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Hours, bright hours,
Happy are ye When no sadness low'rs,
And spirits are free! But sorrow comes on,
Soon, soon are ye fled : All gladness is gone,
And gay fancy is dead.
Clouds, bright clouds,
Floating on high ; In beautiful crowds,
Ye garnish the sky, Lit by a sunbeam,
Glorious to-day ; Soon like a day-dream,
To vanish away.
Eyes, bright eyes,
Sparkling with light; Beauty e'er lies
In your glances bright. To-day ye will smile,
To.morrow must weep; And after a while,
In death silent sleep.
Give place, ye earth-born kings, To my firm and lasting sway; For your crowns are fading things, And your sceptres pass away: But the golden sun bas shone Many ages o'er my head ; And still I reign alone, In my ocean kingdom dread. Youth and beauty, strength and pride, Palsied age, and childhood sleep, Cold and silent, side by side, In my hidden caverns deep. The rushing ocean foam Has sighed their passing knell; For the secrets of my home Mortal lips may never tell. Then quail, ye things of earth, When I send my tempest forth ! Aud tremble in your mirth, When ye hear my stormy wrath ! For the sun's resplendent light In the heavens shall be o'er, And the starry orbs of night From on high shall shine no more, And a chaos once again Must your world of beauty be, Ere the Sea King cease to reign In his ocean kingdom free!
Things, bright things,
Such is the fate Which to ye all clings,
And each must await. Swiftly we sail,
Down Time's rapid stream; Beauty is frail,
And life but a dream.
BY MARY ANN YOUATT.
SKETCHES OF GERMAN LITERATURE. At length, in the year 1775, an opportunity
occurred of avowing his dislike to the study of law; a new professorship, with its course of study, was
added to the academy, namely that of medicine, No. II. Schiller,
and young Schiller resolved to follow his father's
profession. This science appears 10 have been less Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller was born distasteful to him, for we find that in 1780 he at Marbach, a small town in Würteasberg, on the took his degree, and was shortly afterwards apbanks of the Neckar. His father was an army pointed surgeon to a grenadier troop. Being now sorgeon. At a very early age he presented in some measure his own master, he began to tokens of that intensity of feeling, deep sense of devote more time to literary pursuits, and in 1781 religion, and conscientiousness, which afterwards published “ Die Räuber," which was performed distinguished hini. His first preceptor was a clergy at Manheim in 1782, and excited a very great man named Moser, whose son afterwards became sensation throughout Germany. The Duke of his dearest friend ; and it was from them that he Würtemberg, however, exceedingly disapproved doubtless imbibed that desire for a clerical life of some portions of it, and forbade the young which ever baunted him. He was about nine author to write on any but medical subjects, and years old, when the removal of his family to Lud. even went so far as to put him under arrest for wigsburg opened to him a new view of life; he then, going privately to Manheim, with the pardonable for the first time, witnessed a theatrical represen vanity of an author, to witness the representation tation. Its effect on his mind was wonderful, and of his own play. This prohibition was rendered bis leisure hours were now devoted to the com- more galling to Schiller, by the fact of his having posing of plans and plots for tragedies, although | been solicited by Professor Abel, of Stuttgart, to his taste for the church still remained unaltered. contribute to a periodical conducted by him, and Here he became the pupil of the celebrated Jahn, having actually written some articles for it. He and under his superintendence read Ovid, Horace, endeavoured to overcome the Duke's resolve, but and Virgil, and commenced the study of Greek. finding the attempt vain, quitted Stuttgart pri
The Duke of Würtemberg, who had been em- vately, and after residing for nearly a year on the ployed in converting one of his hunting castles into estate of a lady with whose sons he had been on a military academy, and who sought among the terms of the closest friendship, proceeded to Mansons of his officers for those on whom he meant to heim, where he was joyfully received by the confer the advantages arising from it, selected manager of the theatre, who advanced him money young Schiller among others. The father respect for his present expenses, and procured for bim the fully represented to his prince that the boy's wish appointment of theatre-poet, a post of respectawas to become a clergyman, and, consequently, bility and some profit. He now set himself the course of instruction pursued at the academy steadily to work, and produced “Fiesco," and would not be adapted for him ; but the Duke, who “ Kabale und Liebe," besides translating Shakhad heard much of the talents of young Schiller, speare's “ Macbeth,” and “Timon of Athens," and and was desirous of having him among the pupils, several