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land lying around Cape Town exposes the boors, or THE BOORS, OR Dutch FARMERS.

Dutch farmers, trading there to the most serious Iv a short account of the colony of the Cape of Good inconvenience. Those boors who reside at a distance Hope, contained in this work, (Vol. X., pp. 41 and 217,) of five or six hundred miles from Cape Town genewe reserved for some future time an account of the rally make but one journey thither in the course of manners and customs of the natives, and the natural the year; and on such occasions the vehicles which history of the country. We are now about to redeem convey them have much the appearance of a house, the pledge made to our readers, and propose, in a containing, in addition to the principal members of short series of illustrated articles, to offer some the family, goats, sheep, dogs, monkeys, poultry, &c. further information respecting this interesting and For the sake of affording means of protection during remarkable portion of the globe.

their journey, a musket or two and ammunition are The Hottentot race is separated from all nations of provided, which are also made use of to procure game the globe, and easily distinguishable from them, by for their subsistence by the way. The appearance of the peculiarity of the language spoken by its people, the wagon bearing this motley group, drawn by a and the singular clapping noise accompanying their team of eight, ten, or even sixteen oxen, with the im. pronunciation. To this race are referable the Bush, moderately long whip of the driver, and the naked men, Namaquas, Korahs, and Hottentots proper of figure of the little Hottentot leading the foremost Cape Colony. The more civilized race of Kaffers pair, is to a stranger in the country both novel and includes the Bichuanas, Dammaras, Tambookis, Kaff. amusing. The driving seat is considered an honour. ers proper, and probably all the tribes on the eastern able post; but the office of leading the oxen is looked side of the continent as far as Dalagoa Bay.

upon as degrading to any but a Hottentot or slave. In giving an account of some of these tribes, we Between Cape Town and the cultivated districts propose, Ist, to describe the Dutch colonists; 2nd, the lie the extensive sandy plains, commonly called the Bushmen; 3rd, Korah's dwelling in the heart of the Cape Downs. These plains are traversed by numberBushmen's country; 4th, Kaffers; 5th, Bichuanas. less roads and wheel-tracks in every direction: the

There are many inconveniences attending the situ- soil is composed of loose white sand on a substratum ation fixed on for the chief town of the colony of of clay, supporting only a few stunted shrubs and the Cape of Good Hope. The inland traffic connected rushes. A few solitary huts are scattered here and with it is carried on with much risk and difficulty, there, the habitations of Hottentots, who gain their both on account of its remote position at the extreme living by collecting fire-wood, or tending such cattle corner of the country, and of the miserable state of as are kept on this miserable pasture. the roads by which it is approached; while the bar On account of the general barrenness of the country, renness and deficiency of pasturage in the tract of the boors often stop but a single day at Cape Town, Vol. XVII.


After having come the distance of perhaps twenty days' rearing cattle, for the purchase of which he was visited journey, they cross the barren heath just described, at certain periods by a person called a slagter's knegt and frequently unyoke, or outspan, as it is called, at (butcher's man.) This slagter's knegt is a person comSalt River, to-be ready to enter the town at day-break missioned by a butcher in Cape Town to travel into the the next morning. By this means they are often en grazing districts, and buy up the number of sheep or abled to sell the produce they have brought with oxen he may require ; for which the man pays the grathein, and to make the purchases they may require, zier, not in money, but in small notes of hand, called during the day, and immediately set out on their return slagter's brief, previously signed by his employer, and from this inhospitable neighbourhood. Our frontis- the validity of which is certified at the fiscal's office. piece represents the halting of one of these parties, and They are considered as good as cash, into which the their arrangements for a season of temporary repose. grazier converts them, whenever he takes them to

