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They are gone where swords avail them not,
From the feast of victory.

And the seers, who sat of yore,

By orient palm or wave,

They have pass'd with all their starry lore-
Can ye still fear the grave?—

"We fear, we fear!-the sunshine

Is joyous to behold;

And we reck not of the buried kings,
Or the awful seers of old."-

Ye shrink!-the bards whose lays

Have made your deep hearts burn,


They have left the Sun, and the voice of praise,
For the land whence none return:

And the lovely, whose memorial

Is the verse that cannot die,

They too are gone with their glorious bloom,
From the gaze of human eye.

Would ye not join that throng

Of the earth's departed flowers,
And the masters of the mighty song
In their far and fadeless bowers?
"Those songs are high and holy,
But they vanquish not our fear;
Not from our path those flowers are gone-
We fain would linger here."

Linger then yet awhile,

As the last leaves on the bough !

Ye have loved the gleam of many a smile,
Which is taken from you now.

There have been sweet singing voices

In your walks that now are still;

There are seats left void in your earthly homes,
Which none again may fill.

Soft eyes are seen no more

That made spring-time in your heart;

Kindred and friends are gone before,

And ye still fear to part?

"We fear not now! we fear not now!

Though the way through darkness bends,

Our souls are strong to follow them,

Our own familiar friends!"



PARIS is not only the largest city in France, as London is the largest in England; but it is, strictly speaking, the very head of France. Unfortunately, the opinions entertained on any subject whatever, by that which is termed the good society of Paris, soon become articles of faith for all the rest of France. Men of education and talent are not scattered about in the different towns of France; whilst in Edinburgh, Liverpool, Bath, &c. there may be found men not less distinguished for talent than those who happen to reside in London. The case is different here. People throng to Paris, not only to get money, but to get literary fame. Whatever degree of talent a Frenchman may possess, if he do not pass a few years in the polished circles of Paris, all that he writes will be said to savour of affectation, his jests will be thought awkward and unfashionable, and he will often fall into the misfortune of endeavouring to prove things which are taken for granted in society. When a man commits this blunder, nothing he may ever say or write will claim the least attention in the polite world. I have thought it necessary to give you this explanation, though, perhaps, you may find it somewhat too long. But, without some preliminary knowledge of the social mechanism of France, many facts which I shall have to relate to you, would be unintelligible; and you would regard as unworthy of attention the explanations of those same facts which I shall sometimes venture to give you. Such is the difference between Paris and London.

The English travellers who visit Paris, do not in general understand the art of mixing with French society. I shall not, therefore, appeal to their testimony. Public opinion, which, in the long run, rules every thing in France, is manufactured in Paris only. Before men can have leisure to think, they must be in a certain degree relieved from the toil of business, and the anxiety attendant on making money. It appears to me, that in France, public opinion is formed in the saloons of people whose incomes are not less than 700l. a year. Many men, it is true, live at their ease in Paris, amusing themselves with literary and political discussions, and their incomes do not exceed from 200l. to 300l. a year. But these are bachelors, and they carry the tribute of their talents and information to the drawing rooms of more wealthy men. I may remark, by the way, that in this point alone Paris differs materially from London. A young man here with an income of 2001. or 300l. a year, and possessed of some degree of talent, is estimated the more highly, by not following any profession, leading a sort of literary life, and passing his time in reading, visiting, and travelling.

The two classes of people whom I have just described, viz. the married men, who give parties, and have incomes of 7001. a year, and the unmarried men, who follow no profession, and who live on 2001. or 300l. a year, have now all quitted Paris, and are gone to spend the warm summer months in the country. The more wealthy French families in general have their country residences at a considerable distance from the capital.

A man who mixes in fashionable society in Paris, generally knows all the facts recorded in the journals twenty-four hours before they appear in print. He peruses the newspapers merely to see what turn they may give to facts with which he is already acquainted. The man of the world passes his opinion on the journals in the winter, when he is in Paris; but unless he find an article displaying the talent and eloquence of Etienne or Chateaubriand, he is perfectly insensible to newspaper reasoning.

But no sooner is this man of the world transported to the country, to the distance of twenty leagues from Paris, than his taste entirely changes. After being twenty-four hours out of town, the very journal which he regarded with disdain, becomes the only channel through which he can procure intelligence of any thing that interests him. Thanks to the little information that is to be met with all the year round at the distance of twenty leagues

from the capital! The Parisian in the country finds the newspaper the only thing with which he can hold converse, and which speaks a language he can understand.

This summer, the Journal des Debats is the oracle of our fashionables in the country. This journal often wants sincerity. It attacks the Jesuits, though it is itself decidedly Jesuitical. It says whatever its interests may dictate, and is by no means anxious to make truth the first object. The conductors of the Journal des Debats, MM. Fiévée, Chateaubriand, Bertin, and Hoffman, are men of considerable talent, and they move in the higher circles of society. To these circumstances the paper principally owes its success.

