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difficulty. If we are to judge from the kind of enthusiasm with which its presence in the different mineral springs is proclaimed, it would seem that arsenic, the name of which revealed up to the present time but trifling notions of medicinal virtues, should have become suddenly a universal panacea. Thus, when it is said that a spring is arseniferous, it would appear as if all further panegyric was superfluous.

These are crude impressions which must be resisted. No doubt but that arsenic must play some part in the action of mineral waters, since certain springs, as for example those of Mont Dore and of Bussang, contain as much as one to two milligrammes to the quart, and the same mineral is even still more abundant in those of La Bourbole. Such an amount is not to be despised, more especially when we consider that the least active salts acquire great power from the mere fact of their being naturally dissolved in the mineral water. What may then not be the case with a solution of arsenic? But our experience stops at that point. To attempt to indicate, except as a mere hypothesis, the part which appertains to arsenic in such a case, is to go in advance of facts, and, consequently, to expose oneself to grievous errors. It is indeed sufficient to cast one's eyes over the list of arsenical sources to see that they belong to the most opposite chemical categories, and that their medicinal action is equally distinct. Arsenic cannot, then, be looked upon as their only, or even as their principal, therapeutic agent, without which we must admit that which is very absurd, that its properties vary and transform themselves according as it is associated with ferruginous, alkaline, gaseous, or muriatic sources.

We do not precisely see the soundness of Dr. C. James's views on this question. Arsenic, at least in this country, so far from being unknown, has long enjoyed considerable celebrity as a medicinal agent. It is designated in the "London Dispensatory" as "a medicine of great efficacy." It has been long used in Lincolnshire, under the name of "the ague drop;" and in Cornwall, where ague abounded previous to the introduction of copper works, its mere fumes caused these afflictions to vanish from the country. In the East Indies the native physicians employ white arsenic for the cure of syphilis and elephantiasis. It is also used as an antidote to the bite of the hooded snake (Cobra del capello). The fact that arsenic has been in use in Lower Austria from ancient times to give plumpness to the figure, clearness to the skin, and beauty and freshness to the complexion, as also to improve the breathing and give longness to the wind, has attracted great attention in this country, from the association of the former properties with a case of intense moral obliquity, if not of criminal turpitude; and they certainly demonstrate that valuable therapeutic properties belong to this peculiar mineral, although, as Professor Johnston justly remarks, the chemico-physiological action of arsenic in producing these curious effects has not as yet been experimentally investigated. ("Chemistry of Common Life," vol. ii. p. 206.) The fact of the action remains, however, the same, and we cannot for a moment entertain the idea that it would be null when diffused even in homœopathic proportions in mineral waters-no more so than iodine or bromine. The question as to how far that action may be affected by the presence of other mineral substances, and how far it may be modified by a saline, alkaline, or ferruginous bias, remains undoubtedly to be inquired into, and to be determined, but to say that arsenic must be the only and principal therapeutic agent, or no agent at all, does not appear to be a correct view of the case. It is contradicted by Dr. C. James himself where he attributes potent aphrodisiac virtues to the springs of

Gastein from the hypothetic presence of arsenic. Nor does it appear more logical to state that it is absurd to suppose that the properties of arsenic may vary according as it belongs to a ferruginous, an alkaline, a saline, or other source. We admit that principle in the case of all other mineral substances, why deny it in the instance of arsenic? We do not mean to say that the action of arsenic, as such, would be altered; we only mean to say that, as in the instance of iodine and bromine, its peculiar action may be modified by the action which the other substances taken in combination with it may have upon the human economy.

Most monarchs have their favourite spas. The Emperor of Russia favours Kissingen; the Emperor of France, Plombières; Louis of Bavaria, Bruckenau; and the Emperor of Austria, Ischl. This latter place is a pretty site, situated in the heart of the Salzkammergut, or region of salines, on the banks of the Traun, in the midst of gardens and woods, and surrounded by an amphitheatre of mountains, clad with a rich vegetation. Dr. C. James denies, however, almost any therapeutic virtues to the cold saline springs of this spot so favoured by royalty. He attributes almost everything to the change of scene and air, and the imbibition of milk. He is so far upheld in these views that milk is the chief thing asked for at the Kurhaus; and the local Hippocrates, Dr. Mastalier, writes, not on the virtues of the salines, but on those of "le petit lait alpestre." The Hôtel Tallachini, or Elizabeth, is said to have no equal in Europe-it is quite a palace.

Baden, near Vienna, is compared by Dr. C. James to Enghien, near Paris. It is, however, quite a different thing. Nowhere are baths attended by a greater or a more mixed concourse of human beings than at Baden; and not even at Töplitz are the wants of the public more extensively provided for. There are all kinds of baths, from the luxurious closets of Thérèse to the rude, wooden piscina of St. Joseph; and from the more recent and elegant baths called those of Antoine to the great swimming-baths-real naumachia-with cabinets, teachers of swimming, and even refreshments. Baden presents a strange and motley scene at the height of the season, at first scarcely comprehensible to the modest, retiring Englishman.