French plays. In 1785 he began to edite advised liis father to persuade him to alter' his a miscellany entitled “Thalia," in which appeared choice of a profession. It was with great difficulty some portions of bis “Don Carlos," and his that the father succeeded, and induced his son to Philosophical Letters." These writings attracted enter the academy as a student of law. But his the notice of the Duke of Saxe Weimer, who invited dislike to this science was unconquerable, and the him 10 his court, and became his friend and hours which should have been devoted to it were patron. Towards the end of the summer of 1785, dedicated to the study of literature and poetry. Schiller went to reside at Dresden, and here he These forbidden pursuits were cherished with finished and published his play of “ Don Carlos," enthusiastic fervour, and the obstacles which lay in and some few lyrical poems, and also commenced the way to them served but to inflame his passion. bis “ History of the Revolt of the Netherlands." Nor did he find the strict regulations and metho- In 1787, he removed to Weimar, where he became dical routine of the academy more bearable: he personally acquainted with Herder, and Wieland, often secretly escaped from its tedious formalities 10 and wrote “Die Götter Griechenlands,”. “ Die take a peep at the gay, bustling, and to bim, for- | Künstler," a fragment of the history of the Nebidulen world; or feigned illness, in order to keep his therlands, and several other prose works, for a chamber and write poetry, or read his favourite periodical entitled “Der Mercur.” In 1789, he authors, Plutarch, Shakspeare, Klopstock, Lessing, was appointed to the Professorship of History at Goethe, Herder, Gerstenberg, and others. The Jena through the instrumentality of Goethe; there “ Messias” of Klopstock, and the “Ugolino” of he married a lady to whom he had been attached Gerstenberg, were among his earliest and most for some time, and there was his “ History of the favourite studies, and these, combined with his Thirty Years' War" written, as well as several own religious tendencies, had early created in him splendid essays, and translations of the “Iphiginia a taste for sacred poetry. He was scarcely four- in Aulis," and the “Phænissæ" of Euripides, the teen when he drew up the plan for an epic poem, “ Agamemnon" of Æschylus, and the “ Æneid" of which in after years he worked out, and pub- Virgil. But the keen mountainous breezes of Jena lished. fir dramatic attempts were induced were too much for his naturally delicate constituby the perusal of Goethe's “Götz von Ber- tion : he had a severe attack of inflammation of the lichingen."
chest, in the beginning of the year 1791, from which he never entirely recovered. This so weakened his robbers, and becomes their captain. But longing constitution, that it became impossible for him once more to behold his father and beloved Amelia, to fulfil the duties of his office, and already were he returns home in disguise, finds his father dead, his friends and admirers uniting together to offer and Amelia about to enter a convent. He has an him the means of living without the necessity of interview with her, and she vainly strives to any exertion, when the crown prince of Denmark account for the interest she feels in the supposed conferred on him a merely nominal office, with the stranger. Franz recognises and resolves to murder salary of one thousand Thalers, for three years, to him, but his designs are defeated by Daniel, an give him time to recruit his health. It never old servant, who also recognises bis young master; became thoroughly re-established, but a period of and from him Karl learns that his faiher loved him rest from all his labours restored it in some mea- even until death, mourned and wept for bim, sure, and completely invigorated his mind. About bitterly repented having authorized the sending of this time he conceived the idea of his dramatic that cruel letter, and lived but in the hope poem “ Wallenstein," but it was not completed of once more embracing him. Karl's soul is torn until sereral years after. In 1793 he travelled with regrets and affection ; but crime-stained as he towards his ancient home, and visited his parents now is, he resolves not to discover himself to and youthful friends, and wrote to the Duke of Amelia. They meet again ; he breaks bis resoluWürtemberg, requesting permission to visit Slutl- tion, and rushes from the spot to avoid the tempgart. The Duke returned no answer, but stated lation ; she follows him, 'finds him among his in the hearing of Schiller's friends, that should he band, and offers to live and die with him be he come, he would not take any notice of it; thus what he may; the robbers claim their right to so encouraged, the poet proceeded onwards, and fair a prize. Karl, who has discovered that Franz found that he had nothing 10 fear; and subse- has imprisoned and nearly starved their old father, quently returned to Jena, where in 1795, he releases him; stabs Amelia to save her