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his own occasions. Resolved, that the Parliament | so coloured and wrought upon by the circumstances of the times in which he lived, that He who is a Spirit can alone pass judgment on a man who

doth exempt Richard Cromwell, eldest son of the late Lord General Cromwell, from all arrests of debt whatsoever for six months. It is referred to a committee to examine what is due for mourning for the late Lord General, and to consider how it may be paid for without prejudice or charge to the Commonwealth.

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Consistent !

January 26. This day, in pursuance of an order of Parliament, the odious body of that horrid regicide, Oliver Cromwell, was digged up out of its grave, and in a cart dragged to Tyburn, where it hung till the sun went down; after which the head was cut off, and the trunk thrown into a deep hole beneath the gallows. And now we cannot forget, how at Cambridge, when Cromwell first set up for a rebel, he, riding under the gallows, his horse curveting, threw his cursed Highness out of the saddle just under the gallows, where he is now again thrown (never more to be digged up); and there we leave him.


Farewell then to his "most serene and renowned Highness Oliver," a man flattered, feared, conspired against-brave, yet suspicious, honoured, and yet hated-splendid in action, sagacious in council, sordid in speech-an example to kings, and a warning to subjects-achieving greatness by evil means, but employing greatness worthilysuccessful, because he put aside his conscience, yet wretched withal, because he could not forget it-not wholly a knave or wholly a hypocrite, yet knavish and hypocritical both-a character so strangely compounded in its natural elements, and

"Seemed to be
Not one, but all mankind's epitome."

Of him, as of Richelieu, La Bruyère's remark is just he belonged to those who have "ni aïeuls ni descendants; ils composent seuls toute leur race."

One word more touching the newspapers. We blame modern tergiversation, but we see times past had their tergiversations too; the prosperous treason was a most wholesome and delectable condition-the unsuccessful treason was an emanation from the pit of darkness. The more we blame human nature generally, the more charitable shall we grow towards individuals; and in all cases of controverted character, "he who is most charitable is commonly least unjust." We all remember Waller's bon mot, and we need remember it, when we find in that poet's works, harmoniously repos. ing page by page, "A Panegyric to my Lord Protector," and a congratulatory address "To the King, on his Majesty's happy return!" Here, we have the poet flattering the Protector:

"With such a chief, the meanest nation blest
Might hope to lift her head above the rest;
What may be thought impossible to do
By us-embraced by the sea and you?

"As the vexed world, to find repose, at last
Itself into Augustus' arms did cast;

So England now does, with like toil opprest,
Her weary head upon your bosom rest.

"Still, as you rise, the state exalted too
Finds no distemper while 'tis changed by you;
Changed like the world's great scene, when with-
out noise

The rising sun night's vulgar lights destroys."

And here we have the poet flattering the King:

"Great Britain, like blind Polypheme, of late
In a wild rage, became the scorn and hate
Of her proud neighbours-who began to think
She with the weight of her own force would sink;
But you are come, and all their hopes are vain,
This giant Isle has got her eye again."

So the long and the short of the matter is, we must forgive the newspapers published during the Protectorate, and the newspapers published after

the Restoration.

Through life one rarely succeeds in penetrating men's secret sentiments: affectation, falsehood, coldness, and modesty, exaggerate, alter, repress, or veil that which passes in the depths of the heart. A great actor displays symptoms of truth in his sentiments and his character, and gives us sure tokens of our true feelings and inclinations.


[Sikkim is a mountainous territory, separated from Chinese Tartary on the north by a portion of the Himalaya range, and bounded elsewhere by Nepaul, Bootan, and Bengal. Darjeeling, formerly one of its most important strongholds, is now more interesting as the grand sanatorium to which invalids resort from Calcutta; the mean temperature being 24 below that of the city of palaces. The inhabitants are of the Lepcha tribe, who professing for the most part the Lama religion, have none of the Brahminical prejudices, but eat all sorts of food, and drink ardent spirits.]

over the stone to find numbers of the animal. He described the taste as resembling that of pepper. The bug-like smell is on the head, which he plucked off, and threw away. Now query, is this bad odour in many insects an offensively defensive effluvium to protect them from pursuers? Flying bugs have a very acrid humour about them, as any one who has had the mishap to get one in his eye knows, and perhaps this is attractive to birds, &c., and the bad savour of a section of their frame may be a means of protection to them, seeing they are weak animals, and of rather slow motion.

