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large billet-moulding; and at the north-west angle, columnar

ALUM AND ALUM-WORKS. pilasters of a peculiar character are carried up to above half

I. the height of the elevation. An interlaced series of small round arches, (surmounted by a billeted string-course,) ex. The question, "What's in a name?" has often been tends along the lower portion of the north end, the central asked, as if the name attached to an article or a part being varied by an inserted pilaster, composed of a substance were of no import. Perhaps its import is half-lozenge, Hanked by two semi-columns: the spaudrils but small, when we all agree as to the identity of the and interiening surfaces are chequered with the fish-scale ornament. But the most interesting specimen of the Nor- substance to which it is applied; but when a parman work is the circular staircase turret; which projects ticular name has been employed in past times, and towards the north-east, and which progressively exhibits, we are not certain that the application thereof was first, a series of five intersected semicircular arches, quite the same as at the present day, a fertile source rising from small columns, and enriched with the fi-h- of discussion arises. These remarks are in a great scale and billet-mouldings; secondly, a billeted stringcourse, surmounted by five small arches springing from

measure applicable to the substance to which the double columns; thirdly, a diamond-shaped net-work, or

name of alum is applied; we will therefore briefly rope-like reticulated division, crowned by a chevron, or zig- trace its history, with a view of determining how far zay string course; and fourthly, five small arches, similar it was known to the ancients. to ihe others, but the shafts of which are gone; as are, also, The Romans were acquainted with a substance two of those of the lower series. Other vestiges of the an called alumen; and many writers have been ready cient work are apparent on the eastern side, which had, enough to infer that this must have been the suboriginally, a semicircular termination; but this has been altered into two small chapels in the pointed style. The

stance now called alum. It has been ascertained, large pointed-arch window in the upper story of the north however, that this substance was a vitriolic earth end is also an insertion of after-times. Though the ground which was formed in mines. Beckmann, in accounthas been much raised, the arches of two windows are yet ing for the ease with which this earth might be open, which admitted light into the ancient crypt, below this mistaken for alum, says .part of the transept: the crypt itself is closed up. Our limits scarcely allow us to enter into further correctly, saline substances, which have a very close affinity.

Alum and vitriol are neutral salts, or, to speak more particulars; but we cannot refrain from noticing some Both contain the same acid, called the vitriolic, both have a of the curiosities of by-gone days, connected with strong astringent quality, and on this account are often this ancient edifice.

comprehended under the common name of styptic salts. On' the backs, arms, and jambs of the ancient Both are also not only found in the same places, but are stalls and under-seats of the priory establishment, frequently obtained from the same minerals; and both can there is a profusion of carving in alto and bas-relief, be sometimes employed in the like manner, and for the

same purposes. including many representations of a grotesque and satirical character, which are supposed to refer to the

The advance of chemical knowledge, since the time selfish arts of the mendicant friars, who began to

wben Beckmann wrote, has made some changes in establish themselves in England in the thirteenth

the nomenclature employed in descriptions of this century. Of this description, in particular, are two kind; but the fact which he endeavours to prove specimens on the south side; the first of which exhi

seems to be borne out by collateral circumstances. bits a hog in a cowl, with his feet resting on the edge Alum-works are nowhere mentioned by the classical of a pulpit, preaching to a flock of geese, who

writers ; nor is there any allusion to establishments

appear eagerly listening to his discourse, whilst, on a small bearing any relation thereto, except one existing in stool behind the pulpit, a cock officiates as clerk ;

Spain, where blue vitriol was made by a process of the other is a zany, or posture-master, said to repre- boiling. The alum spoken of by the Roman writers sent the people at large, turning up his legs backward, appears to have been a natural product, and therefore as though in the display of his art, whilst a dog much more likely to resemble a vitriolic earth than taking advantage of his folly, is devouring the con

true alum. tents of his porridge-pot.