Carlsbad, in Bohemia, enjoys a well-merited celebrity. Its principal source is the admitted queen of mineral waters. It is hotter, and its waters are more abundant than those of any other spring. It is an aquatic volcano. It also contains a great variety of mineral substances: salts, especially of soda; iron, manganese, strontian, iodine, bromine, arsenic, boric acid, and a variety more. With so many therapeutic agents, it is impossible to explain precisely the operation of the Carlsbad waters. Certain it is, however, that they are very powerful, and that their tendency is eminently what the French call "fondantes et résolutives." They are hence especially valuable in diseases of the liver. The waters of Vichy and of Kissingen will triumph over simple hypertrophies, but those of Carlsbad have been known to cure far more serious cases-cases where the liver, as with some East Indians, fills up nearly the whole cavity of the abdomen. They are equally efficacious in gout, gravel, chalk stones, diabetes, and other analogous affections. On the other hand, they hasten the fatal crisis where there are organic lesions, as in hemorrhages, tubercles, cancer, syphilis, or softening of the brain. Carlsbad presents several peculiarities: it is expensive; the Kurhaus is an

establishment of an inferior class; no gaming is allowed; no ices, fruit, salads, cheese, or other articles forbidden by the faculty, are allowed at the tables of the restaurants, and there are few resources save in walks. On the other hand, the arrival of a new patient is announced by a flourish of trumpets from a neighbouring tower.*

Marienbad, in the same neighbourhood, is another Carlsbad, only, as Hufeland said, Carlsbad refroidi. What has been said of the one applies, therefore, to the other. There is, however, a difference of import. It is, that the Carlsbad waters are more stimulating than the Marienbad, whilst those of Marienbad, being more strongly saline, are more purgative, and therefore better adapted than those of Carlsbad where the patient is of a plethoric temperament. The sources belong to the monks of Teple; and we are told that their able administration upholds all that has been said of the skill of religious orders in the management of public establishments. Franzenbad, near Eger, is distinguished by the most efficacious mud bath in Germany-a country where such are often had recourse to. There are also some saline ferruginous waters in the same neighbourhood of great value. Töplitz, like Ischl, is as renowned in diplomacy as in therapeutic agency. It is a city of congresses. The waters, chemically speaking, possess but little to recommend them, yet is their medicinal influence used in baths most remarkable. Their action is essentially stimulating, and that more especially on the nervous system. They are hence most beneficial in atonic gout and rheumatism, in various neuralgic affections, in palsy, and old wounds.

There are some efficiently depurative waters at Bilin, also in Bohemia. As to the mineral waters of the well-known Sedlitz, in the same country, they are only used bottled, as is the case also with the waters of Pullna and Saidschutz. The so-called Sedlitz powders have nothing analogous with the real Sedlitz waters. The latter contain no sulphate of soda, but a considerable amount of sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salt). For more purgative purposes, the waters of Friedrichshall, in Saxe Meiningen, are much preferred in the present day to those of Bohemia. They require less water to be efficacious, and they leave no bad constipating effects behind them. The mineral waters of Salzbrunn, in Silesia, enjoy a reputation equal to those of Ems for the cure of pulmonary affections. It only remains to remark that among all waters the richest in iodine and bromine are those of Iwonicz, in Gallicia, at the foot of the Carpathian mountains. They also abound in saline substances, and have the reputation of being sovereignly efficacious in secondary syphilis. In Germany, what is called the cure by grapes, "cure de raisin," is considered essential with many to the treatment by mineral waters. This cure consists, strangely enough, in the consumption inwardly of some five or six pounds of grapes per diem, living well at the same time, but abstaining from all vegetables save potatoes and carrots. The treatment is rather a tempting one, especially on the banks of the Rhine.

France is peculiarly rich in mineral springs. Statists reckon no less than 950 in 331 different places, and of these 138 are used internally and externally, and 198 internally only; 153 have their medical inspectors appointed by government; yet, whilst the establishments in Germany are

*** Provided (an amusing peripatetic philosopher recently remarked) the patient arrives with a suitable retinue. No blast heralds the arrival of a pedestrian.

every year favoured by the presence of the best and choicest society, those of France are much less frequented-a fact which Dr. C. James attributes not to their inferiority in therapeutic virtues, but to their general inferiority in resources, as also to the expense attendant upon the use of the waters.

