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tious respect in which it is held. It is called by the to that of hussars; for they dexterously guard and French Prie Dieu, or according to some writers Presque cut with their fore-claws, as those soldiers do with Dieu, by the Italians Pregadiou, by the Portuguese sabres, and sometimes at a stroke one of them Louva Dios. A monkish legend informs us that St. cleaves the other through, or severs its head from Francis Xavier, walking one day in a garden, and the thorax; after this, the victorious mantis devours seeing an insect of the Mantis genus moving along in his fallen enemy. its solemn way, holding up its two fore-legs as in the Various species of Mantis have been found throughact of devotion, desired it to sing the praises of God. | out the warmer regions of the earth, reaching as far The legend adds that the saint immediately heard the north as the middle of France. Their forms are insect carol a fine canticle with a loud emphasis. variable ; some of them bear so exact a resemblance

The patience of this Mantis in catching its prey is to the leaves of the trees they inhabit, that travellers very remarkable. Rösel tells us that when once it have been struck with the phenomenon, as it seemed, fixes its eyes on an insect it rarely loses sight of it of animated vegetable substances. Indeed, their again, though it may cost some hours to take. If it manners, as well as their structure, are very likely to sees the insect a little beyond its reach, over its head, impose on persons who have but little acquaintance it slowly crects its long thorax, by means of the with the insect world. They often remain on the moveable membranes which connect it with the body trees for hours together without motion, then sudat the base ; then resting on the four posterior legs, it denly spring into the air, and when they settle gradually raises the anterior pair also: if this brings again appear lifeless; these are only stratagems made it near enough to the insect, it throws open the last use of to deceive the more cautious insects on which joint, and snaps its prey between the spines, that are they feed, but some travellers who had witnessed this set in rows on the second joint. If it is unsuccessful curious sight, declare that they saw the leaves of trecs it does not retract its arms, but keeps them still become living creatures and take flight. stretched out, and waits for a more favourable oppor Were these insects as voracious in their vegetable tunity of scizing the insect. If the latter goes far diet as they show themselves with respect to other from the spot, the mantis flies after it, and as it ap- insects, and even their own species, they would prove proaches the place, crawls slowly along the ground very formidable enemies in the countries where they like a cat, ready to spring upon its prey. It has a abound; for, according to Renard, the larger kinds remarkable quickness of sight, being possessed of a of Mantis go in vast troops, and cross hills, rivers, small black pupil or sight, which moves in all direc- and other obstacles that oppose their march, when tions within the parts we usually term eyes, so that it they are in quest of food. Thus they clear the earth can see its prey in any direction, without having occa of myriads that infest it, and when these become sion to startle it by turning its head.

scarce from their ravages, they bite and devour one The female mantis deposits her eggs in regular order another. on the twigs of plants, and covers them with a white The Mantidæ are found to be most active in situasubstance, which on hardening gains a yellow colour. tions where they are exposed to the greatest heat. This takes place in September, but it is not till the As the season declines, they become comparatively following June that the insects appear. In the larva inert, and are more easily taken. · In attempting to state they have all the appearance of their parents, catch them, however, it is difficult to escape being except that they are destitute of wings and wing- wounded by the sharp spines of their fore-limbs,

which readily pierce the skin. The disposition of this Mantis to prey on its own The species called Mantis precaria is a native of species, has long attracted the attention of natural. many parts of Africa. It is of the same general size

Rösel, wishing to observe the gradual progress and shape with the species we have been describing, of these creatures to the winged state, placed some is of a beautiful green colour, with the thorax ciliated, eggs in a large covered glass. From the time they or spined, on each side, and the upper wings each were first hatched they showed signs of a savage dis- marked in the middle by a semi-transparent spot. It position ; and though he supplied them with different is the supposed idol of the Hottentots, and this supersorts of plants, they preferred preying on each other. stitious people are reported to hold in the highest This determined him to supply them with other in reverence the person on whom the adored insect sects to eat : he put ants into the glass to them, but happens to alight, such a person being considered as they then betrayed as much fear as they had before favoured by the distinction of a celestial visitant, and shown barbarity, and tried to escape in every direc- regarded ever afterwards as a saint. tion, He next gave them some of the common musca, (house-fly,) which they seized with eagerness and tore in pieces; but, though these creatures seemed very fond of flies, they still continued to destroy one another through savage wantonness Despairing at last of rearing any to the winged state, he separated them into small parcels in different glasses, but here, as before, the strongest of each community destroyed the rest. On receiving some of these insects in the winged state, he placed each pair in a separate glass, but found that the fierceness of their disposition is not softened by sex or age, for the stronger of the two, whether male or female, rushed at the other with great velocity, and tore it in pieces with the crotchets and spines of the fore-claws.