But there are other writers among the moderns Among the panelled carvings at the back of the who do not assent to Beckmann's opinion, but think stalls, and which seem to be of subsequent introduc- that the alumen of the ancients was the alum of the tion to the original carved-work, are various medal

moderns. Leaving this discussion, therefore, we prolion-like heads, or masks; some of which are altogether ceed to state, that the alumen of the Romans was grotesque, or fanciful, whilst others are conjectured to very serviceable both in medicine and in the art of be both of a satirical and a political character. The dyeing. They procured it from various parts of the latter are supposed to refer to the times of Henry the world; but Egypt seems to have been the place Seventh, and the unsuccessful attempts made to dis- from whence the best was obtained ; and it is menpossess him of the throne.

tioned by Herodotus, that when the people of It is extremely probable that the various caricatures Delphos, after losing their temple by fire, were just alluded to, are seldom, if ever, noticed,

except by Amasis king of Egypt sent them a thousand talents

collecting a contribution in order to rebuild it, the antiquary, or other curious visitant. They may,

of alum. therefore, do but little harm; but we cannot avoid

The island of Melos, in the Grecian remarking that the existence of burlesque ornaments Archipelago, was also mentioned by Pliny, Celsus, in connexion with an edifice devoted to the solemn

Diodorus Siculus, and others, as a place whence and immediate service of the Deity, is so utterly out excellent alum was obtained; and the statement that of keeping, that, though they may be regarded, for the alumen of the ancients was only a vitriolic earth, the most part, as mere squibs let off at Romish prac. Melos, a natural vitriol has been found in later times

seems to be borne out by the fact that in the grottoes at tices and devices, they had been better removed long ago, but preserved elsewhere for the inspection of by Tournefort and Matthews. Many of the islands those who love to examine the productions of the and countries of the Mediterranean, such as Lipari

, men of “ olden time."

Stromboli, and Sardinia, appear to have produced

the so-called alum; and it is said to have been so PRESUMING self-confidence is the badge of ignorance and plentiful at Lipari at one period, that the duty imthe curse of fools. It is the humble privilege of the wise

posed on it brought a considerable revenue to the alone to doubt: and they who know the most are always

Romans. the most sensible how little the most enlightened know. Among the many purposes to which the alum of BURNET.

532

the ancients was applied, was that of rendering while travelling in Syria ; and that after he had rewonden buildings partially fire-proof. It is related turned to Italy, journeying on one occasion to the by Aulus Gellius, that Archelaus, one of the generals little island of Ischia, he saw several rocks formed of Mithridates, washed a wooden tower with a solu- apparently of the same substance as that from whence tion of alum, and thus rendered it so far capable of the Syrians obtained their alum: he collected some resisting fire, that all Sylla's attempts to set it in fragments, and having calcined them, was enabled flames proved abortive.

to produce from them very excellent alum.

A someThe preceding details relate wholly to the sub- what similar account is given of the origin of the stance called by the ancients alumen; but, for the celebrated alum-works at Tolfa, the oldest now carried reasons above stated there is strong ground to believe on in Europe. John de Castro resided at Constantithat that substance did not correspond with what we nople, as a trader in Italian cloths and dye-stuffs, and now call alum. The earliest certain information which made himself acquainted with the mode of boiling we have concerning alum can be traced to about the alum. He was there when the city fell into the thirteenth or fourteenth century. It appears to have hands of the Turks; and after this unfortunate event, been first known from its beneficial use in the art of by which he lost all his property, he returned to his dyeing, by fixing the dye-stuff to the woven materials, own country. Pursuing there his researches in vaand rendering the tints more brilliant; and as the tural history, he found in the neighbourhood of finest dyes were undoubtedly produced in the East, Tolfa, a plant which he had observed growing in great it appears probable that we may attribute the dis abundance in the aluminous districts of Asia: from covery and first use of alum to the Orientals. The this he conjectured, that the soil in which this grew, use of this substance appears to have made its way might also be of an aluminous nature. The estate of from the East to the Levant; and the Italians for å Tolta was in the possession of the family of Frangipani ; long period purchased their alum from the Turks, and when De Castro communicated his surmises to after the latter had gained possession of the Greek the owner, the soil was analyzed, and a rich store of islands in the Levant. But there were strong alum obtained from it. The pope claimed the mineral religious differences between the Christians and the treasure as belonging to the apostolic see: this, how. Turks, and as the latter had extensive views of conquest ever, Frangipani resisted, and a series of contests throughout Eastern Europe, it grieved the Christians ensued, in which the sword was used as an arbiter. to be obliged to purchase alum, and the other At length, however, the Pope was willing to purchase materials for dyeing, from them; and the Italians, the estate of Tolfa and its mineral riches, for the sum by discovering aluminous minerals in their own of sixteen thousand gold crowns. The possession of country, and by learning the mode of preparation this alum-mine on the part of the Christians was in the Turkish alum-works, gradually acquired the deemed a matter of great importance, since there had means of preparing alum in Italy. The manufacture, been annually transmitted to Turkey, as large a sum having thus taken a turn, flowed so successfully in as three hundred thousand gold crowns for alum, to the new channel, that many of the Turkish alum. be used in dyeing. works were abandoned.

