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borum occupatae. deinde, etiamsi quid apud maiores nostros fuit in isto studio admirationis, id enuntiatis vestris mysteriis totum est contemptum et abiectum. posset agi lege necne, pauci quondam sciebant; fastos enim vulgo non habebant; erant in magna potentia qui consulebantur, a quibus etiam dies tamquam a Chaldaeis petebatur. inventus est scriba quidam Cn Flavius, qui cornicum oculos confixerit et singulis diebus ediscendis fastos populo proposuerit et ab ipsis causis iure consultorum sapientiam compilarit. Itaque irati illi, quod sunt veriti, ne dierum ratione pervulgata et cognita sine sua opera lege agi posset, verba quaedam composuerunt, ut omnibus in rebus ipsi interessent.

cum hoc fieri bellissime posset : ‘fundus Sabinus 26

XII.

as the questions whether a man was to be buried in culto loco or inculto loco, and whether a man had left his whole property to Aww or his property to Πανταλέων (πάντα Λέοντι or Πανταλέοντι), given by Quintil VII 9 SS 5, 6; many such ambiguities, observes Zumpt, are found in laws.

agi lege] 'whether actions at law could be brought or no,' compare div in Caecil § 19, i e whether a certain day belonged to the dies fasti or nefasti, compare Ovid fasti i 45 foll.

fastos] · calendar,' with the days marked F or N.

qui consulebantur] the pontifices, in whose hands the regulation of the calendar lay, and who were the jurisconsults until 304 BC.

a Chaldaris] as an astrologer is entreated to point out a lucky' day.

Cn Flavius] compare de orat is 186, ad Att vi i § 8, Plin H N XXXIII 17

qui confixerit) compare Plautus capt 568 tu enim repertu's Philocratem qui superes veriverbio.

cornicum oculos) i e took in know

ing men; a proverb, compare pro Flacco § 46 and Propert v 5. 16, where it refers to a charm for blinding even the watchful.

The crow was thought to be especially fond of pecking out the eyes of other animals.

ediscendis] by learning the days one by one, ie whether they were fasti or nefasti. So Pliny, Appi Caeci hortatu exceperat eos dies consultando adsidue sagaci ingenio. Halm has discendis, dative, for learning.'

ab ipsis causis) i e consultando ad. sidue, as Pliny says ; 'from the indi. vidual cases in court.' Sorof also keeps this reading. He seems to have noted not merely the day on which the case was tried, but also the form of pleading [actiones, Cic 11 cc above].

compilarit] “pilfered,' got together by hook or by crook.'

verba] they made the forms of pleading more and more intricate.

xii 26 Cicero gives an instance of legal formalities, a lis vindicia. rum or actio rei vindicandae. It was one of those conducted with a legal wager or stake (actio sacra

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meus est': 'immo meus,' deinde iudicium : noluerunt. fundus, inquit, qui est in agro, qui Sabinus vocatur. satis verbose : cedo, quid postea? eum ego ex iure Quiritium meum esse aio. quid tum ? inde ibi ego te ex iure manum consertum voco. quid huic tam loquaciter litigioso responderet ille, unde petebatur, non habebat. transit idem iure consultus, tibicinis Latini modo: unde tu me.

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menti). The defendant staked a sum of money on the justice of his refusal to give up the property (sponsio), the plaintiff accepting the wager to prove the justice of his claim (restipulatio). Either party gave security to the praetor for the money, and the loser forfeited the fixed sum to the State. Gaius IV 13. These actiones were intended to supplement the defective old law.

bellissime] conversational, like our 'nicely.' Though it might have been done very nicely thus, “the Sabine estate belongs to me. “No, to me," and then the trial and decision; they would not have it so,' i e the iuris consulti.

inquit] 'says the jurist.' ex iure Quiritium] so Gaius iv 16. 'in accordance with the legal rights of a Roman citizen.'

Opposed to in bonis esse, Compare Gaius II 40, 41, ......ut alius possit esse ex iure Quiritium dominus, alius in bonis habere. nam si tibi rem mancipi neque mancipavero neque in iure cessero, sed tantum tradidcro, in bonis quidem tuis ea res efficitur, ex iure Quiritium vero mea permanebit, donec tu eam possidendo usucapias.

inde] ‘for that reason I call you from the praetor's tribunal to join hands with me on the said estate.' inde. ie quia meum esse aio. Compare unde...inde below.

ex iure] We learn from Gellius xx 10 SS 6–10 that the solemn joining of hands and claiming of a disputed property was of old per.

formed on the property in the presence of the praetor; for the XII tables said si qui in iure manum conserunt. As the empire of Rome grew in Italy and the praetors were more and more busied with their juridical functions, they found it too much of a burden to go far and near, settling questions of property on the spot ; hence by tacit consent the custom was changed ; the parties, instead of joining hands in iure (i e before the praetor), went on challenge to the property in question ex iure si e from the presence of the praetor), joined hands there, and brought back some piece or other into court, eg a clod to which they laid claim as representing the property. See Appendix E.