The dwellings of several of these Dutch farmers town, or they are sometimes negotiated in payment were visited by Mr. Burchell, who has given a par- with his neighbours. ticular account of their appearance and arrangements. Since the English have had possession of the land, Among the more opulent he met with much hospi. the wealth and prosperity of the country have greatly tality and a considerable display of their resources, increased, and the condition of the Dutch farmers is but even in the lowest class, there was ever a readi- much bettered. The costume of the better classes of ness to open the door to the hungry and benighted this race now consists of articles entirely of English stranger.” In the family of a farmer of the middle manufacture, while in former times their general class, whose dwelling did not indicate much of afflu: attire was such as is now to be seen among the poorest ence or comfort, but whose family appeared contented claşs, and Hottentots, where the men's jackets and and bappy, the same traveller took up his abode for a even the women's gowns and petticoats are made of day or two, and made the observations from which we sheep-leather. The tanning process is performed by extract the following particulars. The situation of affixing the skin of a zebra, or other animal, to a frame this farmer's dwelling was bleak and exposed, and supported by four stakes, and allowing the middle of there was not much display of art or cultivation the skin to fall down, so as to form a capacious basin, around it. It was situated on a wide fat, bounded or tanning-vat. This basin is filled with a liquid, conby rocky mountains. One large room, having a mud taining a quantity of bark from the acacia, or from floor and a single glazed window, whose broken panes some other of those trees which afford the tanning displayed the scarcity of glass in that quarter, formed principle, and in it are immersed the sheep-skins, prethe principal part of the house. At one end were the viously deprived of hair for that purpose. bed-rooms, and at the other a very deep and wide There is a custom among the boors, which, however, fire-place, exactly resembling that of an English farm is now gradually wearing away, of halting on a journey house. Over this fire stood a large cauldron of boil- and dismounting to salute the passing stranger. This ing soap. (We may here remark that the boors often practice is supposed to have taken its rise from the find it better economy to consume their sheep in pleasure felt by the early settlers at the sight of a white their own families, and convert the fat into soap, man in those distant places of banishment from the which is sold at their annual visit to Cape Town, than world; a circumstance which in former days was exto sell the animals at the low price which they are tremely rare. Seldom visiting or visited, they felt that able to obtain for them). A door in the back wall of a Christenmensch (a Christian) should never be passed the apartment opened into the kitchen. A small win-without salutation. But as population increases this dow near the fire-place, was at the season of our sentiment is weakened, and the custom derived from traveller's visit kept constantly closed with a wooden it is less frequently observed, or if performed is rather shutter, to exclude the cold wind, as it had neither the act of ceremony than the token of neighbourly sash nor glass. Near the glazed window stood a feeling and mutual good will. small table, and on it a little old-fashioned coffee-urn, Next the termination of the inhabited parts of Cape an article in continual employment. On each side of Colony lies a wide and sandy region, known as the the table were stationed two homely-looking chairs great Karro, which is the Hottentot word for dry, arid. for the use of the master and mistress. A few chairs Portions of this desert afford sustenance for sheep and benches, with a large family dining-table, were and horses, which constitute the chief support of the ranged in order round the room. On a shelf lay a boors residing there. The dwellings of these men are large Bible, and a few other books.

of a humbler description than that which we have A black slave and a Hottentot girl assisted in the spoken of above; being nothing more than small, low domestic duties, while the more laborious work of the huts, rudely thatched, with reed and sedge, and very farm was performed by a man-slave and a few Hotten- meanly furnished. The space immediately around the tots. The daughters of the farmer, three in number, dwelling is called the werf, and beyond this are placed were under the tuition of an itinerant tutor, or meester, the sheep-folds, hedged in with branches of thorn. The as he was called, who had been for several months an flocks of these farmers usually consist of from two to idmate of the family. This person could make himself five thousand sheep, but even those possessed of the understood both in English and French, and appeared latter number can scarcely be said to be affluent. fully equal to the task of completing the education of a As very little corn is grown on the district, the boor's family. He was a Hollander by birth, and inhabitants live almost entirely on mutton. Three had passed the last twenty-nine years of his life in the meals of mutton are generally consumed each day, colony. Schoolmasters of this description are dis- and that in most cases without the addition of persed everywhere throughout the country. In many bread, which is considered a very great rarity. The instances their abilities are of too low an order to sheep are driven to a considerable distance in search allow of their getting a living by the same occupation of pasturage, and consume, like locusts, every blade in their native country. They generally traverse a of grass and leafy twig they can find. Their return great portion of the colony, for their usual stay at at night is said to be an interesting sight, streaming each house is only from six to twelve months, and in from all quarters, like an inundation over the ridges this time they must engage to complete the education and Inw hills, or moving in a compact body, like an of their pupils in reading, writing, and arithmetic. invading army, driven forwards only by two or three

