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which, at that time, my vigilance preserved. His subsequent attempts however were more successful, as were seen in the diminution of my apparel. This freebooting system of the taylor's kept me in constant alarm, and displayed every day, in strong colours, the ill consequences of my Christian garb. ON the 24th, at Ghiraunee, six fursungs. A populous walled village, situate near a small running water. Halted there the next day to make the payment of a toll, and purchase provisions for a three days journey over a desert, which reaches from this place to the confines of Khorasan. My Kashmirian servant was wholly divested of religious fervour, or a religious cloak. For he neither prayed nor washed; but, was much addicted to theft; and while the taylor purloined my cloths, he was occupied in stealing my victuals. Yet this propensity was, in some degree, compensated by his services, which found active employment in bringing water and fuel, baking cakes, and boiling my coffee. ON the 27th, at Khoos, in the desert, five fursungs. The taylor's payments for conveyance not being regularly made, the seat was again put up to sale, when it was purchased by an Hindostany Mahometan, who had left his wife and family at Juanpour, in the destrict of Benares,
and was thus far advanced on a pilgrimage to Muschid. From the mouth of this devotee, who had formerly been a marauding soldier, there issued an almost incessant ejaculation of prayer. In truth it may be said, that he overflowed in holy zeal; for he prayed and cried in a successive rotation. What an extraordinary character would this be thought in a country where its inhabitants, though shunning no peril or fatigue in the pursuit of wealth and pleasure, will scarcely cross a street to look into a church. The various precepts of education and religion, established in the world, but especially, the different orders of government, produce so strong a dissimilarity in the manners of men, that in investigating those of the most opposite tendency, they would seem to arise from beings of a distinct species. ON the 28th, at Gimmuch, seven fursungs, a station in the desert. ON the 29th, at Ouckal, a large walled village, standing within the limit of the province of Khorasan, and inhabited wholly by Persians. It is proper here to observe, that the natives of Persia proper, particularly the soldiery, are often termed at home, as in foreign countries, Kuzzel Bach; a Turkish compound, signifying, I am informed, red head, and originating from the Persian cap being covered at the top with red cloth.
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On the 30th, a halt.
On the 31st at Sheerhuchsh, a desert station, six fursungs.
On the 1st of Novemher, at Zearut Ghah, seven fursungs. A small village, on the skirts of which are seen the remains of some tombs or religious edifices.
On the 2nd, at the city of Herat, three fursungs. The road from Kandahar to Gimmuch leads to the west, or west by north; from thence to Herat, it has, I apprehend, nearly a northern course, yet I cannot account for the sudden deviation of the track. The country is generally open, and interspersed with barren rocky hills of a moderate height. The soil is light and sandy, producing naturally little else than the aromatic weed before noted.
The city of Herat stands on a spacious plain, which is intersected with many springs of running water, some of which are supplied with bridges; and the numerous villages, surrounded with plantations, must afford a pleasant'view to the traveller, whose eye has been wearied with the deserts of Afghanistan.
The director of the kafilah carried us to the karavansera, where passengers only are lodged; the other places of this description being all occupied by resident traders. In this square of the
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karavansera, I perceived an Armenian, whom I informed, with little ceremony, least he should hear a less favourable story, that I was an European, returning from India into my own country : but, for greater personal security, I had assumed the name of an Armenian. And to quiet any suspicion of the truth of my relation, I produced a letter, which the Georgian, Bagdasir, had written in my favour to an Armenian, who lived in a village about forty miles from Herat. My address was closed by observing, that though not in want of money, I stood in great need of his friendly offices, as he must be well aware of the various difficulties affecting those of our sect, especially when alone, among so bigotted a people as those of Khorasan. The Armenian heard the little oration, which all my powers of speech had pointed at him, with a resolute coolness, and perceiving, I suppose, that my acquaintance would yield no profit, he turned from me and went away, without even expressing the common terms of civility. The frequent occasions which have occurred to me of noticing the Armenian character, soon cooled my resentment, and enabled me to reconcile the wariness and apathy of this man, with the common principles which govern his sect. THE present race of Armenians, like the Jews, are, with little exception, occupied in commerce,
chiefly in its smallest branches, and having long
lost with their country the spirit of patriotism, divested also of any valuable attainments of knowledge, they exhibit but a faint discrimination of character; being generally industrious, servile, and dishonest; they are scattered over various parts of Turkey, Persia, and India, where, except in the English colonies, they live on a precarious sufferance, being often, on trivial pretences, insulted, oppressed, and plundered. To palliate the evils inherent to their situation, and create a substitute for powers, honours, and national importance, they pursue the different roads of traffic with unremitting ardour, and invariably measure their pleasures by the mere extent of their wealth. Little susceptible of friendship, they are rarely induced to afford even among themselves mutual assistance, or disposed to promote the enjoyment of society: the Armenians at this day are divided into two general classes; the one, the most numerous, established in the Turkish dominions; the other in Persia. The city of Jolfa, contiguous to Ispahan, was expressly founded for the accommodation of the Armenians, by Shah Abbas, who, aware of the benefits that would accrue to his kingdom, from a commercial and temperate people, gave them an ample protection, and many indulgencies. He permitted them, it is said, to accompany their adventures to foreign countries, and advanced a