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1284 Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by
Rugier de Lauria, admiral to Peter III. of Arragon. Purg.
xx. 78. Charles I. king of Naples, dies. Purg. vii. 111. Alonzo X. of Castile, dies. He caused the Bible to be translated
into Castilian, and all legal instruments to be drawn up in
that language. Sancho IV. succeeds him. Philip (next year IV. of France) marries Jane, daughter of
Henry of Navarre. Purg. vii. 102. 1285 Pope Martin IV. dies. Purg. xxiv. 23.
Philip III. of France and Peter III. of Arragon die. Purg.
vii. 101 and 110. Henry II. king of Cyprus, comes to the throne. Par. xix.
Simon Memmi, the painter, celebrated by Petrarch, is born. 1287 Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari
Eloquio) writes “The War of Troy.”
Pope Honorius IV. dies. 1288 Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Denmark. Par. xix.
135. Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of famine. H. xxxiii. 14. The Scottish poet, Thomas Learmouth, commonly called
Thomas the Rhymer, is living at this time. 1289 Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where the Florentines
defeat the people of Arezzo, June 11. Purg. v. 90. 1290 Beatrice dies. Purg. xxxii. 2.
He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans,
and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn.
traitorous subjects, at Alessandria in Lombardy. Purg. vii.
happily. By this marriage he had five sons and a daughter. Can Grande della Scala is born, March 9. H. i. 98; Purg. xx.
16; Par xvii. 75, and xxvii. 135.
D'Acre. H. xxvii, 84.
Purg. vii. 113, and Par, xix. 133.
Eleanor, widow of Henry III., dies. Par. vi. 135. 1292 Pope Nicholas IV. dies.
Roger Bacon dies.
John Baliol, king of Scotland, crowned.
Dante writes his Vita Nuova.
Andrea Taffi, of Florence, the worker in Mosaic, dies.
Charles Martel, king of Hungary, visits Florence, Par. viii.
57, and dies in the same year.
Purg. vii. 117, and Par, xix. 127.
dies. Par. xii. 77.
Ferdinand IV. of Castile comes to the throne. Par. xix. 122. 1296 Forese, the companion of Dante, dies. Purg. xxxiii. 44.
Sadi, the most celebrated of the Persian writers, dies.
submission of the Scots to Edward I.; but in the following
Scotland. Par. xix. 121. 1298 The Emperor Adolphus falls in a battle with his rival,
Albert I, who succeeds him in the Empire. Purg. vi. 98.
A.D. 1298 Jacopo da Varagine, archbishop of Genoa, author of the
Legenda Aurea, dies. 1300 The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise in Pistoia. II.
HI. i. 1, and xxi. 109.
and continues in office from June 15, to August 15.
H. x. 59, and Purg. xi. 96. 1301 The Bianca party expels the Nera from Pistoia. H. xxiv. 142. 1302 January 27. During his absence at Rome, Dante is mulcted
by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire, and con
demned to two years' banishment. 1302 March 10. He is sentenced, if taken, to be burned.
Fulcieri de' Calboli commits great atrocities on certain of the
Ghibelline party. Purg. xiv. 61.
Valdarno, to the Florentines. H. xxxii. 67.
James, king of Majorca and Minorca, dies. Par. xix. 133. 1303 Pope Boniface VIII. dies. H. xix. 55 ; Purg. xx. 86, xxxii.
146 ; and Par. xxvii. 20. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve,
under Alessandro da Romena. He appears to have been
much dissatisfied with his colleagues. . Par. xvii. 61. Robert of Brunne translates into English verse the Manuel
de Pechés, a treatise written in French by Robert Grosseteste,
bishop of Lincoln. 1304 Dante joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the
city of Florence. May. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a
representation of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. H, xxvi. 9,
1304 July 20. Petrarch, whose father had been banished two years
before from Florence, is born at Arezzo. 1305 Winceslaus II., king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. vii. 99, and Par.
Sir William Wallace is executed at London, 1306 Dante visits Padua. 1307 He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina.
Purg. viii. 133, xix. 140.
Edward II. of England comes to the throne. 1308 The Emperor Albert I. murdered. Purg. vi. 98, and Par. xix.
114. Corso Donati, Dante's political enemy, slain. Purg. xxiv. 81. He seeks an asylum at Verona, under the roof of the Signori
della Scala. Par. xvii. 69. He wanders, about this time, over various parts of Italy. See
his Convito. He is at Paris a second time; and, according
to one of the early commentators, visits Oxford,
Par. ix. 2.
Jean de Meun, the continuer of the Roman de la Rose, dies
about this time. Pier Crescenzi of Bologna writes his book on agriculture, in
Latin. 1311 Fra Giordano da Rivalta, of Pisa, a Dominican, the author of
sermons esteemed for the purity of the Tuscan language,
dies. 1312 Robert, king of Sicily, opposes the coronation of the Emperor
Henry VII. Par. viii. 59.
A.D. 1312 Ferdinand IV. of Castile dies, and is succeeded by Alonzo XI.
Dino Compagni, a distinguished Florentine, concludes his
history of his own time, written in elegant Italian.
Gaddo Gaddi, the Florentine artist, dies. 1313 The Emperor Henry of Luxemburgh, by whom he had hoped
to be restored to Florence, dies. Par. xvii. 80, and xxx.
135. Henry is succeeded by Lewis of Bavaria.
xxx. 141. 1314 Philip IV. of France dies. Purg. vii. 108, and Par. xix. 117.
Louis X. succeeds.
himself master of Vicenza. Par. ix. 45. 1315 Louis X. of France marries Clemenza, sister to our Poets
friend, Charles Martel, king of Hungary. Par. ix. 2. 1316 Louis X. of France dies, and is succeeded by Philip V.
John XXII. elected Pope. Par. xxvii. 53.
Joinville, the French historian, dies about this time. 1320 About this time John Gower is born, eight years before his
friend Chaucer. 1321 July. Dante dies at Ravenna, of a complaint brought on by
disappointment at his failure in a negotiation which he had
Novello da Polenta.
Guido, who liimself died in the ensuing year,