The head of this family employed his farm only in ! Hottentots and a few dogs.


closer in its foliage.' The exudation from this tree,

in its purest state, is called flake manna, and is received And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold upon the face of | in long pieces of a pale buff colour, light, dry, and the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar friable, and bearing the impression of the branches frost upon the ground.

And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, on which it had concreted. It has a peculiar and It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto thein, This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat.

somewhat disagreeable odour, with a sweet and nauExodus xvi., 14, 15. seous taste. It is perfectly soluble in water, and in

alcohol. When boiled in alcohol, and allowed to The history of the children of Israel during their cool, a deposit of sugar is obtained, which has been forty years' wanderings in the wilderness, from the termed mannite, and which differs from common sugar period of their departure from Egypt till their settle- in not being susceptible of fermentation. ment in the promised land, forms a most interesting But the European manna is inferior to the Oriental, and instructive portion of the sacred writings, as which is gathered partly from the Oriental oak, and exhibiting on the one hand the forbearance and long- partly from a shrub, which is called in Persia Terensuffering of the Almighty towards the nation which gabin, or Terendschabin. The manna gathered about He had appointed to preserve and diffuse the light of Ispahan is described by Gmelin as consisting of grains true religion in the world; and, on the other, the like coriander-seeds, as white as snow.

The peasants selfishness and discontent of the human heart, as gather it at sunrise, holding a sieve under the branch, shown in the murmurings, and repinings, and lookings while they beat it with a stick to make the grain fall: back to the luxuries of Egypt, of this people, so lately if the gathering be deferred to a later hour, no manna redeemed from a state of slavery and bondage. can be obtained, because, as the sun becomes hot, it

The miraculous manner in which the vast multi- melts. tude was sustained during the protracted journey is Niebuhr, in his Description of Arabia, informs us not the least remarkable of the events recorded. The that manna is obtained from the ash in the neighfall of manna was continued throughout the year bourhood of Diarbekir. The time for gathering it is for the whole period of forty years, and an assem in July or August. There are three ways of obtain. bly greater than was ever perhaps collected together ing this manna, and the quality varies according to in one camp for so long a period before or since, was the means employed. The best manna is collected fed in this extraordinary manner. When recapitu-in cloths, into which it is shaken from the branches lating these events at the termination of their wander of the tree at sunrise. The next sort consists of that ings, Moses thus calls on Israel to keep them grate which has melted in the sun, and again becomes hard, fully in mind:

so that additional layers have been added daily, and And thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord the leaves become thickly covered. These leaves are thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to carried home, and thrown into hot water, when the humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thy

manna settles on the surface of the water like oil, and heart, whether thou wouldest keep

his commandments or nó.

hardens into cakes. The third and worst sort is And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna which thou knewest not, neither did obtained by those who do not like the trouble of the thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that last process, and consists of the leaves and manna man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that pounded up together. The same traveller also deproceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live.- scribes the manna of Ispahan, before alluded to, and Deut. viii., 2, 3.

