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Hindu temples we find that in the place of arches we have

the following arrangement :




where it will be seen that the opening of the arch is obtained by putting the beams over one another in a peculiar manner.

As regards materials, it was not considered right to mix old and new material, or baked and unbaked bricks. But where it was absolutely necessary to have recourse to the latter mixture, the unbaked bricks were placed in the foundations over some layers of baked bricks, and above that they might be placed in any order one chose.

The Brihat-samhita lays down rules as to the particular kinds of wood to be used in house-building. Wood of thorny trees, or of trees exuding milk, or of Kadamba, or of Bhallataka, was considered undesirable. The Jack-tree and Sandal-wood are highly recommended. It is not easy to find out the grounds on which these selections were made. Mere strength or lasting properties of the wood do not appear to have been the criterion; for the wood of thorny trees is generally tough, and yet this has been discarded. It would appear as if these selections also were based upon sanitary considerations.

The disposition of the several houses was as follows:—

The Eastern House was used as the Shri-Griha' (as the 'devagriha' is separately mentioned, this would appear to be the best furnished drawing-room).

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W. N.-W. N.


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Sleeping house.

Armoury (according to Agni-Purāna) and Store-house for utensils (according to Brihat-samhita).

Dining Room.


"Devagriha "- Temple of the Household God.

They thought it desirable to have open spaces around the house; and this compound had two outlets-the principal gate being on the east; a subsidiary one towards the south. All refuse was to go out of this latter gate; and near this gate was also to be the place for lumber and such work as the hewing of wood and the like.

The dwelling-house should not be very far from the source of water-supply. In the space intervening between the house and the water, it was thought desirable to have a garden. In the household itself, separate rooms should be assigned to separate business; there should be two bed-rooms; in which there should be bed-steads, covered with white sheet, which should be washed at least every third day; there should be two pillows; one towards the head and another towards the feet. Towards the head of the bed there should be a small table for keeping articles of worship, books, scents, powders for arresting perspiration, and such other things. There should always be a spitoon on the floor ;-musical instruments should be hung on pegs in the wall; outside in the garden there should be a swing in a shady place. All these details are laid down in Vatsyāyana's Kāmāsūtra.

In regard to kitchens, we have the following directions in the Sushruta-sāmhitā (Kalpasthāna, Adhyāya, I) :—The kitchen should be roomy; having a door towards the north; a curtain or chik should hang in this door in order to prevent the entering of flies, etc.; over the top of the walls there should be netted openings for the exit of smoke; there should be a ceiling in the roof; the utensils should be cleaned with ashes and washed each time they are used; no one should enter in the kitchen. unless he has bathed and put on clean clothing, and carefully cleaned his nails.


In regard to the ways of living and feeding and drinking we meet with minute instructions.

The Kamasutra mentions the following as absolutely necessary :

Daily bath, daily massage of the body with perfumed oil, soaping every third day, cropping of the head and shaving of the chin and paring of nails once a week, the pulling out of inconvenient hairs every tenth day (but the hair in the nose should never be pulled out), the constant wiping of perspiration with a napkin, devoting three-eighths of the day to business, food during the fourth and eighth parts of the day; [but some people would have the second feeding at night]; sleep during the day only in summer; amusements, chiefly music in the evening.

In addition to the above, the Bhāvaprakasha makes daily; combing of the hair also a necessity; so also daily physical exercise, specially during winter and spring; but the exercise should never go beyond a man's 'half strength.' Sushruta also lays stress on this precaution, and says that if it exceeds the limit of 'half strength', exercise becomes harmful; it also explains how one is to know when he has reached this limit-' when the breath from the heart begins to come to the mouth rather quickly (i.e. when one begins to pant) and the mouth begins to get dry, these are signs of the limit of half-strength having been reached'. After this the exercise should be stopped. Exercise should never

follow close after a meal. Physical exercise should be avoided by men suffering from cough, asthma, consumption and hæmorrhage (Bhāvaprakāsha, 4 : 59). Dirty clothes should never be worn; only two meals should be taken; the first meal being taken between 9 and 12.

Very much fuller detailed directions are found in the Charaka and Sushruta-samhita.

Sushruta-sāṁbitā (Adhyāya, 5) has defined the 'healthy man as one whose bodily wants arise at regular intervals, the operation of whose bodily elements and the working of whose excretory organs are regular and normal, and whose organs and mind. are happy'.

Among daily duties, we have the following laid down in the Charak-sāṁhitā (Sūtrasthāna Adhyāyā, 5):—The teeth and tongue should be cleaned twice daily, morning and evening; the head should be oiled; oil should be dropped into the ear; oil should be rubbed over the body; daily bath followed by the wearing of clean clothes, applying of sandal-paint, wearing of sweet-smelling flowers, the cropping and cleaning of the hair; one should never go out without shoes, umbrella and stick at night; collyrium should be applied to the eyes; smoking twice a day; and in connection with smoking it is interesting to note that the method of smoking was somewhat similar to cigar-smoking; the Kadambari, for instance, speaks of a king as 'paripitadhumavartih' having smoked the roll; ' and the Charaka-sāṁhita lays down the details of preparing this' roll '; thirty-two sweet-smelling substances were powdered and made into a "roll" as thick as the thumb, and in smoking, fire was lighted at one end of this roll and the other end was put into the mouth. It is gratifiying to find that not one of the thirtytwo substances prescribed is tobacco, opium or any narcotic drug. Smoking has been prohibited for weak and fatigued persons.

In connection with the seasons we are told that, during winter the food taken should be hot and dry. During spring purgatives and emetics are beneficial; heavy food of any kind,

specially butter, should be avoided. During summer the food should be very light, rice being substituted for wheat, and all physical exercise should be avoided. During the rains honey should be taken with food; on days when it is raining hard one must eat acids, salt and butter. During autumn rice mixed with light meat is wholesome; no purgative should be taken during this season; drinking water should be exposed to the sun and to moonlight; one should move about as much as possible in moonlight.

Whenever there is desire for evacuation, for vomitting, for sneezing, for yawning, for food, for water, for sleep, or for breathing (after exercise), it should not be checked. The checking of these is very harmful. What one must check is the force of such things as too much daring, the passions, hasty speech, strong appetites, avarice and fear.

For the preventing of disease it is necessary that one should give up all indiscretions, should keep his organs of sense under proper control; the directions laid down in the scriptures, as also the results of past experience, should be duly noted and borne in mind; one should always take into consideration the peculiarities of time, of place and of his own condition: and he should never deviate from the right course of conduct (Charaka-sām hitā, Adhyāya, 7).

Food should never be taken before bath; before a sitting down to dinner or breakfast, one must change his clothes and wash his mouth, hands and feet; the vessels should all be washed and cleaned; so also the place; one should not eat in a crowded place; food cooked overnight is unwholesome (Charaka-samhita, Adhyāya, 8). The food should be hot, soft and not very dry, it should be taken in measured quantities; there should be a long interval between two meals; meals should never be hurried ; too much water should not be drunk after meals (Charaka-sāṁhitā, Nidanasthana, Adhyāya I).

In regard to drinking water the Charaka-samhitä (Nidan.• sthana, Adhyaya, 2) says that stagnant water is always heavier than flowing water; sea-water should never be drunk; one should

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