After this period alum-works were crected in It was said by some writers, that the Italians various places; for as De Castro had proved the acquired the art of making alum at Rocca, in Syria, existence of aluminous earth in one part of Italy, it and that from this circumstance, the new substance, was natural that researches should be made in other in order to distinguish it from the alumen of the parts, with a view of discovering other specimens of ancients, was called alum di Rocca ; and that from the same rock. Alum-works were' erected at Volathence sprang the the French alun de roche, and the terra in 1458, by a Genoese, named Antonius; but English rock alum. Other writers, however, are of the supply of material appears to have been speedily opinion, that these appellations result from the exhausted at that spot. But in whatever part of Italy words rocca or rock, alluding to the rocky source the alum-works were erected, the Pope soon contrived whence the aluminous substance is obtained.

to become the possessor of them, either by purchase An alum-work existed near Smyrna in the fifteenth or through intimidation. He then endeavoured, by century; and Ducas, who resided on the spot, has every method possible, to prevent foreigners from given a description, rather minute for the age in which acquiring an accurate knowledge of the art of boiling it was written, of the mode of manufacture pursued alum; and at the same time found means, by enterthere. It appears, that an aluminous kind of stone, ing into commercial treaties with other nations, and found on a neighbouring mountain, was collected, by the use of his spiritual authority, to extend the calcined by means of fire, and then reduced to grains commerce in this article. The price was raised from by being thrown into water. The water, mixed with time to time, and it at length became so high, that the sand, was put into the vessel, and a little more foreigners could purchase this salt at a cheaper rate water being added to it, and the whole being made to in Spain, and even by sending to Turkey for it; but boil, the grains became liquefied, and a sediment of a the Pope issued bulls, excommunicating any person twofold nature was produced; viz., a crystalline cake, who should use any other than Roman alum; and which was preserved, and earthy impurities, which he endeavoured to induce others to fall in with his were thrown away. The cake was afterwards suffered views, by announcing that he would set apart the into dissolve in vessels for four days; at the end of come arising from his alum-works to the prosecution which time, the alum was found in crystals around of a war against the infidels. thcir edges, and the bottoms of them were also But these humiliating restrictions on the freedom covered with fragments of a like nature. The re of European commerce were not likely to be submaining liquor, which at the end of four days did not- mitted to for a continuance. In the beginning of the coagulate or harden, was poured into a kettle, and, by sixteenth century, alum-works were established near a similar process to that before observed, an inferior Carthagena in Spain: in 1554 others commenced at kind of alum was produced.

Oberkaufungen, near Hesse; in 1558, at Commotau, Alum-works appear to have been first constructed in Bohemia; in 1563, at Lower Laugenau; and a in Italy about the middle or latter end of the fifteenth ew years afterwards, at Dieben, Dippoldiswalda, century. It is said that one Bartholomew Perdix, a Lobenstein, and numerous other places. Genoese merchant, learned the art of preparing alum The first alum-work erected in England, was that

at Gisborough, in Yorkshire, in the reign of Queen scorched by the sun's rays. An opinion quite as absurd Elizabeth. It is said by Pennant, that these works as this was held by one of the first fellows of the were established by Sir Thomas Chaloner, who observ- Royal Society, he celebrated Robert Hooke, who ing the trees to be tinged with an unusual colour, | thus expresses it in his Micrographia : suspected that there must be some peculiar mineral | Much resembling a cobweb, or a confused lock of these contained in the soil; and on examination he found cylinders, is a certain white substance, which after a fogg the soil to be strongly aluminous. As there were no

may be observed to fly up and down the air; catching sevepersons in England familiar with the mode of extract

ral of these, and examining them with my m croscope, I

found them to be much of the same form, looking most like ing alum from the soil, Sir Thomas enticed over

a flake of worsted prepared to be spun, though by what some persons from the Pope's alum-works near

means they should be generated and produced is not easily Rome: this proceeding drew down anathemas and imagined; they were of the same weight, or very little excommunications from the Pope; but they were heavier than air; and 'tis not unlikely, but that those great not able to prevent the spread of alum-works in the white clouds, that appear all the summer time may be of various countries. During the last century the in.