considers it more nearly to resemble the manna of This manna, which was a small white grain, the size the Israelites than any other, adding, however, " But of coriander-seed, fell erery morning with the dew, if the children of Israel gathered manna throughout (except on the Sabbath days,) from Friday, June 5th, the whole year, with the exception of the Sabbath, A.M. 2513, to Wednesday, May 5th, 2553, or 1451 (Exod. xvi., 22, 23,) this did not happen merely in years before Christ.

a natural manner, because the Terendschabin is only Bearing in mind the peculiar circumstances con- gathered during a few months.” nected with this manna, i.e., that it formed an article In the manna of Ispahan, however, there is still this of wholesome and substantial food for upwards of two difference to that described by Moses ;-that it merely millions of persons; that it fell, not for a few months oozes out of the stem, branches, and leaves of certain of the year only, but in all seasons, before the eyes plants, and does not fall upon the ground so as to of a vast number of witnesses, who, together with resemble hoar-frost. their descendants, were commanded to keep the Should we not be induced, (says Oedmann,) to return to miracle perpetually in mind, and to lay up a portion the old opinion, that manna falls with the dew? Let it be of the manna as a memento to succeeding generations, supposed that the great heat of Arabia ex pels a quantity so that we find “the golden pot that had manna"

of sweet juices from different kinds of shrubs and trees mentioned in the Epistle to the Hebrews as one of the growing there, as rhamnus, date-trees, &c.; that these ex

halations float or rise in the air as long as their specific sacred things contained in the ark of the covenant, gravity is less than that of the atmosphere; that they are bearing these things in mind, it will be interesting to condensed by the coolness of the night, and by the laws of review the accounts given by travellers of the natural gravitation fall with the dew, or more probably form with production now called manna, in the countries of the dew one common substance. They must, therefore, Southern Europe, and more especially of that which

when they fall in quantities, consist of a clammy and is found in Syria, Arabia, and Persia.,

honey-like substance, which acquires more solidity by the

coldness of the night; when, after the fall of this clammy Manna is the common name for the thick, clammy, dew, the watery parts evaporate, the sweet and heavier and sweet juice which oozes from certain trees and manna remains behind like hoar-frost, or sugar; but when shrubs growing in the south of Europe, and concretes the rays of the sun begin to have more power, these grains on the bark. This juice sometimes exudes sponta

melt likewise. neously, but the best European manna is obtained by The opinion above quoted seems fully verified by incisions made in the trees. The manna common in the observation of travellers. In travelling through our druggists' shops is obtained from a species of Palestine, Shaw found the dew to possess a clammy ash, growing abundantly in Calabria and Sicily, sweetness, so that it adhered to his dress, and to the which is of smaller size than our common ash, seldom bridle and saddle. Felix Fabri relates a similar exceeding thirty feet in height, and is denser and occurrence; and Forskal was informed by the monks

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at Tor, that manna falls on the roof of their convent. stance. And in such a barren region as that “waste It is also recorded in public papers, that in the year howling wilderness," it is not likely that there should 1793, at Vizzine, in Sicily, the weather being very have been found, at any period, a sufficient number fine, a dark cloud came over from the south, and of trees and shrubs yielding their juices to the sun dissolved into rain. The drops, which were very fine, to have supplied even for a few weeks the marvellous consisted of a tough saccharine fluid, which at length shower, which so much excited the astonishment of hardened, and became similar to gum-mastich. The the children of Israel. Neither is it to be supposed country people, who ate of it, found it very agreeable, that the circumstance, if of ordinary occurrence in and it had a similar effect on them to the manna used the East, would have made so great an impression on in medicine.

their minds, nor that they would have been at a loss Travellers, who have visited the neighbourhood of for a dame by which to distinguish the manna. That Mount Sinai, give a similar description of the manna the people knew not what to call this newly-found found there. It falls in the months of August and substance is evident by the marginal reading of the September, and hangs in drops on leaves, twigs, grass, 16th chapter of Exodus and the 15th verse, where we and stones. If gathered early, it remains hard and in

find that the Hebrew words 8:9719 rendered in our distinct pieces, like coriander-seeds; but at a later part of the day, it runs together like pitch. In

translation It is manna, literally mean What is this?