The Chinese, aware of the fighting propensity of Of all the Mantes the most singular is said to be these insects, keep them in little bamboo cages, and the Mantis gongylodes of Linnæus, which has very match them together in combats, in the same way as thin limbs and a grotesque appearance, greatly rein this country fighting cocks used to be matched. sembling in its dried form the conjunction of several Rösel compares the attacks of the Mantis tribe fragments of withered leaves and stalks,


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Not only in the Mantis tribe, but in several other Alum is procured in various ways, according to the families of tropical insects, may be found those extra nature of the mineral employed. We will describe ordinary species to which the popular name of Walk- the principal modes of operation. The first of which ing-leaf has been applied. Among locusts we find we shall speak is the production of alum from a vol. insects with wing-cases bearing the most striking canic sulphureous earth near Naples. The Solfaterra, resemblance to the leaves of the laurel, the myrtle, according to Dr. Aikin, is a small plain on the top of the citron, the lily, the sage, the olive, the camellia, a hill near Naples, and is covered with a white soil, thyme, and grass ; hence their specific names of citri- in which are perceived numerous round holes or folia, laurifolia, oleifolia, &c. and the likeness they craters, from which sulphureous vapours are conbear to these leaves is so great, not only in the colour stantly ascending. The ground, even at the surface, but in the texture, and even the veining of the wing- is warm, and at the depth of a few inches is too hot cases, that were these detached from the body, it is to be borne by the hand. This white clayey soil, being thought that even botanists themselves might be penetrated and entirely impregnated by sulphureous deceived by them, and suppose them real leaves. vapours, forms a rich ore of alum. In order to ex. Nor are these remarkable cases entirely without tract the alum, a shed is erected, in the middle of parallel among our own insects, when in their larva which is placed a large oblong leaden cistern, let into state. An attentive observer of nature will frequently the ground almost up to the brim, in order to rediscover, among the numerous caterpillars that infest ceive a proper quantity of the subterranean heat ; this our hedges and trees, a great similarity between the cistern is surrounded by smaller caldrons, sunk into colour and make of the little creature, and that of the the ground in a similar manner. When all is pretwig on which it rests. The dull hues and speckled pared, some of the sulphureous earth is put into the surface of some, might very well be mistaken for the cistern, and water is poured on it: this mixture is lichen-covered bark of the tree itself, while the carefully stirred till the whole of the salt is dissolved; smooth and glossy green of others aptly represents after which, the earth being removed, a fresh portion the young shoots on which it feeds. This adaptation is put in, so as to bring the water almost to a state of of the appearance of the insect to the circumstances saturation with the salt. The liquor is now removed in which it is placed, is, doubtless, intended for its into the smaller caldrons, and the loss by evaporation preservation and concealment, and affords another is supplied by fresh liquor. The whole is then reinstance of the wise provision made for the wants of moved into tubs, where, as it cools, it deposits a large apparently insignificant portions of God's creation. quantity of crystals of alum. These crystals are puri

fied by a second solution and crystallization, after

which they are fit for the market. This alum is the ALUM AND ALUM-WORKS.

most easily procured of any, because it exists ready II.

prepared in the soil; but from the careless mode in This very useful substance is composed principally which it is manufactured, it is but little known out of of two ingredients, sulphuric acid, and alumina; but Naples. . it also contains a portion of one of the three alkalies, We have said that the finest alum is procured from potash, soda, or ammonia. More commonly it is the

More commonly it is the the Roman territory. This is prepared at the old . first of the three, and is then, chemically speaking, a established works of La Solfa, near Civita Vecchia, sulphate of alumina and potash; but it is usually from a kind of alum-stone procured about a mile from called common or potash alum ; while the other two the works. This alum-stone occurs in irregular kinds are called respectively soda alum, and ammonia strata, and in deep veins in the side of a hill. When alum. The two latter kinds are not much known in unmixed with other substances, it is of a yellowish commerce; we will therefore confine our notice to white colour, and so hard as to require blasting by common or potash alum.