from polluproduced some of his most beautiful poems. In tion and from himself, and delivers himself up to 1799, however, he wholly resigned the Professor- a poor man who has eleven children, in order ship of History there, and returned to Saxe Weimar, that the reward offered for his apprehension may do where his acquaintance with Goethe ripened into good. Franz, overcome by remorse, fear, and a close intimacy, and these two great men shared horror, destroys himself. together the superintendence of the theatre. “Wal- This play is full of action, passion, feeling, and suflenstein" appeared in 1779, “ Maria Stuart” in fering; bui all represented under exaggerated forms, 1800, “ Die Jungfrau von Orleans” in 1801, Itis a strange mélange of bombast and grandeur, and “ Die Braut von Messina" in 1803, and his last, partakes more of the nature of a melodrama, than and, as some say, best play, “Wilhelm Tell” in ihat of a tragedy. The characters are over-wrought, 1804 ; nor did all these works prevent him from and the situations want relief; many of the scenes translating Gozzi's “Turandot,” 'Racine's “ Pha- are nevertheless striking, and here and there are dra," and several French comedies. He had touches of pathos, but they want simplicity and commenced another dramatic poem, when a fatal truth to make them effective. It must, however, be attack of his old complaint seized him, and he died remembered that the greater part of it was written at Berlin in 1805, and in the forty-fifth year of during Schiller's boyish days, when his romantic his age. His last days were marked by a calm enthusiasm was uncorrected by experience or knowserious resignation of spirit, far removed from indif- ledge of the world; and, curbed down by the ference or superstition : and almost bis latest words strictness of the life which he was compelled 10 were, on being asked by a friend how he felt, lead, vented itself in these extravagant ideal crea“ Calmer and calmer still;" and he presently added, tions. He himself, when speaking of it in after
Many things are becoming clear and plain to ine years, says: “Unacquainted with the actual world, now."
from which I was separated by iron trammels, He has bequeathed a noble heir-loom 10 pos ignorant of mankind, and unused to the society of terity in the numerous works of which we will now women, my pencil missed the intermediate line endeavour to give some short account.
between the sublime and ridiculous, and produced “The Robbers." The old Count von Moor only moral monsters. My great fault was in prehas two sons, Karl and Franz. The formeris absent; suming to delineate men before I had known and the latter, jealous of his father's fondness, one.” and his cousin Amelia's love for his favoured We extract one or two scenes, which will serve brother, vilifies his character to the old man, mag- as fair specimens of the whole. nifies every youthful foible, produces forged letters corroborating his words, and so works upon the Act 1. Scene III. Amelia's Room. Franz father's feelings that he induces him to disinherit
and Amelia, and cast off his once-loved child. Franz himself announces this to his brother; he then inlercepts Franz.-Thou turnest from me, Amelia. Am all his brother's letters, woos Amelia, and at I less worthy than he whom our father has cursed ? length produces an accomplice, who pretends to bave Amelia.— Yes! the affectionate tender father, witnessed Karl's death, and heard his last wishes who gives up his son to despair; who pampers that Amelia might become his brother's bride. Ame- himself at home with rich and costly wines, and lia refuses belief to all, treats Franz with contempt, indulges bis palsied limbs on downy cushions; and continues faithful to the memory of her firsi while he abandons lis noble son to starvation ! love. Karl, driven to desperation, joins a band of Shame on you, monsters! Shame on you, base
serpents! Ye disgrace human nature. His only Amelia.--I know thee but too well, and from son, 100!
this moment better than ever. And thou wouldst Franz.- I thought he had had two sons. be his equal! Would he have wept about me
Amelia. - He deserves to have many such sons before thee? No! sooner would he have inscribed as thou art.. Vainly on his death-bed shall he my name on the public pillory. Begone instretch out his trembling hands towards his Karl, stantly. and recoil with a shudder as be clasps the ice- Franz.-Thou wrongest me. cold fingers of Franz. Oh, it is sweet-ah, how Amelia.—Begone, I tell thee. Thou hast robbed sweet- to be cursed by a father. Speak, Franz, me of a precious bour; may it be subtracted from thou pattern of brotherly love-what must one do thy life !" to be so cursed by him ?
Franz.-Thou dost hate me! Franz.-You are raving, my love. You are Amelia.—I despise thee. Hence! to be pitied.
Franz (stamping with fury).–Patience and Amelia.-Oh! I pray thee, dost thou pity thy thou shalt tremble before me. What, sacrifice me brother ? No, monster, thou hatest him. So' dost to a beggar! [Exit.] thou also hate me.