The substance has obtained its name from the sound taste it resembles honey, and, when eaten, sticks to the teeth. This manna does not fall every year; for

of those Hebrew words, which is man-hou. when Sinai was visited by Eurman, a learned Swede,

The vast quantity of manna received by the Israel. in 1712, there had been none for two years.

ites, its descent at all seasons of the year, the double Burckhardt considers the manna obtained from

portion given on the sixth day, the absence of it on the tamarisk, or tarfa, to come the nearest to the

the seventh, the circumstances attending the infringescriptural account. This substance is called by the

ment of the command to leave none of it (except on Arabs “mann:" it exudes from the thorns of the

the eve of the Sabbath) until the morning, &c., were tamarisk, and falls on the leaves and twigs, which are

all distinctly miraculous, whether we suppose the always found beneath the tree. It is very similar to manna to have been a natural production of the land the different kinds of manna already described, and through which the Israelites were travelling, or a new is highly prized by the Bedouins in that part of Arabia,

substance brought into existence for the supply of

their immediate wants. This manna may therefore in which it is found. They separate it carefully from the leaves, &c., among which it is found, boil it

be called “a peculiar thing," and the miracle by

which the wants of the children of Israel was supthrough a coarse piece of cloth, and put it in leather skins. Thus they preserve it till the following year,

plied is in no way heightened by supposing that the

substance was literally “rained down from heaven," using it in the same way as honey, and pouring it over their unleavened bread. If eaten in any consi

which expression very often simply means from the derable quantity, it is slightly purgative. When kept atmosphere, or from the region of the air. in a cool place, it hardens, but never sufficiently so to be pounded, as we find was the case with the

In a nature so unsearchable as that of God, and a scheme manna of the Israelites. (Numbers, xi. 8.) And

so vast as that of His universal government, there must

be many things which creatures of our limited faculties the people went about, and gathered it, and ground

cannot approach towards comprehending, and merely from it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in

want of comprehending, may fancy to be full of incredipans, and made cakes of it."

bilities, which, could we but know more, or would we but We must here mention one other description of

remember that we know so little, would instantly vanish. manna given by Rauwolff. It is of a kind which he In matters, therefore, which we understand so very imperfound to be commonly used in the neighbourhood of fectly, to set up human imagination against divine authority; Mosul, and which the inhabitants said they received

to rely on crude notions, that things are impossible, which

proper testimony shows to be true in fact, or that God from Armenia. It was sent to them in pieces as large cannot be, or do, what, by His own declarations, He is, and as a man's fist, was of a brown colour, much firmer hath done, betrays a disposition widely distant from the than that of Calabria but not so sweet. It was also modesty which becomes us. -ARCHBISHOP SECKER. less laxative, and was therefore wholesome, as well as pleasant to eat. Numerous small red grains were found in this substance, but they did not affect the

“I muse on the works of Thy hands."-PSALM CXLIII, 5. taste of the manna, and the inhabitants ate large pieces of it in the morning "in the same way,” says Thou sweet little flower with the bright blue cyc, our author, "as the country people of Algan, in the That peepest from the bank so modestly, mountains, do cheese."

Thou art come from a source invisible, In all these accounts of the manna of different

And thou hast some important words to tell. countries, we find some points of resemblance to that Thou art come like the “still small voice" of Him of the Scriptures. The manna of the neighbourhood of Who whispers His truth in the evening dim; Mount Sinai in particular, falling as we are informed

Who shines in the stars of the azure sky, it does with the dew, and resembling in form

And gems the dark world with piety. and taste that which Moses likens unto coriander

Thou art come as a warning to wandering souls, seed, and of which he says " the taste of it was like