the same substance' finence of the papal see over the commerce of Europe

In France, the gossamer-webs are called "fils de la greatly declined, and alum-works were established Vierge," and it was formerly the opinion of naturalists wherever the nature of the soil offered advantages for in that country, that they were composed of the so doing.

cotton-like envelope in which the eggs of the coccus of Having thus briefly traced the history of the esta the vine are secured. The first naturalists who disblishment of alum-works, we shall, in another article,

covered the true nature of these webs were Dr. Hulse notice the chemical properties of the substance, and

and Dr. Martin Lister. From numerous observations the modes of preparing it from the earth with which made by these gentlemen, the fact became confirmed it is combined.

that the webs were the work of a spider, who had thus the means of constructing a kind of air-balloon,

and of ascending to a great height in the air. THE GOSSAMER SPIDER.

Many of our readers may remember the account

given by White, of Selborne, of a remarkable gossaSmall viewless aëronaut, that by the line

mer-shower which fell in his neighbourhood, but for Of gossamer suspended, in mid air

the benefit of those who do not possess his interesting Float'st on a sunbeam. Living atom, where Ends thy breeze-guided voyage? With what design

work, we here transcribe it:In ether dost thou launch thy form minute, Mocking the eve? Alas! before the veil

On September the 21st, 1741, being then on a visit, and or denser clouds shall hide thee, the pursuit

intent on field diversions, I rose before daybreak: when I Of the keen swift may end thy fairy sail!

came into the enclosures, I found the stubbles and cloverThus on the golden thread that fancy weaves,

grounds matted all over with a thick coat of cobweb, in the Buoyant as Hope's illusive flattery breathes,

meshes of which a copious and heavy dew hung so plentiThe young and visionary poet leaves

fully that the whole face of the country seemed, as it were, Life's dull realities, while seven-fold wreaths of rainbow-light around his head revolve;

covered with two or three setting-nets, drawn one over Ah! soon at Sorrow's toucb the radiant dreams dissolve another. When the dogs attempted to hunt, their eyes

Mrs. C. SMITH. were so blinded and hood-winked that they could not pro

ceed, but were obliged to lie down, and scrape the encumTue inhabitants of cities and of large towns have in brances from their faces with their fore-feet; so that, findmany instances little opportunity or even inclination ing my sport interrupted, I returned home, musing in my

mind on the oddness of the occurrence. As the morning for remarking the various wonderful phenomena of advanced the sun became bright and warm, and the day nature which present themselves unsought to the turned out one of those most lovely ones which no season notice of country-people. Not one, however, of our but the autumn produces,-cloudless, calm, serene, and

About nine, an most incurious citizens could witness the astonishing worthy of the south of France itself. appearance occasionally produced by the agency of appearance very unusual began to demand our attention,

a shower of cobwebs falling from very elevated regions, and the little Gossamer Spider without surprise and admiration, or without being led to make some inquiries These webs were not single filmy threads, Hoating in the

continuing without interruption, till the close of the day. on the subject.

air in all directions, but perfect flakes or rags; some near On a fine autumnal day the surface of the earth is an inch broad, and five or six long, which fell with a degree sometimes covered with webs of the finest texture : of velocity that showed they were considerably heavier than this is especially observable on fields of clover or the atmosphere. On every side, as the observer turned his vētches, where the whole crop is covered with a deli

eyes, he might behold a continual succession of fresh takes cate veil, the manufacture of this most industrious falling into his sight, and twinkling like stars as they turned

their sides towards the sun. Neither before nor after was little spider: and not only so; the air is also filled

any such fall observed; but on this day the flakes hung in with floating webs, and what is called a

