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ticed, a discussion of them in this place becomes unnecessary.

The form of government adopted by the Rohillas in India, of near affinity to that which exists in their native country, may be denominated feudal. The successors of Daoud Khan possessing slender hereditary pretensions, and surrounded by the men who had essentially aided in the first conquest, held but a limited sway. Sundah Khan and Futtah Khan, two of the most respectable of the Rohillas, never ceased to oppose the progress of Hafiz Rhamut, which was conspicuously directed to sovereign rule; and by a zealous attachment to the party ©f Saud Ullah's widow, who was beloved by the people, they formed a moderate counterpoise to the encroaching power of that chief. Here it becomes my duty, whether as the compiler of Rohilla tracts, or a recorder of common fame, to briefly delineate the character of Hafiz Rhamut. Born and reared to manhood in a country*, where its people are taught to consider a military as the only laudable profession, and that the sword conveys an irreproachable title to every acquisition, Hafiz Rhamut, constitutionally brave, became an enterprizing soldier. His government was founded on the common basis of an active system; but flourished from

Afghanistan.

the knowledge he possessed of its resources. He seems to have maintained a general good faith in public transactions, and though in the attainment of power he trampled on another's right, his genius and valour preserved the allegiance, and perhaps the love of his people; who saw in him a master, whose hand was equally prompt to indulgence or protection. And here I am impelled to say, that Shujah-ud-Dowlah alone, would never have dared Hafiz to the field. Hafiz Rhamut, like most of the chiefs or princes of a country, where succession falls to the strongest arm, was unfortunate in his family: Enayat Khan, his eldest son, took up arms against him, was defeated, and obliged to seek shelter with Shujah-ud-Dowlah, in whose army he served at the battle of Buxar*. Dissensions had arisen also amongst the descendants of the Othe/ Rohilla officers, which involved the country in general commotion, and on the arrival of the united forces of the English and Shujah-udDowlah in Rohilcund, the chiefs appeared to dread the increase of each other's power, more than the invasion of an enemy.

I Will conclude this treatise, by observing, that the Afghan conquerors of Rohilcuud, were

* lie afterwards relumed to Rohilcund, where he died before the last Rohilla war.

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a rapacious, bold, and lawless race of men; and it should seem, that after they had established a government in India, they adopted the more effeminate vices of the south, and became intriguing, deceitful, and treacherous.. The Rohillas, especially the lower classes, were, with but few exceptions, the only sect of Mahometans in India who exercised the profession of husbandry; and their improvements of the various branches of Agriculture, were amply recompensed by the abundance, and superior quality of the productions of Rohilcund*.

The actions of Najeb Khan, those especially which occupied the latter periods of his life, bearing a close relation to the history of Rohilcund, I have given them a separate place in the treatise; which as it represents him in a more conspicuous light, will afford me the sensible pleasure of offering up a tribute of respect and applause, to the memory of a brave liberal soldier, and a statesman of distinguished ability.

Najeb Khan, the nephew of the Bisharut Khan, mentioned in the Rohilla sketches, came into Rohilcund during the administration of Ali Mahomet. He was at first, appointed to

*This country is said to have .yielded to the Rohillas, one million sterling, which is now reduced by the injudicious management of the Nair, to thirty, or at most, forty thousand pounds.

the charge of a very small party, not consisting, it is said, of more than twelve horse and foot. But his courage and activity soon brought him into the notice of Ali Mahomet, who entrusted him with a respectable military command, and procured for him in marriage the daughter of Dhoondy Khan. Whilst Ali Mahomet governed the Sirhend districts, Najeb Khan, who had followed his fortunes, rendered him an important service, in reducing to obedience a refractory Hindoo chief of that quarter. After the return of the Rohillas into Rohilcund, Dhoondy Khan bestowed the districts of Duranaghur and Chaundpour, which had been granted to him in the original division of Rohilcund, on Najeb Khan, who did not long confine himself within this narrow limit; but crossing the Ganges, he made depredations on the territory of the Goojers", as far as Ghous Ghur and Sarunpourf. ON the death of Mahonet Shahí, Sufdar Jung avowedly announced his hostile disposition to the court, which was then wholly directed by the Vizier Ghaze-ud-Dein, and prepared to lead an army to Delhi. Sufdar Jung prevailed on the Rohilla chiefs, ever ready to draw the sword in the pursuit of plunder or conquest, to join his army, which had advanced to the neighbourhood of Delhi, when an Hindoo" officer of the court, attached to the interests of Ghaze-ud-Dein, induced Najeb Khan, by high offers of advancement, to secede from the combination, and espouse the imperial cause.— Alarmed at this defection, the residue of the Rohilla troops, commanded by Hafiz Rhamut, retired into their own country. Najeb Khan was honourably received by Ghaze-ud-Dein, and being soon after promoted to the command of the army, he attacked Sufdar Jung, and compelled him to cross the Ganges. On the successful conclusion of this campaign, in which the Rohilla was wounded, he received from the King the title of Najeb-ud-Dowlah. Subsequently to this event, he moved with a strong body of troops into Rohilcund, where he established, in the districts which formerly pertained to him, a fixed government ; and though he disclaimed a dependence on Hafiz Rhamut, he was considered a political member of the Rohilla state. From a powerful support at court, and the distinguished popularity of his character, Najeb-ud-Dowlah was feared

* A sect of the Hindoos, in Upper India, of the fourth tribe who equally exercise the profession of agriculture, and arms.

t Wide Rennell's map.

* Mahomet Shah died A. D. 1746; and was succeeded by his son Ahmed Shah.

* Named Devi Sing.

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