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because they are field flowers. Bat those which perfume the air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodden upon and crushed, are three; that is, burnet, wild-thyme, and watermints. Therefore you are to set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk or tread.
For gardens (speaking of those which are indeed prince-like, as we have done of buildings), the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground; and to be divided into three parts; a green in the entrance; a heath or desertl in the going forth; and the main garden in the midst; besides alleys on both sides. And I like well that four acres of ground be assigned to the green; six to the heath; four and four to either side; and twelve to the main garden. The green hath two pleasures: the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because it will give you a fair alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is to enclose the garden. But because the alley will be long, and, in great heat of the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the garden by going in the sun thorough the green, therefore you are, of either side the green, to plant a covert alley, upon carpenter's work, about twelve foot in height, by which you may go in shade into the garden. As for the making of knots or figures with divers coloured earths, that they may He under the windows of the house on that side which the garden stands,2 they be but toys: you may see as good sights many times in tarts. The garden is best to be square, encompassed on all the four sides with a stately
Lfruticetum rive eremum. * This clause is omitted in the translation.
arched hedge. The arches to he upon pillars of carpenter's work, of some ten foot high, and six foot broad; and the spaces between of the same dimension with the breadth of the arch. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge of some four foot high, framed also upon carpenter's work; and upon the upper hedge, over every arch, a little turret, with a belly, enough to receive a cage of birds: and over every space between the arches some other little figure, with broad plates of round coloured glass gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some six foot, set all with flowers. Also I understand, that this square of the garden should not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to leave on either side ground enough for diversity of side alleys; unto which the two covert alleys of the green may deliver you. But there must be no alleys with hedges at either end of this great enclosure; not at the hither end, for letting' your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green; nor at the farther end, for letting2 your prospect from the hedge through the arches upon the heath.
For the ordering of the ground within the great hedge, I leave it to variety of device; advising nevertheless that whatsoever form you cast it into, first,3 it be not too busy, or full of work. Wherein I, for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper or other garden stuff; they be for children. Little low hedges, round, like welts,1 with some pretty pyramides, I like well; and in some places, fair columns upon frames of carpenter's work.2 I would also have the alleys spacious and fair. You may have closer alleys upon the side grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also, in the very middle, a fair mount, with three ascents, and alleys,3 enough for four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect circles, without any bulwarks or embossments; and the whole mount to be thirty foot high; and some fine banqueting-house,4 with some chimneys neatly cast, and without too much glass.
1 ne . . . impedint.
3 ue . . . inUrcipiaL
* My copy of Ed. 1625 has a comma after Jirst and no comma after into. The copy in the British Museum has a comma after into, and no comma after firet. So also Ed. 1639. The translation has quacunque ea tandem sit, nimis curiosa et operosa ne sit. I suspect that the direction was to add the second comma and leave the rirst, and that it was misunderstood, or imperfectly executed; an accident which may easily happen, and would account for the occasional introduction of a change which could not have been intended.
For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all,5 and make the garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of water,6 of some thirty or forty foot square, but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in use, do well: but the main matter is so to convey the water, as it never stay,7 either in the bowls or in the cistern; that the water be never by rest discoloured, green or red or the like; or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the band. Also some steps up to it, and some fine pavement about it, doth well. As for the other kind of fountain, which we may call a bathing pool, it may admit much curiosityl and beauty; wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; the sides likewise; and withal embellished with coloured glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also with fine rails of low statua's. But the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain; which is, that the water be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and then discharged away under ground, by some equality of bores, that it stay little.2 And for fine devices, of arching water without spilling, and making it rise in several forms (of feathers, drinking glasses, canopies, and the like), they be pretty things to look on, but nothing to health and sweetness.
1 insUir jimbriarum.
» Columnas etiam, et pyramides altos, ex opere lignario, in aliquibus locis sparscs, sepibus vestitas, recipio. 3 et tribus ambulacris.
* atque in vertice domicellus elegans extruatur.
* sed stagna et piscina exulenU
'unum qiti aqiiam salientem verset et dispergat, cum crateribue suis; alteram nitidum aqua puree rcceptaculum, &c 'utperpetuo jluat, nee consistat. VOL. XII. 16
For the heath, which was the third part of our plot, I wish it to be framed, as much as may be, to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it,3 but some thickets made only of sweet-briar and honeysuckle, and some wild vine amongst; and the ground set with violets, strawberries,1 and primroses. For these are sweet, and prosper in the shade. And these to be in the heath, here and there, not in any order.2 I like also little heaps, in the nature of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths), to be set, some with wild thyme; some with pinks; some with germander, that gives a good flower to the eye; some with periwinkle; some with violets; some with strawberries; some with cowslips; some with daisies; some with red roses; some with lilium convallium; some with sweet-williams red; some with bear's-foot:8 and the like low flowers, being withal sweet and sightly. Part of which heaps are to be with standards of little bushes pricked upon their top, and part without. The standards to be roses ; * juniper; holly; berberries; (but here and there, because of the smell of their blossom ;6) red currants; gooseberry; rosemary; bays; sweet-briar; and such like. But these standards to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of course.6
1 The copy in the British Museum has a semicolon after curiosity: my copy has a comma. And as it has certainly been a change in the type, and not a variety in the impression or an alteration made by the hand, I am inclined to think that the Museum copy was a proof in which corrections were afterwards made.
2 The translation adds : ut maneat limpida.
a The translation adds: nisi quod, in aliquibus locis erigi pracipio arbonm series, qua in sertice ambulacra contineant, ramis arborum cobperta, cum fenestris. Subjaceat autem pars soli Jloribus odoris swam abunde consita, qui auras in superius exhalent; alias fruticetum apertum esse sine arboribus ielim.
For the side grounds, you are to fill them with variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade, some of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame some
1 fragis pracipue.
2 Dvmeta autem, et ambulacra super arbores, spargi volumus ad placitum, rum in ordine aliquo coVocari.
3 Helleboro flare purpurea.
• Pars autem cumubrum habeat in vertice Jrutices; ea sini rosa, &c.
• sed heec rarior, propter odoris gravitatem dum floret. The British Museum copy has a semicolon after blossom and no stop after berberries (or bearc-berries as it is spelt): my copy has a semicolon after beare-berries and no stop alter blossom. It is dilficult to say which has been the alteration; for in the original setting of the type room for a semicolon does not seem to have been left in either place. Here (as before) I suspect the intention of the corrector was to insert the first without removing the second. The parenthesis certainly refers to the berberry; the blossom of which has an offensive smell, when too near.
• ne deformiter excrescant.