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of them likewise for shelter, that when the wind blows sharp, you may walk as in a gallery. And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because of going wet. In many of these alleys likewise, you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts; as well upon the walls as in ranges. And this would be generally observed, that the borders wherem you plant your fruit-trees be fair and large, and iow, and not steep ;1 and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, lest they deceive2 the trees. At the end of both the side grounds, I would have a mount of some pretty height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high, to look abroad into the fields.8

For the main garden, I do not deny but there should be some fair alleys ranged on both sides, with fruittrees; and some pretty tufts of fruit-trees, and arbour* with seats, set in some decent order;4 but these to be by no means set too thick; but to leave the main garden so as it be not close, but the air open and free. For as for shade, I would have you rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or day; but to make account that the main garden is for the more temperate parts of the year; and in the heat of summer, for the morning and the evening, or overcast days.

For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that

i et molliter ascendens.

2 succo dcfraudent.

i ad talem nUUudinem parieta exterioris, vt in monticello etanti in agree patent prospectue.

* ambulacra qyadam, eaque minimc angeuta, arboribuefructiferis utrinqus consita. Quin et arboreta aligua, arborum fructiferarum prope consitarum; ei umbraaila artificiosa et bella cum eedibut ordine eleganti locasa.

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largeness as they may be turfed, and have living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds may have more scope, and natural nestling,1 and that no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary.2 So I have made a platform of a princely garden, partly by precept, partly by drawing, not a model, but some general lines of it;8 and in this I have spared for no cost. But it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part taking advice with workmen,4 with no less cost set their things together ;6 and sometimes add statua's, and such things, for state and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure of a garden.

XLVII. Of Negociating.

It is generally better to deal by speech than by letter; and by the mediation of a third than by a man's self. Letters are good, when a man would draw an answer by letter back again; or when it may serve for a man's justification afterwards to produce his own letter; or where it may be danger to be interrupted, or heard by pieces. To deal in person is good, when a man's face breedeth regard, as commonly with inferiors; or in tender cases,6 where a man's eye upon the countenance of him with whom he speaketh may give him a direction how far to go; and generally, where a man will reserve to himself" liberty either to disavow or to expound. In choice of instruments, it is better to choose men of a plainer sort, that are like to do that that is committed to them, and to report back again faithfully the success, than those that are cunning to contrive out of other men's business somewhat to grace themselves, and will help the matter in report1 for satisfaction sake. Use also such persons as affect the business wherein they are employed; for that quickeneth much; and such as are fit for the matter: as bold men for expostulation, fair-spoken men for persuasion, crafty men for inquiry and observation, froward and absurd men for business that doth not well bear out itself.2 Use also such as have been lucky, snd prevailed before in things wherein you have employed them; for that breeds confidence, and they will strive to maintain their prescription. It is better to sound a person with whom one deals afar off, than to fall upon the point at first; except you mean to surprise him by some short question. It is better dealing with men m appetite, than with those that are where they would be. If a man deal with another upon conditions, the start or first performance is all;8 which a man cannot reasonably demand, except either the nature of the thing be such, which must go before; or else a man can persuade the other party that he shall still need him in some other thing; or else that he be counted the honester man.* All practice5 is to discover, or to work.

1 ut aves liberiue volitent, et se per diversa oblectare et componere posrint.

3 The translation adds: Quantum vero ad ambulacra in elicis et variis aecensibus amomis conficienda, ilia Natura t dona sunt, nee ubit/ue extrui possunt; nos autem eaposuimue qua omni loco conveniunt.

ipartim modulo general*, sed minir,ie accuraio.

* hortulanos.

6 vana, parum cumjudicio, componunt.

in rebue qual extremis tantum digitis tangere convenit.

1 ea qua referent verbis emollient.

qua illiquid iniqui hdbeat.

prima velut occupatio aut possessio totorum supradpuu immWanda. *pro homine imprimis integro et verace.

negotiatio.

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Men discover themselves in trust, in passion, at unawares, and of necessity, when they would have somewhat done and cannot find an apt pretext. If you would work1 any man, you must either know his nature and fashions, and so lead him; or his ends, and so persuade him; or his weakness and disadvantages, and so awe him; or those that have interest in him, and so govern him. In dealing with cunning persons, we must ever consider their ends, to interpret their speeches; and it is good to say little to them, and that which they least look for. In all negociations of difficulty, a man may not look to sow and reap at once; but must prepare business, and so ripen it by degrees.

XLVIII. Of Followers And Friends.

Costly followers are not to be liked; lest while a man maketh his train longer, he make his wings shorter. I reckon to be costly, not them alone which charge the purse, but which are wearisome and importune in suits. Ordinary followers ought to challenge no higher conditions than countenance, recommendation, and protection from wrongs. Factious followers are worse to be liked, which follow not upon affection to him with whom they range themselves, but upon discontentment conceived against some other; whereupon commonly ensueth that ill intelligence that we many times see between great personages. Likewise glorious followers, who make themselves as trumpets of the commendation of those they follow, are full of inconvenience; for they taint business through want of secrecy;' and they export honour from a man,2 and make him a return in envy. There is a kind of followers likewise which are dangerous, being indeed espials; which inquire the secrets of the house, and bear tales of them to others. Yet such men, many times, are in great favour; for they are officious, and commonly exchange tales. The following by certain estates of men, answerable to that which a great person himself professeth, (as of soldiers to him that hath been employed in the wars, and the like,) hath ever been a thing civil,3 and well taken even in monarchies; so it be without too much pomp or popularity. But the most honourable kind of following is to be followed as one that apprehendeth to advance virtue and desert4 in all sorts of persons. And yet, where there is no eminent odds in sufficiency, it is better to take with the more passable, than with the more able.6 And besides, to speak truth, in base times active men are of more use than virtuous. It is true that in government it is good to use men of one rank equally: for to countenance some extraordinarily, is to make them insolent, and the rest discontent; because they may claim a due.8 But contrariwise, in favour, to use men with much difference and election is good; for it maketh the persons preferred more thankful, and the rest more officious: because all is of favour.7 It is good dis

1 si quem ad nutumjingere cupias, at inde efficias aliquid.

IfutitiMe sud.

a The translation inserts, ri qtus vere rem reputtt.

*pro re decor & habitum est.

* ut qvis palronum se profiteatur eorum qui virtute tt meritis clarent.

8 prtestal mediocribus patrocinari quam eminentioribus.

'quandoouidem ordirds paritas aquas gratia conditiones tanquam ex debito poscit.

1 neque de hoc merilo conqueratur quispiam, quum omnia ex gratia non ex debito prodeant.

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