may be written thin and

upwards in cases where it will not be liable to confusion with its breath correspon

dent wh, as in the combinations qu (=kw,) dw, tw, &c. wh

may be written either upwards or downwards : the former mode will be best before

p, and downward f and l. y-zh write always downwards. z write always from left to right.

13. EXACT-VOWEL MARKS. The following vowel symbols are written opposite the top or bottom of the consonant. They are only used in foreign words and proper names. The principle of writing stated in par. 3, renders the use of vowel marks quite unnecessary in all ordinary vernacular words. The symbols denote the vowel sounds in the illustrative words. (Top.) eel, ale,

up-urn, ah, pull-pool, isle, oil. Symbols : (Bottom.) ill, ell-ere, ask,

on-all, old-ore, owl, mule.

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CURT SHORTHAND.

14. The general principle of the Curt Style consists in writing WITHOUT FULL SIZED CHARACTERS all subordinate SYLLABLES and WORDS, and in the use of CROSSING, and vowEL-PLACE Prefixes and Terminations.

15. Full sized characters, which in the First Style (by implying preceding vowel) indicated syllables, are now limited to accents-only the accented syllables of English words being written in full size. Foreign words may still be written syllabically, and they will thus be distinguished to the eye, without vowel marks or any other indication ;-as in the words materiel and material the former of which would have three full sized characters, the latter one.

16. To carry out this accentual principle, which is a source of high abbreviation, consonants with vowels preceding are written in halfsize when unaccented. In the case of separable prefixes, a distinctive notation is obtained by indicating unaccented initial vowels by a dot, written in a vowel position close to the top of the next consonant. The following words are such as will be written with this initial-vowel dot:

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17. A few initial syllables are represented by consonants in a vowel position. These will be found in their alphabetical places, in the Vocabulary of Logograms.

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