Dec. 28th.-Having procured supplies from Darjeeling, after the previous bad weather, we proceeded down the great Runjeet towards the Teesta, from the junction of the small Runjeet with the greater river of the same name, where we had been detained ten or twelve days by rain which fell at Darjeeling as snow, and other causes. Pass over the end of the Tuck vor ridge, which we find steep and difficult. The hill men travelling with loads have a staff formed of a piece of small bamboo, two cubits in length, with the lower end sharpened to a point, or double point rather; and this, from the stick being hollow, holds on admirably, so that an accident is a matter of very rare occurrence among these people from slipping on the precipitous faces of the hills.


To-day, about noon, we came on a deer at bay, in the river, whither it had been driven by the wild dogs. The deer was first seen by a sipahi, who also saw the wild dogs about him; but they stole off into the jungle, on becoming aware of the approach of the party. An attempt was made to shoot the deer, who remained in his position, but without success. B. entrusted the matter to two sipahis, assuming they must be very cognoscent in such matters; one fired one of B.'s guns at the animal, the other shot an arrow; but the effect was only to alarm him, and he quickly made for the forest.

Dec. 30th.-Cross the Rumoong by a bamboo bridge, a short way above its junction with the Runjeet, near which we encamped. We then crossed, about half a mile or a mile further, on the great Runjeet by a ratan bridge. This we measured by means of a fishing line, and made it to be eightytwo yards in length. The measuring was by no means an easy matter, the bridge being in a rather ruinous state. These bridges are the same in principle as our iron suspension bridges. The parts that correspond to the main chains are of ratans, well tied together, sometimes by a hitch in the ratan itself, sometimes by its being bent back and the bending well lashed to the ratans, of which it is part, by slips of bamboo. Strong slips of bamboo attached to each ratan are hung from these chains, corresponding to the suspending rods and road frame in one of our bridges, and a couple of pieces of bamboo, for as many lengths as are needed, are laid in the bight which these bamboo slips form, and constitute the road-way. The ratan chains are kept apart by booms of bamboo, suspended under the bridge, and attached to the ratans by slips of bamboo, which form strong ties capable of supporting a great strain or weight.

Near this point of the Runjeet, firs or pines are met with, but chiefly on the hill to the north of the river. Encamp in the north side of the river near Puter, having crossed in the course of the day two brooks, coming from the north, named Moongbroo and Rumbroong.

To-day, while proceeding down the bed of the

Halted a little after mid-day by the river, where a second spur from Tuck vor abuts on it. Ilere I found a fossil bone of the size of the leg-bone of a deer, the specimen seemed silicfied; it was a drift bone, and its original locale is, of course, un-river, in which our road lay for the time, we met certain. The curiosity, now in two pieces, is in two Booteeas, who quickly made for the wood, on the possession of Dr. Campbell. I searched long seeing the strength of the party, suspicious lest we for other specimens of this kind, but to no effect. should seize them for slaves. It is one of the I had abundance of leisure for my examination of worst traits of the people of these hills, that they the ground, which I industriously availed myself make slaves of the members of other tribes. The of, for my companion had gone after the deer, and Lepchas are not very willing to acknowledge that did not return for an hour or two. Encamp for they practise such a custom, but the fact of the the night on a third spur from the Tukvor ridge. Booteeas running from the party, which was This day's march was short, because of the inci- chiefly of this tribe, is a proof they did not choose dent of the deer. to trust themselves within the power of our people. The sirdar, Sano by name, of our party, afterwards treated B. and myself to an account of the mode adopted to catch slaves; and the description was given so graphically, that it struck us that he must himself have acted occasionally in expeditions of this nature. Two men, he said, only, went on a trip of this kind: two were enough, more could not easily be concealed. They hang on the skirts of paths, and when a stranger passes

