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1284 Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by

Rugier de Lauria, admiral to Peter III. of Arragon. Purg.

xx. 78. Charles I. king of Naples, dies. Purg. vii. 111. Alonzo X. of Castile, dies. He caused the Bible to be translated

into Castilian, and all legal instruments to be drawn up in

that language. Sancho IV. succeeds him. Philip (next year IV. of France) marries Jane, daughter of

Henry of Navarre. Purg. vii. 102. 1285 Pope Martin IV. dies. Purg. xxiv. 23.

Philip III. of France and Peter III. of Arragon die. Purg.

vii. 101 and 110. Henry II. king of Cyprus, comes to the throne. Par. xix.


Simon Memmi, the painter, celebrated by Petrarch, is born. 1287 Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari

Eloquio) writes “The War of Troy.”

Pope Honorius IV. dies. 1288 Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Denmark. Par. xix.

135. Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of famine. H. xxxiii. 14. The Scottish poet, Thomas Learmouth, commonly called

Thomas the Rhymer, is living at this time. 1289 Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where the Florentines

defeat the people of Arezzo, June 11. Purg. v. 90. 1290 Beatrice dies. Purg. xxxii. 2.

He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans,

and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn.
H. xxi, 92.
Guido dalle Colonne dies.
William, marquis of Montferrat, is made prisoner by his

traitorous subjects, at Alessandria in Lombardy. Purg. vii.

Michael Scot dies. H. xx. 115.

1291 Dante marries Gemma de' Donati, with whom he lives un-

happily. By this marriage he had five sons and a daughter. Can Grande della Scala is born, March 9. H. i. 98; Purg. xx.

16; Par xvii. 75, and xxvii. 135.
The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to recover St. John

D'Acre. H. xxvii, 84.
The Emperor Rodolph dies. Purg. vi. 104, and vii. 91.
Alonzo III. of Arragon dies, and is succeeded by James II.

Purg. vii. 113, and Par, xix. 133.

Eleanor, widow of Henry III., dies. Par. vi. 135. 1292 Pope Nicholas IV. dies.

Roger Bacon dies.

John Baliol, king of Scotland, crowned.
1294 Clement V. abdicates the papal chair. H. iii. 56.

Dante writes his Vita Nuova.
Fra Guittone d’Arezzo, the poet, dies. Purg. xxiv. 56.

Andrea Taffi, of Florence, the worker in Mosaic, dies.
1295 Dante's preceptor, Brunetto Latini, dies. H. xv. 28.

Charles Martel, king of Hungary, visits Florence, Par. viii.

57, and dies in the same year.
Frederick, son of Peter III. of Arragon, becomes king of Sicily.

Purg. vii. 117, and Par, xix. 127.
Taddeo, the physician of Florence, called the Hippocratean,

dies. Par. xii. 77.
Marco Polo, the traveller, returns from the East to Venice.

Ferdinand IV. of Castile comes to the throne. Par. xix. 122. 1296 Forese, the companion of Dante, dies. Purg. xxxiii. 44.

Sadi, the most celebrated of the Persian writers, dies.
War between England and Scotland, which terminates in the

submission of the Scots to Edward I.; but in the following
year, Sir William Wallace attempts the deliverance of

Scotland. Par. xix. 121. 1298 The Emperor Adolphus falls in a battle with his rival,

Albert I, who succeeds him in the Empire. Purg. vi. 98.

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A.D. 1298 Jacopo da Varagine, archbishop of Genoa, author of the

Legenda Aurea, dies. 1300 The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise in Pistoia. II.

xxxii. 60.
This is the year in which he supposes himself to see his Vision.

HI. i. 1, and xxi. 109.
He is chosen chief magistrate, or first of the Priors of Florence:

and continues in office from June 15, to August 15.
Cimabue, the painter, dies. Purg. xi. 93.
Guido Cavalcanti, the most beloved of our Poet's friends, dies.

H. x. 59, and Purg. xi. 96. 1301 The Bianca party expels the Nera from Pistoia. H. xxiv. 142. 1302 January 27. During his absence at Rome, Dante is mulcted

by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire, and con

demned to two years' banishment. 1302 March 10. He is sentenced, if taken, to be burned.