“ shower of trees and hedges so thick, that a diligent person sent out gossamers" is not unfrequently seen to fall. The might have gathered baskets full. writer of this article has witnessed but one of these We might quote other accounts, particularly one remarkable appearances, but in the writings of natu which lies before us of a remarkable fall of cobwebs ralists we find them spoken of, as often recurring in in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, in 1826, which was particular districts, and as being so constant during so abundant that autumn in Germany, as to be called “the flying, or Every tree, lamp-post, or other projecting body, had arrested departing of summer." The appearance of gossamer a portion of the gossamer, and persons walking in the fields webs in the fields is more frequent, and must have had their shoes completely covered with it, while its floating excited the attention of many of our readers, present. fibres came in contact with the face in all directions. &c. ing so extraordinary a spectacle as it does in the It is not our purpose, however, to extend our morning, when the sun is shining brightly on the account of gossamer showers, but rather to inquire brilliant dew-bespangled webs, and producing a variety into the habits of the spider which is the cause of all of beautiful hues.

these wonders, and to lay before our readers the most Learned naturalists busied themselves in vain, at an reasonable answers which have been given to the early period, to account for the appearances of gossa- questions which naturally present themselves to the mer spiders. A very strange notion was at one time mind in connexion with the subject. entertained, that the webs were nothing more than dew, The small gossamer spider (Aranea obtectrix) has

a shining body of a dark brown colour, and reddish- dinary powers, unparalleled in the higher order of animals brown, semi-transparent legs; though of very small

with which the Creator has gifted the insect world. Were

indeed man and the larger animals, with their present prosize, yet it appears that when full grown, it is too beavy to take aëronautic excursions : these flights are

pensities, similarly endowed, the whole creation would soun

go to ruin. But these alınost miraculous powers in the therefore performed by half-grown insects, which are

hands of these little beings, only tend to keep it in oriler about the size of a small pin's head. The vast num and beauty. Adorable is that wisdom, power, and goudbers of these insects that must be congregated in a ness, that has distinguished these next to nothings by such single field ere it can become veiled with cobwebs in peculiar endowments for our preservation, as, if given to the manner we have described, are quite incalculable,

the strong and mighty, would work our destruction. and when we remember that the webs are often extended over a space, many miles in extent, the sub

A MAGICIAN AND HIS MAN. ject becomes still inore surprising. So prodigious are their numbers, that every stalk of straw in a stubble.

That there should exist in this enlightened age perfield, and every stone and clod of earth, swarms with

sons who profess to believe in the power of magic, them. Dr. Starck found twenty or thirty on each

is a convincing proof how much the marvellous is single straw, and in the course of half an hour he preferred by the ignorant, to the true principles of collected 2000 of these little creatures, though, in

philosophy. The persons who now pretend to act consequence of their readiness to take alarm, it was upon the principle of divination, or by the art of difficult to secure them.

magic, consist of knaves, who cheat the credulous for The object which the Gossamer Spider has in view the sake of gain, and endeavour to impose upon others in constructing its web on the surface of the stubble, what they are too crafty to believe themselves. Pri. clover, &c., has been differently stated. Comparing vate astrologers, who do not make a trade of their the gossamer with other spiders, we might suppose art, are, if not fools, persons whose weak minds are that its nets were spread to entrap insects as they rise

so susceptible as to mistake the phantoms of their from the plants they infest, to take their flights in the disturbed imaginations for realities; and of this we air. But this supposition is contradicted by the ex

have lately known an instance in a person who is not periments of Dr Starck, who watched the proceedings only considered saneon other subjects, but who actually of these spiders through a large glass, which he kept holds a respectable rank in his profession. on turf. He saw the spiders produce their webs in

Having bent his mind upon raising a spirit, he the usual manner, but could never observe them procured certain herbs and drugs recommended for attempting to catch or eat the flies and gnats which magical purposes, and shut himself up in a room in were purposely introduced, and even entangled in the the dead of the night. There he began to burn fumi. meshes of their webs. They eagerly sucked up the gating herbs, and to make the mysterious figures water, with which the turf was occasionally sprinkled, directed by his instruction-book, until his imagination and continued lively and active for the space of two was worked up to such a pitch as easily transformed months without other food. It has therefore been one object into the appearance of another, to which the suggested by Kirby and Spence that the webs are

fumes of aromatic smoke no doubt greatly contribu. designed for means of transportation from one furrow ted. His servant, knowing that his master studied or blade of grass to another, and are likewise spread magic, and finding great preparations for some secret out to receive the dew, for which these little creatures performance, had, with a very natural curiosity, conshow so much avidity.

trived to secrete himself in the room, instead of The next difficulty respects the ascent of the Gossa- retiring to rest; but when the lights were extinguished, mer Spider into the air, which seems to be effected by and the coloured flame of burning drugs threw a the insect raising up its body and sending forth its ghastly effect throughout the apartment and over the threads, to be lengthened and carried by the breeze countenance of his master, he became so possessed till it is itself enabled to float or sail on them in the by fear, and influenced by the fumes of the drugs, air. What is the motive for this ascent?