gunpowder. The stone is first broken into pieces of The appearance of alum is too well known to need a moderate size, and then roasted. The furnace used description. Its uses in the arts and medical sciences for this purpose is a cylindrical cavity in a mass of are numerous. It forms one of the ingredients in masonry, the greater part of which is occupied by a many kinds of medicine : it is a necessary ingredient hemispherical dome, with a large round aperture at in many kinds of paint: its use is indispensable to the top. The wood-fuel is conveyed through a side the dyer, as a mordant, or means of fixing the colour door into the dome, and the alum-ore is piled careto cloth : it is used for preparing all those kinds of fully over the aperture, so as to form a smaller dome, leather which are neither tanned nor dressed with whose diameter is equal to that of the aperture in the oil : it is used by candle-makers, to harden their larger one. As soon as the fire is kindled, the smoke tallow and render it white; and in a variety of other and fame penetrate througb the interstices of the processes, the value of alum is very conspicuous. pieces of ore, and quickly heat the whole mass. For

It seems probable that the ancients were the first three or four hours, the smoke escapes in acquainted with alum, but that they applied an dense black volumes ; but by degrees it acquires a equivalent name to a vitriolic earth. True alum was white colour, the pieces of ore become of a bright red, first discovered by the Orientals, who established or-rose colour, and a smell of sulphur becomes mani. alum-works in Syria, in the thirteenth or fourteenth fest. In twelve or fourteen hours the fire is extincentury. The oldest alum-works in Europe, were guished, and when the alum-stones have cooled, they erected about the middle of the fifteenth century. are removed, and again replaced for a second roasting, Towards the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir but observing that those should now be placed in the Thomas Chaloner established the first alum-works in middle which before occupied the outside of the heap. England, near Whitby in Yorkshire, where the prin When the roasting is completed, the alum-stones cipal works of the kind in this country are still carried are piled upon a smooth, sloping floor, in long paral

There are also large works at Hurlett, near lel ridges, between each of which is a trench filled Paisley. The best alum is considered to be that with water. From these trenches the ridges are frefrom the neighbourhood of Civita Vecchia, in the quently sprinkled ; and after a few days the pieces papal territory. There is a species often called Rock- begin to swell and crack, and fall to powder, like alum: this is a wrong term: it should be Roch, from quicklime when slaked; acquiring at the same Rocha, in Syria, from whence it is procured.

time a light reddish colour ; and in five or six weeks



this operation is completed. A leaden boiler is then | equivalent alkali, to the ingredients already existing in two-thirds filled with water, and portions of the slaked the ore. About 130 tons of the Whitby ore are necesore are successively stirred in, till the vessel is nearly sary to produce one ton of alum. The expense of full. When the liquor begins to boil, the ore is dili. digging, and removing to a distance of 200 yards, one gently stirred up from the bottom, that the whole of cubic yard of the rock or ore, is about sixpence halfthe alum may be dissolved. At the end of about penny; and the men earn from two to three shiltwenty-four hours, the fire is extinguished, and the lings per day at the employment. liquor is left at rest for the particles of earth to sub In Saxony the alum-ore, being of a somewhat side. As soon as this has taken place, a stop-cock, different kind from those hitherto mentioned, is fixed in the side of the boiler, about one-third of its treated in a different manner; but what has been height from the bottom, is opened, and the clear so- already said will sufficiently illustrate the general lution is transferred along a wooden spout, into square modes by which alum is procured. wooden reservoirs, seven feet high by five wide, so constructed as to be readily taken to pieces: in these it remains about a fortnight, during which time the I hold it indeed to be a sure sign of a mind not poised as alum crystallizes in irregular masses upon the sides it ought to be, if it be insensible to the pleasures of home, and bottom. More alum is afterwards procured from to the little joys and endearments of a family, to the affecthe remaining liquor, by a subsequent process.

tion of relations, to the fidelity of domestics. Next to We now come to our own country, and shall speak attachment of a man's family and dependents seems to me

being well with his own conscience, the friendship and of the alum-works at Whitby. The mineral from one of the most comfortable circumstance of his lot. His which the alum is here procured, is alum slate, or situation, with regard to either, forms that sort of bosom alum shale; and the mode of preparation, as detailed comfort or disquiet that sticks close to him at all times and by Mr. Winter and Dr. Ure, is nearly as follows.

seasons, and wbich, though he may now and then forget The stratum of alum-slate is about twenty-nine miles it amidst the bustle of public, or the hurry of active life, in width, and is covered by strata of alluvial soil, effects on his happiness, at every pause of ambition or of

will resume its place in his thoughts, and its permanent sand-stone, iron-stone, shells, and clay.