The most renowned sources in France are met with in the Pyrenees and in the volcanic district of Auvergne. Those of the Pyrenees are sulphureous, with a basis of soda, and are hence deemed to be more efficacious than if they had a basis of lime. The alkaline also predominates over the saline principle, but they are wanting in fixed air. At the head of these springs may be placed the Eaux Bonnes, in the Vallée d'Ossau, and which are now reached by a good, available road. There are several hotels, but no Kurhaus or Kursaal. These waters are essentially stimulating and revulsive. The stimulating action is not only general, but it concentrates itself upon all organs that are congested, and notoriously the lungs. Hence their great efficacy in pulmonary complaints. They are also much used in strumous affections, but only with the very young. With adults the waters of Barèges are much more efficacious. The season lasts from three to four weeks, some persons having to go through two seasons, or, as we should say, courses. The waters are used almost solely internally, the first time at eight in the morning; at ten there is breakfast, after that mountain excursions on foot, horse, or donkey; at four, the waters again; at five, dinner-generally a very genuine affair; after dinner, promenade on the horizontal terrace, over the valley of Laruns, till sunset, when the cold mountain air drives the patients home. Sea-bathing is generally recommended to complete the cure, and, as with the other Pyrenean spas, Biarritz is preferred on account of its proximity, its fine expanse of level sands, and its delightful climate, little or no wind blowing during the months of July, August, and September. Eaux Chaudes are also close to Eaux Bonnes. There used to be a steep rocky ascent and descent between the two, but now a good road has been cut on the face of the mountain. There are six sulphureous springs, which, although called Eaux Chaudes, are not so hot as most of the Pyrenean mineral waters, and yet are more so than those of Eaux Bonnes, with the exception of Mainvielle. Hence the latter are most used for bathing, the former for drinking; but neither of them equal certain other waters in the Pyrenees in their therapeutic virtues. Cauterets, a pretty little town in the High Pyrenees, is surrounded by mineral waters, all sulphureous and thermal, and much in vogue, as a variety of advantages can be derived from their slightly varying nature. The site of both village and baths of Saint Sauveur are alike hewn out of solid rock. These waters, a little more alkaline than those of Eaux Bonnes and its neighbours, are much in vogue in nervous affections-"l'apanage," says Dr. C. James," des personnes du monde," and unknown to the working classes.

Barèges, the queen of mineral springs in the Pyrenees, is situated in a wild and rocky ravine. The houses are mere wooden constructions, removed in winter time, when the place is given up to wild bears and the torrents and avalanches, which are in keeping with such savage scenery. These waters are thermal, and eminently sulphureous-the sulphate being that of soda. It was at Barèges that Lonchamp first determined

the presence in the waters of the substance called Barégine, and since found, also, in all the Pyrenean springs. It is a kind of gelatinous, or, as it is sometimes called, vegeto-animal matter, which imparts a certain unctuousness to the waters; but its therapeutic virtues have never been satisfactorily determined. The waters of Barèges are less rich in sulphates than those of Bagnères de Luchon, but the sulphur is so fixed and unchangeable that they are in reality more efficacious. The most celebrated of all the sources is that called Du Tambour, and which yearly effects wonderful cures. Yet are the establishments of Barèges upon the most miserable scale-a poverty-stricken building, with narrow compartments, like so many cellars, without light or air, and three piscinathe military, the civil, and the pauper-which are supplied with the water that comes from the private baths! With such resources, and a Siberian climate, it is easy to imagine that those who have the means of selection will not go to Barèges when they can obtain mineral waters of similar efficacy elsewhere. They are, however, of wondrous value to the warlike Gauls, being sovereign in the treatment of old wounds; few foreign bodies are said to resist for a long time their expulsive action: they are the real" eaux d'arquebusade," and nothing but arms in scarfs, legs in various kinds of supports, and bodies on crutches, are to be seen at the promenade, which does not hence present either a very animated or a very inviting aspect.

Bagnères de Luchon is situated in one of the most magnificent valleys of the Pyrenees. It is approached by an avenue of lime-trees bordered by handsome and commodious houses. There are ten different sources, all, like Barèges, rich in sulphate of soda. The thermal establishment is also comparatively satisfactory, if not all that might be desired. These waters readily decompose on being exposed to the air, and assume a yellowish colour. This is owing to an excess of silica. If, then, Barèges possesses greater virtues than Bagnères de Luchon, the latter possesses the same virtues in a minor degree, with the addition of comforts not to be procured for love or money at the first-mentioned place. Bagnères is, indeed, considered to be a delightful place of residence, with beautiful excursions around, notoriously the lake of Oo, the valley of Lys, and the "Port de Venasque," whence the Maladetta may be seen in all its terrors. Bagnères de Luchon has a rival in the analogous mineral sources of Ax; but at this latter place we do not find, Dr. C. James tells us, "cette heureuse aisance, ce luxe intelligent qui indiquent une clientèle opulente."

At Vernet, in the Eastern Pyrenees, there are also thermo-sulphureous springs, which, issuing from a lofty position in the rocks, enable the bathing-rooms to be kept at so high a temperature that they can be used at all seasons of the year, and they are hence much sought after in cases of rapid consumption that will not bear delay. The same thing obtains at Amélie-les-Bains, which are said to be of specific value in the treatment of phthisical affections. The action of the waters is aided here by the inspiration of sulphureous vapours.

Among the saline sources of the Pyrenees are those of Ussat, renowned chiefly for female complaints, and where, at the season, the fair patients may be seen sitting at their doors, plying their needles till the time comes to go to the bath. At Bagnères de Bigorre, which has been called the Sept.-VOL. CXI. NO. CCCCXLI.


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