There is one little journal which shares public favour along with the "Journal des Debats." This is the "Gazette des Tribunaux." It presents merely a record of facts, upon which it never offers any comment. It not only contains a report of the proceedings of all the French courts of law, but it gives an account of the police cases, as the London papers detail the affairs which come under investigation at the Mansion House, Bow Street, Marlborough Street, &c.

Nothing can exhibit a more accurate picture of the state of France, than the "Gazette des Tribunaux." It has gained its popularity in the fashionable world by the report of a law case, in which a young curé in the neighbourhood of Lyons made a conspicuous figure. The curé prohibited his parishioners from dancing on Sundays. On the Sunday following the announcement of the curé's prohibition, a violin-player presented himself, according to custom, at four o'clock in the afternoon, beneath the trees where the rustic ball usually took place. The curé, suspecting that his orders would not be very readily complied with, had also repaired to the spot, and on seeing the violin-player, he began to belabour him without any ceremony. The poor musician climbed up one of the trees, and in this elevated position he began to play a dance. The curé, enraged at this refractory conduct, climbed up the tree after the fiddler, and again inflicted punishment on him. The poor fellow, from feelings of respect, refrained from returning the blows which were very unsparingly dealt out upon him, and at length the curé seized his violin and dashed it to the ground. The instrument was of course broken to pieces. The "Gazette des Tribunaux" gave a very amusing account of the trial which followed this act of illegal violence; and the servility of the court, which acquitted the curé and condemned the unfortunate musician, was exposed in a very comical way. This affair has rendered the "Gazette des Tribunaux" an indispensable requisite at every breakfast-table in the country.

The tribunal of public opinion is, as I have already mentioned, transported from Paris to the country, and I must now inform you how it has been engaged during the last month.

In spite of the snug little places to which our premier, M. de Villèle, has appointed the relatives of some of the French peers; and in spite of the pensions of 12,000 francs per annum which he has given to the members of that respectable body, the Chamber of Peers determined to prolong the inquiry respecting the frauds which were committed in Spain three years ago. The fear of incurring the suspicion of having been duped-a feeling which always operates powerfully in the minds of Frenchmen-probably influenced this determination. The news of the Portuguese constitution served only to aggravate the affair. The peers observed that Mr. Canning, without expending a single penny, and without war, set France at defiance, and had undone the great work which cost us four hundred millions at the first outset, and twenty or thirty millions every year since. M. de Villèle has been completely duped. He excused himself by saying to the peers who have sold them

Dancing on a Sunday after vespers is a national custom in France, which has been kept up for several centuries. It is a favourite amusement of the peasantry, particularly the females.

selves, or, as they are called, the peers of the household :-" It is well known that I long opposed the project of the Spanish war. I have but one object in view, and that is to keep my place. The Jesuits, and the superannuated fools who compose the right side of the Chamber, forced me into the Spanish war. I now intend to advise Ferdinand to grant an amnesty, and afterwards a constitution; but he is such a blockhead there is no getting him to do any thing. Ultimately Cadiz will be the only part of Spain of which I shall retain possession."

The above is the substance of the speech which M. de Villèle delivered, or caused to be delivered, to the one hundred and forty peers, who remained in Paris for the investigation of Ouvrard's case. But the superior intelligence displayed by Mr. Canning has materially diminished the admiration of the Ultras for the talent of M. de Villèle. The Portuguese Constitution has, generally speaking, proved exceedingly discouraging to the Retrograde party.

Only consider how many disappointments this party has sustained within less than a year.

1st. The question of the utility of re-establishing the Jesuits in France occasioned a division among the Ultras.

2d. The Emperor Alexander, on whom all their power depended, was silly enough to die for want of proper remedies. The report of the coumittee instituted by Nicolas, and the accounts of Frenchmen who have arrived from Moscow, give reason to fear that Russia has been inoculated with the poison of liberalism.

3d. The Emperor Francis of Austria is dying. This prince has hitherto been the security for the Ultra party in the South of Europe. Pope Leo XII. has been rendered ridiculous in Italy, by the accounts of his youthful gallantries. This unfortunate disclosure happened at the very moment when it was wished to make Leo XII. the head of the Retrograde party in Europe, a post which has become vacant by the death of Alexander.

4th. After all these vexations, the Emperor of Brazil gives to Portugal a horribly liberal constitution; and what is more, it cannot be said that this was forced from him. The new Portuguese Constitution will not permit the absolute monarchy of Ferdinand the Seventh to survive for two years longer.