The alum- | business. slate is generally found disposed in horizontal layers. The rock is first broken into small pieces, and laid I would distinguish between that knowledge of the on a horizontal bed of fuel, composed of brushwood, world which fits us for intercourse with the better part &c. When the rock is piled up to a height of about of mankind, and that which we gain by associating with

the worst. four feet, fire is applied to the bottom, and fresh rock is continually heaped upon the pile. This is conti- Religion. It will one day be understood, that whatever nued until the calcined heap be raised to the height of wars with reason and common sense, is equally hostile to ninety or one hundred feet. Its horizontal area has religion. The simple and unchangeable truths of Christianity also been progressively extended at the same time, will be found to violate none of our most obvious convictions. till it forms a great bed, nearly 200 feet square, con

Truth will reassume her legitimate reign, and piety, religion, taining 100,000 cubic yards of rock. The rapidity of and morals, our best interests for this life, and our surest the combustion is allayed by plastering up the .cre

preparations for a future one, will be found exactly conform

able to the eternal order of things: and thus the system vices with moistened clay.

of the Gospel will become universal according to its legitiWhen the rock has been thus roasted or calcined, it mate claims. True piety, in my opinion, is equally our is placed in water contained in pits, that usually hold duty, our wisdom, and our happiness. To behold God everyabout sixty cubic yards. The liquor is drawn off where in his works, to hold communion with him in a con. into cisterns, and afterwards pumped up again upon in the deep and constantly-present persuasion of his being

templative and admiring spirit, to love and trust him; to find, fresh calcined rock: this is repeated until the water and attributes, a sentiment of exhaustless cheerfulness and becomes about one-seventh heavier than in its ordinary excitement to duty, I hold to be the source of the purest state, owing to the quantity of alum it now contains. and sublimest pleasure that earth can afford.—D. This strong and heavy liquor is drawn off into settling Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves; vanity, to cisterns, where iron, earth, and sulphate of lime, are

what we would have others think of us. deposited. When the subsidence (which is sometimes accelerated by boiling) is completed, the liquor is transferred into leaden pans, ten feet long, four

AUTUMN. feet nine inches wide, two feet two inches deep at one end, and two feet eight inches at the other. Here There is an "even-tide" in the year,-a season, as the liquor is concentrated at a boiling heat. Every we now witness, when the sun withdraws his propimorning the pans are emptied into a settling cistern, tious light,—when the winds arise, and the leaves fall, (which is effected more easily by the sloping shape of and nature around us seems to sink into decay. It their bottoms,) and a solution of muriate of potash is is said, in general, to be the season of melancholy; added. After being allowed to settle about two and if by this word be meant that it is the time of hours, the liquor is poured off into coolers, to crystal solemn and of serious thought, it is undoubtedly the lize.

season of melancholy; yet it is a melancholy so The liquor remains in the cooler about four days, soothing, so gentle in its approach, and so prophetic after which the clear fluid is poured off, leaving crystals in its influence, that they who have known it feel, as of alum at the bottom. These crystals are washed in if instinctively, that it is the doing of God, and that a tub, drained, and put into a leaden pan, with as the heart of man is not thus finely touched but to much water as will make a saturated solution at the fine issues. boiling point. When this is effected, the solution is 1. It is a season which tends to wean us from the poured into casks, and allowed to remain there about passions of the world. Every passion, however base a fortnight. At the end of this time, alum is found, or unworthy, is yet eloquent. It speaks to us of exteriorly in a solid cake, but in the interior cavity in present enjoyment; it tells us of what men have done, large pyramidal crystals. The alum is now in its and what men may do, and it supports us everyfinished state, fit for the market. It is thus seen, where by the example of many around us. When we that Whitby alum differs from that of Naples or go out into the fields in the evening of the year, a Rome, in the necessity for adding potash, or some different voice approaches us. We regard, even in

spite of ourselves, the still, but steady. advances of But there is a further sentiment which such scenes time.