Dec. 29th.-Move to the Rungoong, the torrent which divides the Leebong or Ging-ridge from the ridge of Sinchul: the route lay over the north end of Ging, which we found difficult to travel along, from its precipitous nature. To-day the Sirdar Lepcha, while sitting with me in the bed of the Runjeet, had a feast on a sort of bug, which he called Nóp, and which abounds in such localities at this season, it being merely necessary to turn


they throw themselves on him, overpower him, tie
him and cram him into a basket, put it on the
shoulders of one of them, and keep marching as
fast as they can; relieving each other by turns till
they reached a place where they are able to dispose
of the fruits of their enterprise. In order to
silence the prisoner in case of his calling out, they
employ the simple expedient of beating him over
the mouth with the end of their sticks. It seems
to be no uncommon practice for a party of
lers to walk into a house in an unfrequented part
of the country, and to take away children of the
family, to sell them for slaves.

Dec. 31st.-Proceed to the junction of the Runjeet and Teesta, crossing the Runjeet on a bamboo raft at Singboom Ferry, a short way from our camp. Although the term ferry is used here, it is not to be supposed, that Mullahur dandies live at the place to guide the raft across the river. The raft is attached by bends formed of slips of bamboo, tied together to each side of the river, and a party wishing to make use of the conveyance put themselves over by means of them. These structures in general carry about the weight of two men, or of a man and his load. With more they are apt to sink, so that the water comes over the flooring of the contrivance. Go down the right bank over very rocky ground. To-day we met a Lepcha lady, with her hair dressed in a comely manner; it was divided into two portions, brought forward and passed through a ring, or band of cloth upon the forehead, then turned and knotted on the back of the head: a short red mantilla also formed a portion of the dame's dress. She had several attendants, male and female, but seemed the chief person of the party.

The distance from the junction of the small Runjeet with the great Runjeet to the Teesta cannot at the most moderate computation be under twenty miles. Thus, call the first march four miles, the second and third six each, or twelve, and the last four. The course of the river is pretty nearly east. Between the small Runjeet and the Rumoong the course is more winding. than between the Rumoong and the Teesta, it being the first mentioned portion of its course, more put out of its way by the protrusion northward of the Tukvor and Ging spurs; from the Rumoong to the Teesta the river becomes narrow and very rapid.

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ascertained how they lie, the sipalis will be brought to take the country!

Jan. 4th.-Having resolved to make our way to the plains, by the valley of the Teesta, but being short of provisions, the country being less peopled than we expected, and not affording us necessaries, having also failed to obtain supplies from the Booteea side of the river, we to-day moved towards a valley nearer Darjeeling than our previous travel-position, hoping to obtain food from the inhabitants of that glen, and also with a view of drawing provisions from the station, if we should find this a requisite measure. Our intention was to pitch our tent under Sircoom peak; but by taking a wrong turn, we found ourselves at Mungra, a clearance on the south-west edge of a valley, of which Pursokeblew forms the left or north-east side. Here we managed to procure some small supply of eggs, rice, fowls, &c., by paying well, for presents of articles of this description made us by some of the people; and this liberality seemed to open the hearts of other natives, and induced them to part with what they would have otherwise scrupled to give away. As they scarcely raise more food than is needed for domestic use, something above a bare remunerating price is needed to induce them to furnish strangers with supplies. Our march to-day was three or four miles in a northerly direction.

Jun. 7th.-Go along under the east side of Sircoom, a high peak, a little back from the rest, and halt on Sideeongbloco, a high ridge, overlooking that river, say six miles down the river from the ferry at which we halted on the 2nd.