Amelia.-Go, villain. Now am I once more Franz.-I love thee as myself, Amelia. with Karl. Did he say, Beggar? Then is the
Amelia.- If thou so lovesi me, canst thou refuse world turned upside down-beggars are kings, me one poor request ?
and kings beggars. Not for the purple of moFranz.—No, no, even if thou wert to ask my narchs would I exchange the rags with which he life.
is clothed. The look with which he begs must be Amelia.-Well, if that be true, this request is great and princely; a look which annihilates the easily, will be willingly, complied with (Proudly). splendour of the great, the pomps and triumphs of Hate me! I should blush with shame whenever the rich. To the dust with thee, thou glittering I thought on Karl, if I were to believe thou didst baubles ! (she tears the ornaments from her neck). not hate me. Thou dost promise--so—now go, Be ye doomed to wear gold, silver, and jewels, ye leave me. I would be alone.
rich and great. Be ye condemned to banquet Franz.-Dearest enthusiast! How much do I luxuriously, to stretch your limbs on the downy admire thy gentle, affectionate heart! There did couches of voluptuousness. Karl! Karl! thus Karl sit enthroned like a god in his temple. Thy am I worthy thee. [Exit.] waking thoughts were of Karl; his image filled thy dreams; the whole world appeared to thee Act III. Scene II.-The robbers encamped on a absorbed in him; for thee it held but him, and shady eminence ; their horses are grazing on each echo repeated his loved name.
the hill. Amelia (excited).—Yes, indeed, I confess it; despite of you, barbarians, I confess it before alí Karl Moor. (Throwing himself on the ground.) the world. I love him.
Here must I remain. How wearied my limbs Franz (half aside).-Inhuman, cruel! To re- are; and my tongue is as dry as a chip. (Schweizer ward such love so-io forget such a being! slips out unobserved.) I would ask one of you to
Amelia (starting).-What! Forget me? fetch me a draught of water from yonder stream,
Franz now endeavours to convince her that but you are all tired to death. Karl is false, and has bestowed a ring which she
Schwarz, All the wine too is below in the skins. gare bia on a favourite mistress ; but Amelia's
K. Moor.-Look! how beautiful the corn isconfidence in her lover rejects the tale, and she the trees too are bending beneath their load of exclaims, “ It is all a lie-wretch! Full well fruit. The vines seem to promise a plentiful dost thou know that it were impossible for Karl to vintage. become such a being.” He ihen feigns pity for
Grimm.— Yes, this is a fruitful year, his brother, and severely blames his father's harsh. K. Moor.- But one hailstorm might blast all Dess; and Amelia is deceived by his hypocrisy,
this fair promise. until he, after describing his last interview with Schwarz.- Very true. Every thing may fail. Karl, continues thus: “ He took my hand, and K. Moor.–And every thing will fail. Why sobs choked his utterance as he said, " I quit my should man succeed only in those things wherein Amelia. I know not wherefore, but my heart he resembles the ant, while he fails in all that forebodes that I shall behold her no more. My might liken him 10 the gods ? or, is this the sole brother, never forsake her-be her friend—be io intention of his being ? her all that Karl was-should he never return.
Schwarz.- I know not. (Franz throws himself at her feet, and kisses her K. Moor.- Thou hast rightly said, and thou hand passionately). He has never returned, wilt do still better if thou never seekesi to know. Amelia, and I solemnly vowed to obey his re- Schwarz.—How gloriously the sun goes down quest."
yonder! Amelia (starting back).— Traitor ! now dost K. Moor.-(Gazing absently on it.) Such is thou betray thyself. In that very bower did he the death of a hero-worthy of adoration ! implore me never to love another, even-even Grim.-Thou seemest deeply moved. should he die. How despicable thou art! Hence, K. Moor.-When I was yet a boy, it was the quit my sight!
darling wish of my heart to live like him-like him Franz.-Thou dost not know me, Amelia. to die (with emotion). It was a boyish notion. Thou dost not know me.
Grimm.–1 hope so.
K. Moor--(Presses his hat down over his face.) / forth their inmates !—the kingdom of death, let There was a time-leave me alone, comrades ! loose from its eternal sleep, shrieks in my ears,
Schwarz.-Moor! Moor! why, what the devil! Murderer! Murderer ! Ah! who moved there? How he changes colour !
Daniel.(Anriously.) Help! Holy mother of K. Moor. There was a time I could not have God! Is it you, my gracious master, whose cries slept if I had omitted my evening prayers. resounded so horribly through the building, that
Grimm.- Are you mad? Why thus suffer boyish the sleepers started from their beds in terror ? recollections to affect you ?
Franz.--Sleepers ! who bade you sleep? Go K. Moor.-(Lays his headl on Grimm's breast.) | fetch a light. (Daniel goes, another servant enBrother! brother!
ters.) No one should sleep at this hour. Dost Grimm.--Why, bow now? Do not be so hear? All should be up in arms—the guus childish-cheer thee, I pray.
loaded. Didst thou not see them moving about K. Moor.-Would ihai I were--that I were in yonder avenue ? once inore a child.
