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chamber, antecamera, and recamera, joining to it.1 This upon the second story. Upon the ground story,2 a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story likewise, an open gallery,3 upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the further side, by way of return,4 let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst; and all other elegancy that may be thought upon.5 In the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances.6 And thus much for the model of the palace ;7 save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts. A green court plain, with a wall about it;8 a second court of the same, but more garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellishments, upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with tarrasses, leaded aloft, and fairly garnished, on the three sides; and

1 Habeant autem portiones singula atgris destinatat, (ut modern* loquuniur) Ante-Cameram, Cameram ad cubile, et Re-cameram.

2 At Visus transversum solarii inferioris, eersus hortum convertatur in porticum, spatiosum, Sec.

8 Rursus supra solarium tertium, ex omnibus tribus lateribus, statuantur porticus elegantes, &c.

* ad angulos duos lateris transversi in solaria secundo.

Sint autem conclaria ilia rebus curiosis omnigenis et spectatu dignis referta.

0 qui per secretes tubos iterum transeant. The following sentence is inserted here in the translation: Interior autem pars in solario superiors, versus aream,formetur in porticus et ambulacra, bene munita et obducta, ad usum convalescentium.

'The translation adds: nam de balneis et piscinis non loquor.

8 Area viridis, gramine veslita, cum pariete in circuitu, et juxta parietem arboribus, ordinepositis, sata.

I

cloistered on the inside, with pillars, and not with arches below.1 As for offices, let them stand at distance, with some low galleries, to pass from them to the place itself.

XLVI. Of Gardens.

God Almighty first planted a Garden. And indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without which buildings and palaces are but gross handyworks :2 and a man shall ever see that when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately sooner than to garden finely;3 as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens for all the months in the year; in which severally things of beauty may be then in season.4 For December, and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter: B holly; ivy; bays ; juniper; cypress-trees; yew; pine-apple-trees ;1 fir-trees; rosemary; lavender; periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; germander; flags ;2 orangetrees; lemon-trees; and myrtles, if they be stored; and sweet marjoram, warm set.8 There followeth, for the latter part of January and February, the mezereontree, which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses; anemones; the early tulippa; hyacinthus orientalis; chama'iris; fritellaria. For March, there come violets, specially the single blue, which arc the earliest; the yellow daffodil;4 the daisy; the almond-tree in blossom; the peach-tree in blossom; the cornelian-tree in blossom; sweet-briar. In April follow, the double white violet; the wallflower; the stock-gilliflower; the cowslip; flower-delices, and lilies of all natures ;6 rosemary-flowers; the tulippa; the double piony; the pale daffodil;6 the French honeysuckle; the cherry-tree in blossom; the dammasin and plum-trees in blossom; the white thorn in leaf; the lilac-tree. In May and June come pinks of all sorts, specially the blush-pink; roses of all kinds, except the mu.rk, which comes later; honeysuckles; strawberries; bugloss; columbine; the French marigold; flos Africanus;' cherry-tree in fruit; ribes; figs in fruit; rasps; vine-flowers; lavender in flowers; the sweet satyrian, with the white flowers; herba muscaria; lilium convallium; the apple-tree in blossom.2 In July come gilliflowers of all varieties;3 musk-roses; the lime-tree in blossom; early pears and plums in fruit; genitings, quadlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit; pears; apricocks; berberries; filberds; musk-melons; monks-hoods, of all colours. In September come grapes; apples; poppies of all colours; peaches; melocotones; nectarines; cornelians; wardens; quinces. In October and the beginning of November come services; medlars; bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late; holly-oaks; and such like. These particulars are for the climate of London; but my meaning is perceived, that you may have ver perpetuum, as the place affords.

1 sed ambulacris supra columnas, non arcus, erectis; in summitate vero phimbo vel lapide quadrato codpertis, et ad lotera elegantibul statuis parvis, tsnei coloris, muniti s clausam.

3 mantis tantum sunt opera, nee sapiunt naturam.

I citius perrenire ad mdificiorum pulchritiulinem quam ad hortorum elegantiam ei am&nitatem.

* in quibus separatim planter qua illo mense florent et vigeni producantur. The scene in the "Winter's Tale," where Perdita presents the guests with flowers suited to their ages, has some expressions which, if this Essay had been contained in the earlier edition, would have made me suspect that Shakespeare had been reading it. As I am not aware that the resemblance has been observed, I will quote the passages to which I allude in connexion with those which remind me of them.

5 Reverend Sirs,

For you there's Rosemary and Rue; these keep
Seeming and savour all the winter long.
Grace and Remembrance be to you both,
And welcome to our shearing.

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Pol. Shepherdess,

(A fair one are you) well you fit our ages
With flowers of winter.

1 In place of "pine-apple-trees," the translation has buxut, pinus, obies.

3 Irides quoad folia.

* juxta parietem et versus solera satus.

* pseudo-narcissus luteus.

* Now, my fair'st friend,

I would I had some flowers o' the Spring, that might
Become your time of day ....

Dalfodils,
That come before the swallow dares, and take
The winds of March with beauty: Violets (dim
But sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes,
Or Cytherea's breath): pale Prime-roses,
That die unmarried, ere they can behold
Bright Phcebus in his strength ....

bold Oxlips, and
The Crown Imperial: Lilies of all kinds,
(The Flower-de-Luce being one).

* narcissus verus.

1 Flos Africanus, simplex et mulsiplex. The " French Marigold" is omitted in the translation. 3 The translation adds; flos cyaneus: [the corn-cockle]. 1 Sir, the year growing ancient,

Not yet on Summer's death, nor on the birth
Of trembling Winter, the fairest llowers o' the season
Are our Carnations and streaked Gilly-vors
(Which some call Nature's bastards) ....
Here's flowers for you:
Hot Lavender, Mints, Savory, Marjoram,
The Mary-gold, that goes to bed wi' the Sun,
And with him rises, weeping: These are flowers
Of middle Summer, and I think they are given
To men of middle age.

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And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air (where it comes and goes like the warbling of music) than in the hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight, than to know what be the flowers and plants that do best perfume the air.1 Roses, damask and red,2 are fast flowers of their smells; so that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find nothing of their sweetness; yea though it be in a morning's dew. Bays likewise yield no smell as they grow. Rosemary little; nor sweet marjoram. That which above all others yields the sweetest smell in the air,3 is the violet, specially the white double violet, which comes twice a year; about the middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide.4 Next to that is the muskrose. Then the strawberry-leaves dying, with a most excellent cordial smell.6 Then the flower of the vines; it is a little dust, like the dust of a bent,6 which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth. Then sweet-briar. Then wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be set under a parlour or lower chamber window. Then pinks and gilliflowers,7 specially the matted pink and clove gilliflower. Then the flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeysuckles, so they be somewhat afar off.8 Of bean-flowers I speak not,

1 qua adhuc crescentes, nee avulsa, maximc emittunt auras suaves, et airem odore perfundunt. 3 tam pallida quam rubea. t suavissimo odore (crescens) imbuit.

subfinem Augvsti.

• So Ed. 1639. The original has "which a most excellent cordial smell." Possibly it should be which yield. The translation has qua halitum emittunt plane cardiacum.

fl qualis est in caule plantaginis.

'The British Museum copy (see note at the end) omits and gilli/kncers. The translation has tum cariophyllata tam minores quam majores.

• The translation adds tumjlores lavendula.

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