loquaciter] with adjective. Compare de off III S 112 acerbe severus. Tusc disp v § 6 impie ingratus. Sorof.

unde] i e a quo fundus petebatur. the defendant knew not how to answer such a chattering pettifogger,' the bombastic forms are too much for him. Forunde compare Cat maior § 12 quasi iam divinarem illo exstincto fore unde discerem neminem.

transit] changes sides and prompts the defendant, as a fute-player accompanies first one singer, then an. other. Quint VII 18 51 has adopted this simile.

Latini] The story in Liv IX 30 shews that they were not Roman citizens. Thus the haruspices were Etruscans. Ernesti,

nec

inquit, ex iure manum consertum vocasti, inde ibi ego te revoco. praetor interea ne pulchrum se ac beatum putaret atque aliquid ipse sua sponte loqueretur, ei quoque carmen compositum est, cum ceteris rebus absurdum, tum vero in illo : suis utrisque superstitibus praesentibus istam viam dico; ite viam. praesto aderat sapiens ille, qui inire viam doceret. redite viam ; eodem duce redibant. haec iam tum apud illos barbatos ridicula, credo, videbantur, homines, cum recte atque in loco constitissent, iuberi abire, ut, unde abissent, codem statim redirent. isdem ineptiis fucata sunt illa omnia : quando te in iure conspicio, et haec: anne tu dicas, qua ex causa vindicaveris? quae dum

unde......inde] compare on inde barbatos] compare pro Sestio g 19 above.

unum aliquem ex barbatis illis, exemrevoco] 'I call in turn.' The word plum imperii veteris, imaginem anis similarly used of invitations in pro tiquitatis. The custom of shaving Rosc Amer 52 domum suam istum was introduced into Italy BC 300. non fere quisquam vocabat.

See Prof Mayor's note on Juven XVI mirum, qui neque in urbe viveret 31 dignum barba dignumque capillis neque revocaturus esset. Here it is

maiorum. 'I return your challenge.'

in loco] so Tac Ann II 4. loco is pulchrum] Zumpt compares de

also used thus. nat deor i § 114 deum nihil aliud quando te in iure conspicio] It in omni aeternitate nisi' mihi

pulchre went on postulo anne fuas auctor. est' et 'ego beatus sum' cogitantem. *As I see you here in court, I want • For fear that, while all this was to know whether you are responsigoing on, the praetor might fancy ble for the title.' This seems to be himself a fine lucky fellow, and bring some part of the formal procedure out some remark on his own account, in a suit concerning a disputed title, a set form of words was made up for and is quoted again in pro Caecina him also.'

$ 54 actio est in auctorem praesentem superstitibus] = testibus praesen. his verbis ; quandoque te in iure contibus. Compare Festus P 305. spicio. For auctor see on § 3. Hence perhaps, as Halm remarks, anne tu dicas] Gaius Iv 16 has praesentibus here is a gloss. . If not, postulo, anne......, but the text there it must, as Zumpt says, be used of is corrupt, and Zumpt, with great time and superstitibus of place. plausibility, maintains that the mss • Either party having their witnesses postul has been wrongly completed. here now present.' utrisque is the anne dicas he makes = numquid aliud dative.

an dicturus es; but I am not sure istam] to the property. They that I understand this.

It is a part did not really go, but moved off a of the proceeding in a case of vin. few steps. For the construction com. dicatio, as above. The clod was pare Virg Aen VI 122 itque reditque brought into court, and was claimed viam lotiens.

by either party in turn, as above,

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erant occulta, necessario ab eis, qui ea tenebant, petebantur ; postea vero pervulgata atque in manibus iactata et excussa

inanissima prudentiae reperta sunt, fraudis autem et stultitiae 27 plenissima. nam cum permulta praeclare legibus essent con

stituta, ea iure consultorum ingeniis pleraque corrupta et depravata sunt. mulieres omnes propter infirmitatem consilii maiores in tutorum potestate esse voluerunt: hi invenerunt genera tutorum, quae potestate mulierum continerentur. sacra

or

adding sicut dixi, ecce tibi, vindictam imposui. This was a festuca or wand, symbolizing the hasta spear, the Roman sign of ownership. Then the praetor told both to let the thing go (mittite ambo). The first claimant then asked the defendant (as here), why he had laid claim to the thing; the latter answered ius peregi, sicut vindictam imposui. A went on quando tu iniuria vindicavisti (since your claim is a wrongful one), D aeris sacramento te provoco (or L aeris etc), and B rejoined similiter ego te. The proceedings then took the form of a personal action, founded on the alleged neglect of an obligation, and it was regularly tried by a iudex or arbiter. This was in iudicio, as opposed to in iure, before the magistrate. See Lord Mackenzie, Roman Law, part V CC 2, 3; Gaius iv 5; and for distinction between civil and criminal causes, Mommsen book iv c 10.