Is it, as

that, at the moment when his master expected to see generally supposed, in search of some congenial food a spectre, he, being no longer able to contain himself that the young spiders betake themselves to the in his hiding-place, rose up slowly, and forgetting he

in was under a table, threw it over. doing so?

, like ants and insects, be prompted with a desire for migration, when flection of his own face, to which the burning salts their numbers have accumulated to an inconvenient had given such a cadaverous appearance, that he extent in one situation? This last idea has occurred naturally mistook his own figure for a supernatural to the writer of this article as the most probable solu- agent, and this so effectually worked on his imagination of the question.

tion that he leaped suddenly on a grand piano-forte, The power by which the spider is able to regulate and broke it with a tremendous crash.

This only its movements in the air, and ascend and descend | heightened the fears of both master and man. The at pleasure, is little understood. It has been asked master, believing he had raised a spirit which he whether they are possessed of any organ analogous could not lay, wisely quitted the room, which gave to the natatory vesicles of fishes, which renders them his man an opportunity to escape to bed; where his buoyant or not, according to their will. The more disturbed imagination presented such dreadful appreprobable idea is that they send out their threads at hensions to him that he became fevered and delirious, first till they are sufficiently long to counterpoise the and in this state left his service, firmly believing in the weight of their bodies, and having traversed the re- power of magic. His master to this day seems congions of air in this way, they finally descend by vinced that he actually did raise a spirit, and to his gathering up the threads in a closer mass, until the own want of knowledge how to appease the perturbed coils become heavier than the air, and then begin to spirit, he persists in attributing the broken piano-forte, fall with some rapidity. We cannot do better, in and the overthrow of some bronze figures.--Flora closing our brief account of these insects, than to Historica. adopt the words of Kirby and Spence:

The mind that cannot obtrude its distresses on the ear of The fact, though so well authenticated, is indeed strange pity, is formed to feel their poignancy the deepesto and wonderful, and affords another proof of the extraor Search for such carefully, and relieve them delicately.

higher regions of the air, and showsughteageren other In this confusion, he caught in a mirror the areas

PLYMOUTH AND DEVONPORT.

the usual kind, the entrance to which is under an IV.

Ionic portico, fifty-nine feet in width. Besides the PLYMOUTH is situated at about 218 miles from usual apartments forming part of a large hotel, there London, and, as may be supposed from the details is a splendid series of assembly rooms, one of which which have already occupied our attention, possesses measures seventy-six feet by forty, and is entered by many of the features of an important town.

three large folding-doors. The fittings up of all these Plymouth contains two parish churches, Saint apartments are very elegant; and the general strucAndrew's and Saint Charles's. St. Andrew's parish ture of the building is much admired for the classical formerly included the whole of. Plymouth, but the taste with which it has been designed. The theatre borough was divided into two parishes in 1640,- is leased out by the corporation. the new parish, and the church belonging to it, A Public Library was erected in Plymouth, about being named in honour of King Charles the First. thirty years ago, under the direction of Mr. Foulston. St. Andrew's Church is said to have been built as far Before this building was erected, a room in the guildback as the year 1291, but the tower was built in hall had been devoted to this purpose: but this being the year 1440, at the expense of a Plymouth mer

found to be too small, the present building was conchant. The general style of the architecture of the structed from a joint-stock fund. The stock of books church is the early English: the tower, with the amounts to six or seven thousand; and the care of battlements and pinnacles at the top, is more decorated, thein is under a committee shareholders. and contains a peal of eight bells, one of which