5th. To crown the misfortunes of the poor Ultras, the Chamber of Peers and public opinion are at present engaged in calculating the expenses incurred by the restoration of the absurd tyranny of Ferdinand VII.

The above is a brief abstract of the conversations which have taken place during the last fortnight in the saloons of the Ultra Retrogrades; for such is the appellation by which this party is now distinguished.

Those who are termed merely Ultras, are abandoning the cause of Ferdinand VII. as too expensive, and are beginning to think there would be no barm in humbling three distinguished individuals, each of whom has pocketed about a million of francs by the Spanish war.

Perhaps it is scarcely necessary to inform you, that all the dullest and most stupid books that are published are purchased by M. Corbière.

In addition to the superb library in the Rue de Richelieu, called the “BibJiothèque du Roi," which has really been collected by the kings of France, Napoleon formed a library in the Louvre, beneath the celebrated picture-gallery. The Duke de Dudeauville, who disposes of the thirty-five millions which the French people annually contribute to the support of the Bourbon family, purchases books for the library in the Louvre. The choice of these books affords an idea of the degree of taste and judgment which prevails at court. The books thus selected are so very stupid, that after paying for them, it is supposed the Duke de Dudeauville is obliged to distribute them gratuitously among the servants and persons employed about the court. The truth is, that works written by men who "think rightly," to use the Ultra phrase, are not even worth binding and preserving in the library of a C... This

fact, which was recently avowed at St. Cloud, shows to what a point of insignificance the writers of the Ultra party have fallen. Yet they are appointed to all the literary posts in the gift of the Government. Rollin, Marmontel, Rhalières, La Bruyere, and many French writers, subsisted almost wholly on the emoluments derived from the posts they filled under Louis XIV. and Louis XV. But the present Government makes stupidity, or at least bigotry, a sine qua non recommendation to court favour; and henceforth none but men in easy circumstances can hope to attain literary distinction in France.

M. Guizot is, perhaps, at present, the most independent of all our literary men. He filled some good places under the administration of M. de Cazes, and he was honest. In spite of the late decree of the Chamber of Peers, so few public inen have, during the last dozen years, deserved praise for honesty, that M. Guizot really ought to be cited as an example. He was so honest while in office, that he and his wife now find it necessary to augment their income by writing books. Madame Guizot, who, before her marriage, was well known by the name of Pauline de Meulan, wrote the literary articles in the "Publiciste," a journal distinguished for talent, though sometimes degenerating into fashionable insipidity.

This is precisely the character of the Letters on Education, which Madame Guizot has just published. This work is one of the best I have seen on the important subject of education. It well deserves to be translated, though it will not be honoured with a place in the king's library, because the authoress is a protestant. Madame Guizot's work ought to be read by every young lady, for it is full of ready-made phrases on all the subjects that can possibly come under discussion in polite society.

Our booksellers have lately been publishing a great many little volumes which have been sold at about five sous each. M. Baudouin, the bookseller, has realized about ten-thousand francs in the space of two months, by printing the "Tartuffe" in a small form, and selling it at twenty-five centimes.

These little books have been furiously abused by the Journals, from the "Debats" to the "Globe." They tend to destroy those reputations which are so frequently raised by newspaper puffs. A journal is feared, and its writers are flattered whenever they appear in company, because they have the power of making and unmaking reputations. It requires a considerable sum of money to establish a journal; and then a little volume, which costs its publisher no more than three hundred francs, may overthrow a reputation which has procured for an important newspaper editor, a hundred visits from a modest author! This is most vexatious!

The fact is, that men of real merit, such as M. Dupont (de l'Eure), Lafayette, Royer Collard, Benjamin Constant, De Girardin, La Martine, Berenger, Thierry, Mignet, &c. suffer nothing from any little attacks of which they may be the objects. It is only the small fry of literature who create for themselves a reputation in the journals, who are liable to be killed by a volume in 32mo.

Many of these terrific little volumes bear the title of " Biographies." You may purchase for ten sous the biography of the ministers who were in office from 1814 to 1826. For the same price you may have the biography of the Deputies, in which those who have sold themselves are treated as they deserve. The "Biography of the Peers" contains many inaccuracies, as does also the Biographie des Gens de Lettres." I should not like to be the author of any these little volumes, though they will certainly prove exceedingly useful. They speak soine good home truths to men who have been flattered by the Journals, as, for example, in the "Literary Biography," in the article on M. Cuvier, the famous naturalist, who by turns has sold himself to all parties in power. In the same volume M. M. Humboldt and Laplace are advised to be less intriguing. Of the above-named individuals, no journal would have presumed to speak but in terms of the most exaggerated praise. There is also a Biographie des Dames de la Cour," of which I will not venture to give you

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