Who are careless of time, as it swiftly rolls,

And forgetful of Godt, Who upholds their lot, wafers made with honey," (Exod. xvi., 31.) seems But Who whispers in thee-Forget me not. almost like the same substance, yet we do not find it even hinted by travellers that the quality or quantity

Thou art come as a gift from a friend sincere,

Whose dwelling is fixed in the heavenly sphere of this manna is such as to make it a means of sub But Whose Spirit is with us in every spot, sistence for those who are passing through the desert. And the voice of Whose works is—Forget me no We must also remember that ordinary manna is found Thou art come to repeat an assurance of love only during a part of the year, and that that which has From that changeless FriendI in the mapsions abovo: been observed in the neighbourhood of Mount Sinai

To the soul that loves Christ in sincerity has been of short continuance, small in quantity, and His goodness declares—I will not forget theeg.-T.C possessing the usual laxative properties of this sub

* Psalın xix. l. + Ibid 13. 17. Prov. xviii. 24. liai. xlix. 15.


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contains between two and three thousand inba.

bitants. HEDINGHAM is the naine of two parishes in Essex, Castle Hedingham adjoins the parish just named. the one called Sible Hedingham, the other Castle Hed. The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is an ancient ingham, which together occupy a very rich and plea- gothic building, with an embattled brick parapet; and sant part of the country. Of these two parishes, from the architectural peculiarities which it presents, especially that which contains the castle represented it is supposed to have been built during the reign or in our frontispiece,—we propose to give a brief account. King John. It has lofty and spacious aisles and nave,

Sible Hedingham is a small parish, chiefly distin- with circular and octagonal pillars of stone, supportguished for producing some of the best Essex hops. ing gothic arches: the ceiling is formed of wood, and It contains a village known by the same name as the ornamented with curious carvings. The lofty tower parish, the trade of which is chiefly dependent on was rebuilt in 1616, the expense being partly defrayed agricultural pursuits, in purchasing the produce of the by the produce-money of four of the bells of the neighbouring grounds, and providing various necessa tower, which were sold for that purpose. There is a ries for the farmers and their labourers. The parish spacious chancel, separated from the nave and aisles is divided into six manors, the records of which by a lofty carved wooden screen: there were at one ascend to an early period in the history of England; time a number of stalls here, but these have been since indeed the same may be said of most of the manors removed to another part of the church. of Essex, for the situation of the county at the south There was formerly a nunnery in this parish, for east corner of England, caused it to be one of the black veiled nuns of the Benedictine order, founded early points of attack, in the various invasions of the by the Earl and Countess of Oxford, about seven or Romans, the Saxons, the Danes, and the Normans, eight centuries ago,—the countess herself being the and the particular parts taken by the resident gentry first prioress. The establishment continued under the on these several occasions considerably influenced the patronage of this family till its dissolution, part of possessorship of the estates. One of the manors in the buildings have since been converted into a farm. Sible Hedingham, that of Preyers, was in the posses. house. There was also in early times an hospital, sion of seventeen freemen previous to the Norman founded by one of the Earls of Oxford in the time of Conquest: it then passed to the De Veres, earls of Henry the Third, for the aid of poor, distressed, and Oxford, and subsequently to other families. Another impotent persons, and also, in accordance with the manor was in the possession of a freeman in the time manners of the times, for the offering up of prayers of Edward the Confessor. The other manors are not for the souls of the founder, his wife, their ancestors, traced to so early a date. The church of Sible Hed. and their heirs. It had a chapel, and several chaplaing ingham is a handsome and spacious building, provided to perform Divine service, and a cemetery also belonged with a nave, north and south aisles, and a square to it. tower containing five bells. The nave and the aisles are But by far the most important establishment or separated by plain massive pillars, supporting gothic building ever existing in this parish, the castle-to arches. The church is believed to have been built about which indeed the parish owes its name-remains to the time of Edward the Third.—The whole parish i be described. This ancient edifice stands on an emie

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