Fulcieri de' Calboli commits great atrocities on certain of the

Ghibelline party. Purg. xiv. 61.
Carlino de Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano Travigne, in

Valdarno, to the Florentines. H. xxxii. 67.
The French vanquished in the battle of Courtrai. Purg. xx. 47.

James, king of Majorca and Minorca, dies. Par. xix. 133. 1303 Pope Boniface VIII. dies. H. xix. 55 ; Purg. xx. 86, xxxii.

146 ; and Par. xxvii. 20. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve,

under Alessandro da Romena. He appears to have been

much dissatisfied with his colleagues. . Par. xvii. 61. Robert of Brunne translates into English verse the Manuel

de Pechés, a treatise written in French by Robert Grosseteste,

bishop of Lincoln. 1304 Dante joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the

city of Florence. May. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a

representation of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. H, xxvi. 9,


1304 July 20. Petrarch, whose father had been banished two years

before from Florence, is born at Arezzo. 1305 Winceslaus II., king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. vii. 99, and Par.

xix. 123.
A conflagration happens at Florence. H. xxvi. 9.

Sir William Wallace is executed at London, 1306 Dante visits Padua. 1307 He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina.

Purg. viii. 133, xix. 140.
Dolcino, the fanatic, is burned. H. xxviii. 53.

Edward II. of England comes to the throne. 1308 The Emperor Albert I. murdered. Purg. vi. 98, and Par. xix.

114. Corso Donati, Dante's political enemy, slain. Purg. xxiv. 81. He seeks an asylum at Verona, under the roof of the Signori

della Scala. Par. xvii. 69. He wanders, about this time, over various parts of Italy. See

his Convito. He is at Paris a second time; and, according

to one of the early commentators, visits Oxford,
Robert, the patron of Petrarch, is crowned king of Sicily.

Par. ix. 2.
Duns Scotus dies. He was born about the same time as

1309 Charles II., king of Naples, dies. Par. xix. 125.
1310 The Order of the Templars abolished. Purg. xx. 94.

Jean de Meun, the continuer of the Roman de la Rose, dies

about this time. Pier Crescenzi of Bologna writes his book on agriculture, in

Latin. 1311 Fra Giordano da Rivalta, of Pisa, a Dominican, the author of

sermons esteemed for the purity of the Tuscan language,

dies. 1312 Robert, king of Sicily, opposes the coronation of the Emperor

Henry VII. Par. viii. 59.

A.D. 1312 Ferdinand IV. of Castile dies, and is succeeded by Alonzo XI.

Dino Compagni, a distinguished Florentine, concludes his

history of his own time, written in elegant Italian.

Gaddo Gaddi, the Florentine artist, dies. 1313 The Emperor Henry of Luxemburgh, by whom he had hoped

to be restored to Florence, dies. Par. xvii. 80, and xxx.

135. Henry is succeeded by Lewis of Bavaria.
Dante takes refuge at Ravenna, with Guido Novello da

Giovanni Boccaccio is born.
Pope Clement V. dies. H. xix. 86, and Par. xxvii. 53, and

xxx. 141. 1314 Philip IV. of France dies. Purg. vii. 108, and Par. xix. 117.

Louis X. succeeds.
Ferdinand IV. of Spain dies. Par. xix. 122.
Giacopo da Carrara defeated by Can Grande, who makes

himself master of Vicenza. Par. ix. 45. 1315 Louis X. of France marries Clemenza, sister to our Poets

friend, Charles Martel, king of Hungary. Par. ix. 2. 1316 Louis X. of France dies, and is succeeded by Philip V.

John XXII. elected Pope. Par. xxvii. 53.

Joinville, the French historian, dies about this time. 1320 About this time John Gower is born, eight years before his

friend Chaucer. 1321 July. Dante dies at Ravenna, of a complaint brought on by

disappointment at his failure in a negotiation which he had
been conducting with the Venetians, for his patron Guido

Novello da Polenta.
His obsequies are sumptuously performed at Ravenna by

Guido, who liimself died in the ensuing year,

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