Serv.--Who, gracious sir ? Grimm.-Pshaw! pshaw!
Franz.-Who, blockhead-Who! Canst thou Schwarz.-Cheer up! Look at this lovely land- ask so coldly, so indifferently, Who? The sight scape_his beautiful evening.
of them has almost crazed me-Who !-stupid K. Moor.-Yes, friend; this world is very ass !Who !-Spirits and devils ! How goes the beautiful.
night? Schwarz.-Very justly observed.
Serv.--The night-watch has just proclaimed the K. Moor. This earth is full of good.
hour of two. Grimm.--True, true. I like to hear you say so. Franz.—How? This night will surely last K. Moor.--And I am such a blot in this beau- until doomsday! Hast heard no tumult in the tiful world such a wretch, a monster, defacing neighbourhood -no cries of victory-no trampling the earth.
of steeds ?-Where is Ka—the Count, I mean? Grimm.-Alas! alas!
Serv.-I know not, my lord. K. Moor.-My innocence! my innocence! Be- Franz.-Thou dost not know! Thou art also hold how everything around seems to enjoy the one of his gang. I will trample thy heart out of thy kindly beams of the setting sun! Why is it that I ribs, if thou repliest with thine accursed 'I know alone inhale the breath of hell instead of the joys of not.
Hence!' fetch the chaplain. heaven? All speaks of happiness, of concord. The Serv.-Gracious sir ! whole earth is one family, with one universal Franz.--Dost murmur ?-dost pause? (Exit Father above. I alone am an outcast: to me he is servant hastily.) What! even beggars conspire no father : I am driven from the ranks of the pure : against me! Heaven, hell-all is conspired the sweet name of child is not for me! Never shall against me! I receive the tender look of affection—the embrace Daniel.-(Enters with a light.)-Sir! of love and friendship. Surrounded by mur- Franz.-No; I do not tremble ; it was only a derers--by hissing serpents; riveted to vice by dream. The dead cannot rise—who says I tremchains of iron-tottering towards the grave of per- ble, or am pale? I am quite calm-quite well. dition along the giddy precipice of vice-like a Daniel. You are as pale as death, and your fiend amid the blossoms of paradise.
voice is faint and hollow ! Schwarz. (to the others).--Amazing! I have Franz.—I am feverish. Tell the chaplain when never seen him so before.
he comes that I am only feverish. I will be bled K. Moor. (sadly).-—Would that I could re- to-morrow. turn to my mother's womb !- that I could be Daniel.-Shall I give you a few drops of your born a beggar. I would ask nothing more of elixir on sugar? heaven, but to be born the lowliest peasant; and Franz.--Yes, yes, do so; the chaplain will not be content to labour, ay, even until the blood be here yet. My voice is faint and hollow; give poured as sweat from my brows, to earn the luxury me some of the elixir on sugar. of a few hours' calm and innocent slumber- the Daniel.-Give me your keys, and I will go blessing of one single tear.
down and fetch it from the closet. Grimm. (to the others.)-Patience ! the pa- Franz.—No, no, stay; or I will go with thee. roxysm is already subsiding.
I am not fit to be alone. I might, thou seest K. Moor.- There was a time when I could I might faint, if I were alone. Never mind, never weep freely. Oh, ye days of peace ! thou dwel- mind ; it is past now; stay where thou art. ling-place of my father! ye green romantic valleys ! Daniel.-Oh, you are seriously ill ! ye Elysian scenes of my childhood ! will ye never Frunz.—Just so, just so; that is all; and ill. return? never cool my burning breast with your ness disorders the brain, and produces strange balmy breath ? They are past! gone ! irrecoverably and wonderful dreams. Dreams signify nothing : gone!
(Enter Schweizer with water.) | is it not so, Daniel ? Dreams are the result of Schweizer.-Drink, captain; here is water | indigestion, and signify nothing. I had a droll enough, cool and fresh as ice."
dream just now. (He faints.)
Daniel.-Jesu Maria! what means this? “Act V. Scene I.-Daniel. -- Franz rushes in, George! Konrad ! Bastian ! (shakes him). Show in his night-dress.
some sign of life. Holy Virgin! preserve your Daniel.-Mercy on me l-my master !
It will be said that I have murdered Franz.---Betrayed ! betrayed 1 The graves cast him! Heaven have mercy upon me!