Jan. 2nd, 1843.-Move about three miles down the Teesta to a ferry, between Bootea and Sikkim; here we find a man watching the place to prevent Booteeas from crossing, having had orders to this effect from Sikkim. It seems the Booteea

authorities are annoyed at their ryuts taking refuge in the British and Sikkim territories, and are to send an envoy to remonstrate on the point; and if the refugees are not forthwith ordered back, the inhabitants of Darjeeling must look to themselves, or they shall be all murdered! A reference has already been made to the Sikkim Rajah, who, it is said, has consented to the stipulations !!

In regard to our party, the rumour is, that we have come to look for roads, and on our having

Jan. 8th.-Halt at Konjere, passing on our way the Rungbo, a tributary of the Teesta, about mid-day; our progress to-day was, say six miles, our march having been shortened by the necessity of halting near water, which even here was only found with difficulty and by digging. These hills are in nothing more remarkable than for the little water that is to be found upon them; the ridges are steep, and the water from the clouds quickly runs off the sides; nor, but for the pretty constant supply of moisture from the atmosphere, does it seem that vegetation would be supported, far less that such magnificent trees as are found in great numbers on all parts of the mountains should obtain nourishment. This dryness of the ground may also serve to account for the healthiness of the country, whether on the hill tops or in the valleys; the higher portion of the mountains remain salubrious throughout the year, and it is only in the rains that fever is known in the deepest glens resorted to by the inhabitants, and into which the love of fishing leads them.

Jan. 9th. To the Rieng, perhaps three miles beyond Konjere: as we approached it we obtained a view of its junction with the Teesta from the Bootan side, near the same place. We had also a view of the course of the Teesta for a considerable way in the valley below us; it seemed narrow and rapid, as we had found it higher up, and quite unsuited for the purposes of traffic, and though sending down an immense volume of water, more perhaps than any European river can equal; the scene was a very noble one, and far

beyond my power to describe. Halted at the junction of the Rieng and Rungeo, about a couple of miles from the Teesta. The Rungeo comes from the north-east of the Rieng, having a course from the north-west previous to the junction, after which the united waters proceed about due east to the Teesta. The waters on the east side of Sinchul are remarkable for being translucent, even among the streams of Sikkim, which at this season are all very clear. Tigers were said to abound in this place, and B- was warned against moving about alone, for fear of accidents. It may be remarked that the Lepchas are shy of travelling one by one in places frequented by ferocious animals ; but they do not fear to traverse the forests in couples, however infested by the fierce denizens of the woods. Wild animals, it is alledged, get alarmed at the voice of men in conversation, suspicious, it is supposed, of being outwitted by the superior cunning of the lords of the creation, of whom the fear and the dread remains among them predominant.

the eyes of the uninitiated in such craft, it seems to be.

Feb. 20th. This morning we had a specimen of the skill of the Lepchas in snaring partridges by imitating their call. In this way they brought one to the very door of the tent, and a good many were taken by them through this means in their nooses, on the present march from Kursiong to Darjeeling. In the course of the day we came on slate, the previous march from Kursiong having been over gneiss. We also came on a palm, the centre of which is edible, and several of which the people cut down to feast on. The edible portion is white, and in taste resembles the inside of a cocoa-nut. I am inclined to think this palm is only found on the slate soils in these hills, but do not venture to affirm this positively. There is below the falls under Kursiong, on the forest of the Ruktee, a palm of this kind, but whether on slate or not I don't know; but if this point were ascertained it would go some length in settling the question. The ground continued difficult to travel over, there being no path whatever, and our only guide being the stream down which we proceeded; nor had any of our people been here previously. At one place the men had to unload and readjust their burdens, so that they might be able to pass a difficulty occasioned by a rocky piece of ground; and this was effected by one man going ahead in light order, and giving his hand to aid his loaded companion over the face of the precipice. Encamp again on the right bank of the stream and on its bed.

