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air is unequal; as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap of ground, environed with higher hills round about it;' whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth2 as in troughs; so as you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ill air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets: and, if you will consult with Momus,3 ill neighbours. I speak not of many more; want of water; want of wood, shade, and shelter; want of fruitfulness, and mixture4 of grounds of several natures; want of prospect; want of level grounds; want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote; having the commodity of navigable rivers,5 or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business, or too near them, which lurcheth all provisions,6 and maketh every thing dear; where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he is scanted: all which, as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a man may take as many as he can ;7 and if he have several dwellings, that he sort them so, that what he wanteth in the one he may find in the other. Lucullus answered Pompey well; who, when he saw his stately galleries, and rooms so large and lightsome, in one of his houses, said, Surely an excellent place for summer, but how do you in winter f Lucullus answered, Why, do you not think me as wise as some fowl are, that ever change their abode towards the winter?
1 in collicul o paululum ekmto; sed cincto undHque, more theatri, cottibue altioribut.
2 vetriis aitibut reciprocantur.
8 Kor an explanation of this allusion to Momus, about which there has been some controversy of late, I am indebted to Mr. Ellis. "In one of iEsop's fables," he writes, "Minerva makes a house; and Momus says it should have been on wheels, to get away from bad neighbours."
4 That is, want of mixture. Sterilitat soli, aut quod ex variis glebarum generibut minime commistum sit.
* So in the original, and also in Ed. 1639. It seems as if not had dropped out; or as if the should be no. The translation has commodttai nulla Jiuviorum navigabilium.
*> quod victw necesiiria abeorbet.
1 locut ubi quis latifundia ampin ponideat, aut acquirere posnt, et locus contra ubipennas cxtendere nequeat: qua singula minims eo ammo en ume ramus ac si domus aliqua his incommodis omnibus vacare poms, verum ut tot ex iliis evitcmus quot evitari concedatur.
To pass from the seat to the house itself; we will do as Cicero doth in the orator's art; who writes books Be Oratore, and a book he entitles Orator; whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and the latter the perfection. We will therefore describe a princely palace, making a brief model thereof. For it is strange to see, now in Europe, such huge buildings as the Vatican and Escurial and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair1 room in them.
First therefore, I say you cannot have a perfect palace, except you have two several sides ;2 a side for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of Hester, and a side for the household; the one for feasts and triumphs, and the other for dwelling. I understand both these sides to be not only returns,3 but parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within; and to be on both sides of a great and stately tower in the midst of the front, that, as it were, joineth them together on either hand. I would have on the side of the banquet, in front, one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty foot high ;' and under it a room for a dressing or preparing place at times of triumphs.2 On the other side, which is the household side, I wish it divided at the first into a hall and a chapel, (with a partition between ;) both of good state and bigness;3 and those not to go all the length, but to have at the further end a winter and a summer parlour, both fair. And under these rooms,4 a fair and large cellar sunk under ground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the tower, I would have it two stories, of eighteen6 foot high a piece, above the two wings; and a goodly leads upon the top,6 railed with statua's interposed; and the same tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be thought fit.7 The stairs likewise to the upper rooms, let them be upon a fair open newel, and finely railed in with images of wood, cast into a brass colour ;3 and a very fair landing-place at the top. But this to be, if you do not point any of the lower rooms for a dining place of servants. For otherwise you shall have the servants' dinner after your own: for the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel.9 And so much for the front. Only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen foot,1 which is the height of the lower room.
1 vere magnificam'.
8 nisi duos habeat portiones divcrsas.
3 non ut latera domus.
1 The translation raises it to fifty feet. Eamque supra gradu t ad quinquayinta pedes ad minus altam.
3 et subter eam cameram item alteram, similis longitudinis et latitudinis; qua apparatum et instructionem ad festa, ludot, et ejutmodi magnificentias, actores eiiam dum se ornent etparent, commode recipiat.
8 amplam etpulchram.
* atque lubter hac omnia (cxcepto sacello).
5 quindecim- 8 co&pertam plombo, aquabili.
"This clause is omitted in the translation.
s gradus autem turris apertos esse, et in se revertentes, et per senos subinde ejivisos: utrinque statuis liyneis inauratis, vel saltem amei colons cinctos.
9 verum cavendum ne locus ubi famuli comedant sit ad imum ijradum, vel prupe; si enim sit, ciborum nidor ascendet, tanquam in tubo quodam.
Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but three sides of it, of a far lower building than the front. And in all the four corners of that court fair staircases, cast into turrets, on the outside, and not within the row of buildings themselves. But those towers are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower building.2 Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter. But only some side alleys, with a cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn.3 The row of return * on the banquet side, let it be all stately galleries: in which galleries let there be three, or five, fine cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance; and fine coloured windows of several works.5 On the household side, chambers of presence and ordinary entertainments,6 with some bed-chambers; and let all three sides be a double house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you may have rooms7 from the sun, both for forenoon and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may have rooms both for summer and winter; shady for summer, and warm for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become to be out of the sun or cold. For inbowed windows, I hold them of good use; (in cities, indeed, upright1 do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street;) for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and besides, they keep both the wind and sun off; for that which would strike almost thorough the room doth scarce pass the window. But let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only.2
* turres extruantur, altitudinem laterum prailictorum nonnihil sujierantes, ad gradus quibu t in evperiora aseendatur capiendol; qua turres nou recipiantur in ptanum adijicii, sed extra promineant.
* Area autem integra lopiihbun lads ouadrangulis minime substernatur; nam hufusmodi parimenta calnrem moletltm (estate, ei similiter frigus asperum hyeme immittunt: sed habeat ambulacra, ex ejusmodi lopidibus, per latera tantum adificii; et formam cruris ex iisdem in medio; cum quadris interpositis, qua gramme cestiantur, detonso quidem, sed nun nimis prope ttrram.
* latus universum arece
6 ubi pingantur eolumna, imagines omnigena, fores, et similia. 8 At latus ex parte familia, simul cum latere tertio e regime frontis, complcctatur cameras prasentiales; et alias usis ae deeoris ordinarii. 1 cubicula et camera.
Beyond this court, let there be an inward court, of the same square and height; which is to be environed with the garden on all sides ;8 and in the inside, cloistered on all sides, upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first story. On the under story, towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotta, or place of shade, or estivation. And only have opening and windows towards the garden; and be level upon the floor, no whit sunken under ground, to avoid all dampishness. And let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statua's in the midst of this court; and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides; and the end4 for privy galleries. Whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary,5 if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed
1 adplanum adificii, et minime protuberantes.
2 dtue scilicet ex utroque latere area. 8 horto per exterius circumcincta.
* Vitus transrersum.
5 curandum vera ut aliqua, tam ex cameris et conclavibus, quane ex porticHnu, designentur ad tituut infirmorum.