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they had been pasted. The banker *, with much good-nature, soaking the paper in water, and opening the folds with care, was enabled to read, though with difficulty, the contents. Had he been disposed to protract the payment, there was sufficient cause; but holding out no demur, he at once said the bill was a good one, kindly observing also, that as my journey had been long and fatiguing, I should have brought an order for a larger sum. JUM Bo is situated on the side of a hill, and contains two distinct divisions, which are termed the upper and the lower towns. The bottom of the hill is washed by the river Rawcet, about forty or fifty yards broad, and fordable at most seasons of the year. Many water-mills stand on its banks for grinding corn, which are constructed in a neater manner than any I have seen in India; and were introduced by the Kashmirians, who have greatly improved as well as enriched this town. The short stay at Jumbo prevented me from procuring much satisfactory information of its history, or the causes which have produced its important commerce, riches, and luxury: for Jumbo, even in *

* His name is Juala Naut, the nephew of Kashmiry Mull, at Benares.

t It falls into the Chinnaun.


its decayed state, 13 a mart of the first note in (his quarter of the country. Perhaps the collection of such materials would not have compensated the labour of perusal, or afforded you that instruction which I ever wish to be the effect of my communications:—but such as I have procured, shall be genuinely laid before you.

Previously to Nadir Shah's invasion of India, the common road from Delhi to Kashmire, lay through Sirhend, Lahore, and Heerpour, the pass of which is fully described by Mr. Bernier, under the name of Bember. Since the inroad of the Persians, Afghans, and the Marhattas, but especially since the period of the Sicque conquests, that track has been rendered unsafe to merchants, and is now disused. This obstruction diverted the Kashmirian trade into the channel of Jumbo, which being shut up from the Punjab by a strong chain of mountains, difficult of access to cavalry, it has been preferred to the Lahore road, though the journey is tedious, and the expenses of merchandize increased.

Hunzeid Deve. the'father of the present chief of Jumbo, who deservedly acquired the character of a just and wise ruler, largely contributed to the wealth and importance of Jumbo. Perceiving the benefits which would arise from

the residence of Mahometan merchants, he held out to them many encouragements, and observed towards them a disinterested and an honourable conduct. Negative virtues only are expected from an Asiatic despot, and under such a sanction his subjects might deem themselves fortunate ; but the chief of Jumbo went farther than the forbearance of injuries; he avowedly protected and indulged his people, particularly the Mahometans, to whom he allotted a certain quarter of the town, which was thence denominated Moghulpour; and that no reserve might appear in his treatment of them, a mosque was erected in the new colony; a liberality of disposition the more conspicuous, and conferring the greater honour on his memory, as it is the only instance of the like toleration in this part of India, and as the Kashmirians, who chiefly composed his Mahometan subjects, have been, since their conversion, rigorous persecutors of the Hindoos. He was so desirous also of acquiring their confidence and esteem, that when he has been riding through their quarter during the time of prayer, he never failed to stop his horse until the priest had concluded his ritual exclamations. The Hindoos once complained

to this chief, that the public wells of the town

were defiled by the vessels of the Mahometans, and desired that they might be restricted to the

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water of the river; but he abruptly dismissed the complaint, saying, that water was a pure element, designed for the general use of mankind, and could not be polluted by the touch of any class of people. An administration so munificent and judicious, at the same time that it enforced the respect of his own subjects, made Jumbo a place of extensive commercial resort, where all descriptions of men experienced, in their persons and property, a full security. THE articles of merchandize constituting the trade of Jumbo, and Kashmire, are transported by men, usually Kashmirians, whose burthens are heavy, two of them making the load of a strong mule, and the hire is fixed at the rate of * four rupees for each carrier. The shawls, when exported from Kashmire, are packed in an oblong bale, containing a certain weight or quantity, which in the language of the country is termed a biddery, the outward covering of which is a buffalo's or ox's hide, strongly sewed with leather thongs. As these packages are supposed to amount, with little variation, to a value long since ascertained, they are seldom opened until conveyed to the destined market. A Kashmirian porter carries a load as a soldier does his knapsack, and when disposed to rest, he places under it a stick in the form of a crutch which supports the load and assists him also in walking. Two causes are assigned for employing men only in this service: an agreement, it is said, arising from a mutual jealousy, has been made between the chiefs bordering on either side of the river Chinnaun”, that no fixed bridge shall be constructed, or any boat stationed on that stream. The other cause ascribed, which seems to be more forcible, is the stupendous height and steepness of the intervening mountains, which renders the passages dangerous, if not wholly impracticable, to either a horse or mule. It appears that Jumbo continued to increase its power and commerce until the year 1770, the period of Runzeid Deve's death; when one of his sons, the present chief, contrary to the intention and express will of his father, seized on the government, put to death one of his brothers, the intended successor, and imprisoned another ; who having made his escape, sought the protection of the Sicques. Pleased in having obtained so favourable a pretext for entering Jumbo, which they attempted in vain during the administration of Runzeid Deve, the Sicques promised to espouse the fugitive's cause with vigour. A small sum had been annually eX

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* The fourth Punjab river from the eastward.

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