inspire, more valuable than all; and we know little A few days ago, and the summer of the year was the designs of Providence when we do not yield ourgrateful, and every element was filled with life, and selves in such hours to the beneficent instincts of our the sun of heaven seemed to glory in his ascendant. | imagination. He is now enfeebled in his power: the desert no more It is the unvarying character of nature, amid all its

blossoms like the rose:" the song of joy is no more scenes, to lead us at last to its Author; and it is for heard among the branches; and the earth is strewed this final end that all its varieties have such dominion with that foliage which once bespoke the magnificence upon our minds. We are led by the appearances of of summer. Whatever may be the passions which spring to see his bounty; and we are led by the society has awakened, we pause amid this apparent splendours of summer to see his greatness. In the desolation of nature. We sit down in the lodge “of present hours we are led to a higher sentiment; and, the wayfaring man in the wilderness," and we feel what is most remarkable, the very circumstances of that all we witness is the emblem of our own fate. melancholy are those which guide us most securely Such also, in a few years, will be our own condition. to put our trust in Him. The blossoms of our spring, the pride of our sum We are witnessing the decay of the year; we go mer, will also fade into decay; and the pulse that now back in imagination, and find that such, in every beats high with virtuous or with vicious desire will generation, has been the fate of man: we look forgradually sink, and then must stop for ever.

ward, and we see that to such ends all must come at We rise from our meditations with hearts softened last: we lift our desponding eyes in search of comfort, and subdued, and we return into life as into a sha- and we see above us One “who is ever the same, and dowy scene, where we have “disquieted ourselves in to whose years there is no end." Amidst the vicis. vain." Such is the first impression which the present situdes of nature we discover that central Majesty, scene of nature is fitted to make upon us. It is this “in whom there is no variableness nor shadow of first impression which intimidates the thoughtless and turning." We feel that there is a God; and from the gay; and, indeed, if there were no other reflections the tempestuous sea of life we hail that polar star of that followed, I know not that it would be the busi-nature, to which a sacred instinct had directed our ness of wisdom to recommend such meditations. It eyes, and which burns with undecaying ray to lighten is the consequences however of such previous thoughts us among all the darkness of the deep. which are chiefly valuable; and among these there From this great conviction there is another sentiare two which may well deserve our consideration. ment which succeeds. Nature, indeed, yearly perishes,

2. It is the peculiar character of the melancholy but it is yearly renewed. Amid all its changes, the which such seasons excite, that it is general. It is immortal spirit of Him that made it remains; and not an individual remonstrance; it is not the harsh the same sun, which now marks with his receding language of human wisdom, which too often insults ray the autumn of the year, will again rise in his while it instructs us. When the winds of autumn brightness, and bring along with him the promise of sigh around us, their voice speaks not to us only, but the spring, and all the magnificence of summer. to our kind; and the lesson they teach us is not that Under such convictions hope dawns upon the sadwe alone decay, but that such also is the fate of all ness of the heart. The melancholy of decay becomes the generations of man. “They are the green leaves the very herald of renewal; the magnificent circle of of the tree of the desert, which perish and are re nature opens upon our view. We anticipate the nowed."

analogous resurrection of our being; we see beyond In such a sentiment there is a kind of sublimity the grave a greater spring, and we people it with mingled with its melancholy: our tears fall, but they those who have given joy to that which is passed. fall not for ourselves; and, although the train of our With such final impressions, we submit ourselves thoughts may have begun with the selfishness of our gladly to the destiny of our being. While the sun of own concerns, we feel that, by the ministry of some mortality sinks, we hail the rising of the Sun of mysterious power, they end in awakening our concern Righteousness, and in hours when all the honours of for every being that lives. Yet a few years, we think, nature are perishing around us, we prostrate ourselves and all that now bless, or all that now convulse in deeper adoration before Him who “sitteth upon humanity, will also have perished. The mightiest its throne." pageantry of life will pass, the loudest notes of triumph Let, then, the young go out, in these hours, under or of conquest will be silent in the grave;—the the descending sun of the year, into the fields of wicked, wherever active, “will cease from troubling," nature. Their hearts are now ardent with hope, and the weary, wherever suffering, “ will be at rest." | with the hopes of fame, of honour, or of happiness;