tenebant] ‘knew,' 'were skilled in them.'

compare tenet § 22. Or perhaps were exclusively in possession of them.' Compare $ 25.

excussa] ‘shaken out,' examined.' Compare de off 111 $ 81 ; Tusc disp

144 propter animi levitatem. Ulpian xi i propter sexus infirmitatem et propter forensium rerum ignorantiam. But Gaius I 190 ridicules this latter theory, which however was not uncommon.

genera tutorum] Sometimes a man, instead of appointing by will a guar. dian for his wife in event of his own decease, gave her in that case the right to choose for herself. Such a guardian was called tutor optivus, and would no doubt be chosen as one whom the woman could manage to lead. But the most common way of shaking off a disagreeable tutor was this : the woman got her tutor's consent to her making a coemptio fiduciae causa ; then the coemptionator made her over again to some person of her own choice. This latter emancipated her, and then she was only the ward of the man who had emancipated her, her tutor fiducia. rius. Gaius I 114, 115, 166, 195.

sacra] i e privata, often great burdens on property at Rome, in honour of the tutelary god of a family or gens.

In order to ensure their maintenance (perpetua), they went with the property:

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fraudis] ‘chicanery' or 'pitfalls,' as one who pleaded informally causa cadebat. Compare on § 9.

27 iure consultorum) This rare form is certainly found here.

infirmitatem consilii] so Gaius I

compare de legib i § 47 foll, orator § 144. Plaut capt 775 sine sacris hereditatem = an unencumbered property. From Paulus diac p 77 we learn that the proper title of an heir to property burdened

with was everriator.

sacro

XIII. ita- 28

interire illi noluerunt: horum ingenio senes ad coemptiones faciendas interimendorum sacrorum causa reperti sunt. in omni denique iure civili aequitatem reliquerunt, verba ipsa tenuerunt, ut, quia in alicuius libris exempli causa id nomen invenerant, putarent, omnes mulieres, quae coemptionem facerent, Gaias vocari. iam illud mihi quidem mirum videri solet, tot homines tam ingeniosos post tot annos etiam nunc statuere non potuisse, utrum diem tertium an perendinum, iudicem an arbitrum, rem an litem dici oporteret. que, ut dixi, dignitas in ista scientia (consularis] numquam fuit, quae tota ex rebus fictis commenticiisque constaret, gratia vero multo etiam minus. quod enim omnibus patet et aeque promptum est mihi et adversario meo, id esse gratum nullo pacto potest. itaque non modo beneficii collocandi spem, coem ptiones] The coemptio was a

personae ficticiae.

Gaia seems to symbolic sham-sale, hy which a wo- have been generally employed in man passed into the power of some forms of coemptio. Compare ‘John man either matrimonii causa, ie Doe' and 'Richard Roe.' See Quint in manum mariti sui, or fiduciae 17 $ 28. causa (transacted either with her iam] ‘now really, upon my husband or some stranger); for in- word. Compare Phil 11 § 8 ian stance, if a woman inherited an invideo magistro tuo, ib § 19. estate burdened with sacra, she cum non potuisse] Of course these are sene coemptionem fecit. He then merely the usual redundancies of came into her property, sacra in- legal caution.

tertium according to cluded. Then he at once manu- Roman circulation would be=pemitted her, and gave back the pro- rendinum. arbitrum, either appointperty in parcels as dona. The old ed by the parties, without interferman being poor (in fact chosen as ence of a magistrate, or hy the such), when he died, had no pro- magistrate after the preliminary perty to leave, and the sacra fell hearing in iure. Compare on § 26. through for want of heirs. See In this latter sense he was properly Gaius, I 113, 114.

called iudex. In the XII Tables was aequitatem .......tenuerunt] *They ' iudici arbitrove.' have dropped the spirit and held xiii 28 (consularis) Halm plausifast to the mere letter.'

bly urges that this is most likely a in alicuius libris] In some treatise gloss, as gratia is directly opposed on the forms of coemptio.

to dignitas, and in § 25 Cicero says ut putarent] I prefer this with primum dignitas in tam tenui scienZurnpt and the MSS. so as actually tia non potest esse.

But I am not to fancy that '......For ut see on $11. clear that his reasons are conclusive. This is of course mere banter on promptum] ‘ready to hand.' Com. Cicero's part, as Gaius, Gaia, Titius, pare de orat i § 237 prompta de Titia, Seius, Seia etc are legal fensio, II in Verr IV § 42. Sorof.

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