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and the semblance of outrageous virtue, she declared that I should not sleep under her roof,-I might, if I liked, place my bed on the out-side of the door.—Finding the night growing cold, and not being impressed with sentiments of respect for mine hostess, whose person had nothing lovely in it, I planted my bed somewhat rudely in the midst of her apartment, telling her, she might dispose of herself as she deemed most fitting, but that my deportment would be chaste, and consistent with the rules of honour, though appearances might be unfavourable. The good woman perceiving my inattention to her clamorous representation, was glad to compound the matter, and take a small pecuniary compensation, for the injury her character might suffer. ON the next day I went to Badam, a station of eight cosses.--Badam is said to have been founded four hundred years ago, by one of the Seljukian kings; and from a magnificent extensive city, is now sunk into a small moulder ing town. The ruins of the fort still serve to exhibit a mortifying picture of former grandeur; but such is the reverse of its condition, that the howling wolf, and the screeching owl, now become its only tenants, have supplanted the gay damsel, and the care-soothing minstrel. Then, my friend, ere thy youthful blood ceases to run lightly through its now
elastic channels, ere thy mind refuses longer
to receive the glowing tints of fancy's pencil, —seize the fair pleasures of the hour, and, following the precepts of our Hafez, leave the rest to fate l—I passed this evening in the company of the fair, (though the epithet may not literally apply to our Indian ladies,) who, for a moderate offering, sung, laughed, and danced around me until mid-night. ON the 1st of February, after a tedious
journey of fourteen cosses, leading through a lonely unhospitable country, I arrived at
Owlah. —Of the few fellow-travellers pursuing the same track, two wolves, a fox, and two hares, composed the greater number. The shrubs and high grass had so concealed the path, that I was completely bewildered, and had lost my way; when a small village on an eminence attracted my notice, and held out the prospect of relief: but such is the instability of sublunary pleasure, that this promising mark proved a false beacon. The hamlet was unroofed, and its inhabitants had sought a more friendly land. Then, in the bitterness of my heart, I gave up Shujah-ud-Dowlah to as many devils as chose to take him, and was about consigning the English to the same crew, for having expelled from a country which they had made populous and opulent, the extensive tribe of Rohillas. How insatiable, cruel, and how destructive, even of its own purposes, appears ambition, when placed in this light. It prompted a prince, already possessed of an ample fair territory, to seize, with barely the colour of pretence, the domain of his neighbours, who, by a salutary system of government, had enriched their country, and had made their names respected. The conqueror, by the fortune of war, subjects into a province this flourishing territory, which is soon converted into desolate plains, and deserted villages. This is not, I trust, the language of exaggeration, or the colouring of fancy: it is a simple, grievous truth, forcing itself on the notice of the most cursory observer.—The town of Owlah, once crowded with inhabitants, and adorned with mosques and spacious buildings, is now verging to ruin, and many of its streets are choaked up with fallen habitations. ON the 2d of February, at Shahabad, fourteen cosses, a large village in the districts of Fyze-ullah-Khan. The whole of this chief's country evinces the beneficial effects arising
from the encouragement of husbandry, and the
aid of an active government. Populous villages, skirted by extensive fields of corn, are seen on all sides; and the haughty independent
spirit which invariably pervades every class of the people, mark their abhorrence of despotism. Many of-the Rohillas, who had been driven from the country after the death of Hafiz Rhamut, have settled in this quarter.
On the 3d, at Rampour,—fourteen cosses. Fyze-ullah-Khan, resides in this town, which the general resort of his civil and military officers, has now made populous, and wealthy.
I am, Dear Sir,
Yours, &c. kc.
[The following history of the Rohillas, and Shujah-ud-Dowlah, compiled since the date of the letters, is founded on sundry original documents, and various local information, obtained during my residence in the northern parts of India, and has been introduced in this place, though interrupting the series of the letters, to fcring into one view, a body of relative facts.!