From the Rieng to Subbok Gola the country has been surveyed and mapped; and here I close the present extract with remarking, that the distance from the junction of the Runjeet and Teesta to the junction of the Rieng and Teesta is farther than the distance of the junction of the Reing and Teesta to Subbok Gola, and this I infer from the time taken to travel the distance between each of the points mentioned. Beyond a few cotton fields on the Rieng, we met with no cultivated ground from Sikkim to Subbok Gola, nor for a march beyond Subbok into the plain; and it may be worth noting that the cotton plant thrives well on the aluminous soils on these mountains, and the plains in their vicinity, and give a good out-turn in quantity and quality.

Feb. 21st.-Proceed down the same tributary of the Mahanunda, viz., the Selim, which is joined in its course by various other streams. Met to-day traces of fishermen having been pursuing their calling on those waters; came also on elephant tracks, and saw marks of deer and tiger. Encamp on the left side of the river on its bed.


Feb. 19th. This day we left Kursiong to proceed by the sources of the Mahanunda to Darjeel-party ing; walked up the made road to near Dhobeedoora, below which we struck to the right into an old Lepcha path, which we followed till it led us to the east edge of the hill, when we left it, and made our way down the face of the precipice towards the river; the trees and bushes met with on the ground enabled us to descend without much risk, though stones lying loose on the hill's face made it necessary to proceed with caution, lest by moving them the further advanced of the party should be injured by their falling on them. After proceeding a little way we got into the bed of a tributary of the Mahanunda, down which we descended; and after passing a remarkably large stone or rock, which projected over the brook, and a waterfall reminding one of the famed grey mare's tail near St. Mary's on Yarrow, we encamped on the right bank of the stream, on rough and rocky ground, hardly affording a level space large enough for pitching our small tent. On the upper part of the mountains we found the thick ratans in great abundance, sufficient to supply the Calcutta upholsterers with material for chairs and couch bottoms for years, if indeed it is of a kind suited for such purposes, which, however, to

Feb. 22nd.-Reach the Munna-find a large of Mechis here assembled on a fishing excursion; they had apparently fished the Selim and Munna here about completely out or nearly so, and were preparing poison to take to some other point of the river. They must have exceeded a hundred or even two hundred in number, and were grouped up and down the river banks and among the rocks like the Southsea Islanders, as represented in illustrated accounts of voyages. The poison employed in taking fish is procured from the root of a shrub or tree; the smallest pieces are beaten or bruised with mallets or billets of wood, the larger peeled and chipped, bark and wood being both used; after undergoing which processes, the stuff is fit to be employed. The fish, however, in the very deepest pools appear to escape from its effects, for B. took by the fly about a score of fish of from 1 lb to 2 lb. from a deep pond, at the junction of the Selim and Munna. At the junction of the Munna and Selim there is abundance of sandstone; and on the last day's march to this point, it was seen super-imposed on slate.

The history, progress, and future object of the Mechi expedition, we were not able to learn, from not having any medium of communication with the people, our Limboos and Lepchas being alike

ignorant of the language, and the Mechis on their part, knowing nothing of Oordoo, so a conversation could not be got up with them. The present Munnagola is about a coss below the junction of the Selim and Munna, but it is not kept at one spot year after year.

The plains were said to be a good day's march from the junction of the Selim and Munna; and this point cannot be less than 18 or 20 miles from the Mahalderam range; thus say we descended the bill three miles the first day, marched six miles the second, and five miles the third day, and completed only four or five on the fourth day, we should have made this much progress.


This morning the Mechis go off on their own errand down the river. We proceed upwards; pass two deserted golas a little after starting. little further on, the river divides into two branches; take up the stream to the right a short way, and encamp. The march was short, for there being no water to be met with along way a-head, we were compelled to remain by the river.

Feb. 24th.-Leave the Munna and go up Sut toong, turn its highest point a little after noon, and go down towards the Rieng-pass some fine bamboos and measure one at the ground where we halted, and find it 99 feet in length, not by any means the finest we had seen; but in cutting the specimen we had to consult the convenience of having our people with us with their knives, which was not the case in the place where the finest bamboos occurred.