The Plymouth Exchange is a capacious building, weighs two tons and a half. Within a few years, the standing in Woolster Street, and the Royal Union interior of the church has been completely renovated, Baths form an extensive and elegant range of buildunder the direction of Mr. Foulston, whose name is ings. In connexion with the baths is a reservoir, connected with many of the modern improvements in capable of holding 2700 hogsheads, into which pure Plymouth and Devonport. No less a sum than 50001. sea-water is conveyed by cast-iron pipes, nine inches was expended in repairing and improving the church. in diameter, from Plymouth Sound. There were originally side-galleries sustained by stone We have said that Plymouth is built principally arches; but these have been removed to the ends of round a little inlet of the sea called Sutton Pool. the transepts. At the east end is an elaborately. The buildings immediately contiguous to the water decorated altar-piece. A noble staircase of teak-wood are public and private quays, shipwrights' yards, was constructed within the lower story of the tower, warehouses, and buildings connected with marito communicate with the organ-loft, and with the time and commercial pursuits. At the entrance are galleries of the charity-schools; the space below forms two piers of solid masonry, ninety feet apart, and a large parochial vestry-room. The pulpit, reading- dues are paid by all vessels entering within these piers. desk, pews, sittings, &c., are all elegantly constructed Sutton Pool is the resort of fishing vessels, and likeof oak; and the general interior of the church is wise of coasting vessels. The commodities imported coloured in imitation of granite.

into the pool, are chiefly these : coal, culm, timber, tar, St. Charles's Chapel has a spacious, but not hand iron, wines, spirits, Irish provisions, grocery, corn, some interior. The spire is of Dartmoor granite, and fruit, glass, and earthenware. The exports, are prinbeing light and airy, forms a pleasing finish to the cipally lime, granite, metallic ores, slate, &c. There building. Among other places of worship in Plymouth is an ancient barbican at the western side of the pool, is a chapel of ease to St. Andrew's. This was built in connected with the old fortifications; and at the time 1823, at the expense of four gentlemen of the town. of the long siege to which we alluded in our first The front, like that of St. Charles's Church, is of article, the barbican was the scene of an incident Dartmoor granite, and the interior fittings are tasteful which was thus described by an eye-witness :: and elegant. At the east end is a recess for the altar, One remarkable passage of God's providence to us, we separated from the body of the church by a lofty must with thankfulness relate, remember, and acknowledge.

After the town had been a long time besieged strictly, and arch, springing from pilasters, and painted in imitation of porphyry. The pulpit aud reading-desk are

no fresh victual, either fish or flesh, could be had, whereby constructed of polished oak, on a curious geometrical multitude of pilchards into the harbour, within the barbican,

the people were greviously punished; there came an infinite plan, after the Choragic monument of Lysicrates. which the people took up with great ease in baskets; which

One of the finest buildings in Plymouth is the did not only refresh them for the present, but a great deal Athenæum. A society under this name was formed more were taken, preserved, and salted, whereby the poor in 1812, but it was not till some years afterwards got much money; such a passage has not happened before. that the building was erected. The front is a Doric The new Market-place of Plymouth is a commodiportico of four columns, the centre intercolumniation ous spot, occupying about three acres of ground. The being wider than the others. The sides of the build fairs, of which there are two annually, are held in the ing are plain beyond the returns of the portico, except market-place, and consist of that heterogeneous mixthat the entablature is continued along the whole ture of business and pleasure which are often found length of the side. The portico is thirty-six feet in in fairs. This market is a kind of joint-stock probreadth. The principal part of the building is occu. perty, of which the mayor of Plymouth is an officer pied by a fine hall or lecture-room, where lectures as clerk of the market. are delivered once a week during the winter season. In the immediate vicinity of Plymouth are the These lectures form only part of the object of the two small towns of Saltram and Plympton, which are Plymouth Institution, which was established for the reached by a new line of road over Lara Bridge, which promotion of science, literature, and the fine arts. crosses the river Plym. “ Lara" is the name of a There are also a good museum, and a laboratory. lake-like expanse near the mouth of the Plym. There

The largest private building in Plymouth is one used to be a communication across by means of a devoted to the double purpose of an hotel and a ferry, established by the Earl of Morley, the proprietheatre. It is the property of the corporation, and tor of a large amount of property near Plymouth. It presents a front 275 feet in length. The hotel is said was proposed, about seventeen years ago, to build a to be unrivalled in external appearance by any botel suspension-bridge here; but various circumstances in London, or perhaps in the kingdom. On the prevented it; and ultimately an elegant bridge of five ground-floor are the principal tayern-apartments, of arches was constructed by Mr. J. M. Rendel of Ply

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