Under an impression so profound, we feel our own and in the long perspective which is before them, hearts better. The cares, the animosities, the hatreds, their imagination creates a world where all may be which society may have engendered, sink unperceived enjoyed. Let the scenes which they now may witfrom our bosoms. In the general desolation of nature, ness moderate, but not extinguish, their ambition. we feel the littleness of our own passions; we look While they see the yearly desolation of nature, let forward to that kindred evening which time must them see it as the emblem of mortal hope; while they bring to all; we anticipate the graves of those we feel the disproportion between the powers they poshate, as of those we love. Every unkind passion falls sess, and the time they are to be employed, let them with the leaves that fall around us; and we return carry their ambitious eye beyond the world; and slowly to our homes, and to the society which sur while, in these sacred solitudes, a voice in their own rounds us, with the wish only to enlighten or to bless bosom corresponds to the voice of decaying nature, them.

let them take that high decision which becomes those 3. If there were no other effects of such appear- who feel themselves the inhabitants of a greater world, ances of nature upon our minds, they would still be and who look to a Being incapable of decay.--ALISON, valuable,--they would teach us humility, and with it they would teach us charity. In the same hour in

LONDON: which they taught us our own fragility, they would

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. teach us commiseration for the whole family of man.


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Along the north-west part of Egypt extends a sandy The ancient city stood about twelve miles from the slip of land, on an average four or five miles wide, Canopic branch of the Nile, with which river it was and about forty in length; having on the one side the connected by a canal, and thus participated in the Mediterranean, on the other a large lake called Lake benefits of the periodical inundations. Its circumMareotis, or Marrout, and a smaller one termed Lake ference, including the suburbs, according to Pliny, Maudie, which opens on the north-east into the Bay of was about fifteen miles. One great street, running Aboukir. About midway, where the land suddenly directly north and south, thus allowing free passage contracts to half its usual breadth, and thereby forms to the northern wind, which alone conveys refreshing a commodious harbour, Alexander the Great, in the coolness to Egypt, was 2000 feet wide, and must have year 333 B.C., founded a city which still preserves excelled anything of the kind in the world. It began his name.

The modern town, called by the Turks at the gate of the sea on the north, and terminated at Iskenderieh, to which passing events give a peculiar the gate of Canopus on the south. This magnificent interest, does not indeed occupy the exact site of the street was intersected or crossed by another of the ancient city, but it is still, like it, the only important same width, which at their junction formed a grand seaport of the country, and the chief link which con square, half a league, or a mile and a half, in circum. nects Egypt with Europe. Ancient Alexandria spread ference; and from the centre of this great square th along the shore of the bay on the north, and on the two gates were seen at once, and the vessels arriving, south extended to Lake Mareotis. About a mile both south and north, with the treasures of foreign from the sea-shore was the Isle of Pharos, which was merchandize, and the wealth of distant climes. In by the sec nd Ptolemy joined to the mainland by a these two streets tood arious palaces, temples, and causeway. Upon this causeway stands the modern public buildings, constructed of marble and portown, while the site of the Greek city is marked by a phyry, and the far-famed obelisks. The palace and double wall with lofty towers and five entrances, in- gardens of the Ptolemies, the first of whom, Ptolemy closing, however, only a sandy waste, strewed with Soter, one of Alexander's generals, began a new ruins and tenanted by birds and beasts of prey. dynasty of Egyptian kings, were without the walls, Modern Alexandria is situated in 31° 13' N. latitude, stretching along the shores of the Mediterranean, and 29° 53' E. longitude, and is about 130 miles beyond the promontory called Lectreos, and occupied north-west of Cairo. Its population, which is of the a space equivalent to a fourth part of the city. Each most motley character, has much increased of late of the Ptolemies who succeeded to the Egyptian years, and is estimated now at about 25,000. The cli- throne added to those magnificent buildings and mate is healthy; the plague and other diseases with gardens. Within their inclosures were the museum, which the country is afflicted being in great measure an academy or university, a stately temple, in which traceable to the habits of the population,

the body of Alexander was deposited, and groves and VOL. XVII.


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