Feb. 25th.-Descend the hill to the Rieng, which we cross; meet with bamboos in clumps, as if planted, they being at apparently regular intervals, and of nearly equal size, both stock and shoots. This occurs on the left bank of the river. Though the land seems good, we were told it did not answer for rice, the crop being obnoxious to the attack of a fly as we understood.

Feb. 26th.-Halt near Mungpo clearance, the only cultivated land we have seen since leaving Kursiong.

Feb. 27th.-Descend to the Rungeo, and pass it about noon; then ascend Rieschup to Rieng-hienyonlot, on the top of which is a Lama's tomb, or cenotaph rather, buried beneath which (as we were told) is a pot, containing money, grain, a skull, &c. The erection seems quite recent, as judging from its appearance, not many years can have elapsed since it was built. Pass also what we were told was a Kazi's house, now in ruins, and built on the plan of the dilapidated stonehouse on Darjeeling-hill.

Feb. 28th. This morning pass another ruined Kazi's house, larger than the former, and near it. They were deserted, and the country became waste some years ago, on account of a revolt of a Kazee against the Raja. The country in the vicinity has formerly been well cultivated, and would form a good locality for a farm, from which Darjeeling might be supplied. The hills are prettily varied, and a good view is got down to the Teesta.

Go up over the shoulder of Sinchul and down to Singenboom, opposite Ging, from which the Rumoong divides it. We had a fair path from the junction of the Munna and Selim to the ridge

| of Sinchul, after which we found the track_partially grown up, but still passable enough. From Dhobeedone to the Munna there was no path but what we contrived to cut for ourselves.

The Mechis whom we met on the Munna and elsewhere have a stronger dash of the Bengalee in them than the other hill tribes, who indeed bear no trace of any cross with the people of the plains. The Mechi nose has scarcely a perceptible bridge, but the physique of the tribe is an improvement on the Bengalee. They are less good looking, but show a better muscular development, and a larger frame of body than their low country neighbours. The habits too of the Mechis are, I apprehend, more like the Bengalee habits than those of the Booteeas, Lepchas, and Limboos. This I infer from their showing dislike to a dog approaching their cooking pots or places where they were preparing food, as if afraid of defilement; they did not, however, seem to care for our going near them when cooking, and in this they exhibited a superiority to the people of the plains, who reject food when approached by others than of their own or of a supposed superior caste.

In this excursion one of our Lepchas was taken ill of small pox, and so far from there being any disposition exhibited to abandon him in the jungle or to destroy him as we had heard alledged to be the custom of these hill tribes, in their excessive dread of the disease, they made up a chair, and had the patient carried on the back of a man, who had had the disease, and no longer had cause to dread its ill-effects. They also took the precaution to have him kept separate from that portion of the people who had cause to fear the effects of the complaint if seized with it; but the regard for the man was undoubted and unaffected, and the step of making a chair for him taken as a measure of course, and not as if with the desire of exhibiting any extraordinary feelings of humanity. The treatment was the hot bath, and hot water to drink; and these simple observances are said to be wonderfully efficacious, combined with abstinence from strong food, so long as food can be taken. The Lepchas say they are more successful in bringing their patients through this ailment than the Booteeas are, who are not observant of any regimen: the inhabitants of that country being a gross feeding people, generally the disease appears among them with great violence. On its breaking out in a Lepcha village, those obnoxious to an attack leave it, and place the sick people in charge of an individual who has had the disease; and the patients, on recovery, are by custom bound to give him large presents for his trouble. Property to the amount of 100 Rs., a large sum in these regions, is thus made over to the person who has discharged the office of doctor, or nurse, in a season when small pox has prevailed.

The favourable points of the Lepcha character are good humour and fondness for fun. These may in some degree be owing to the good climate, and consequent good digestion which they enjoy; but there must be something constitutional or hereditary also in their good nature, for the Booteeas, who dwell in the same country, are rather stern and cross. The Lepchas drink a beer made from

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