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together in 1080 A.H. (1669–1670). Only one manuscript of this work is known to exist, which belongs to the library of His Highness the Nawab of Rampur in Rohilkhand, to whose enlightened courtesy I am indebted for the opportunity of taking a copy of

the more important portions of it. (iii) Letters addressed by Aurangzib to Murshid Quli Khan

when diwan of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, about 1700 -1705, included in imperial secretary Inayetullah Khan's Ahkam-i-Alamgiri, of which there are only two extant manuscripts, namely one belonging to the Nawab of Rampur and the other to the Khuda Bakhsh

collection of Bankipore. By means of these sources the middle and close of the century are brightly lit up for the historian, but the other portions of it will remain dark till some other happy discovery among Persian manuscripts.

SECTION 2.-List or MUGHAL SUBAHDARS. Baqar Khan Najam Sani, 4th February 1628-1632. The order removing him from Orissa was dated 24th June

1632, but he reached the imperial court on return on

13th January 1633. Mutaqad Khan (Mirza Maki), 1632-1641. The order removing him from Orissa was issued on 9th

March 1640, but he reached the imperial court on

29th July 1641. Shah Nawaz Khan, 1641-16 12. Appointed to Orissa on 9th March 1610, but went there

about the middle of 1641, removed by order dated 8.1 March 1642, but continued in the province till

the end of the year. Muhammad Zaman Tihrani (as agent of Prince Shuja), 1642-1645. Order of appointment dated 8th March 1642, removal

dated 21st November 1645,

Mutaqad Khan, 1645-1648Appointed 21st November 1645. Recalled to court in the 22nd year

of Shah Jahan's reign (July 1648—June 1649). Tarbiyat Khan (Shafiullah Birlas, vilayet-za) as agent of

Prince Shuja, 1655-1656.
Anarchy, 1658-1659.
Ihtisham Khan, November 1659-September 1660.
Khan-i-Dauran, September 1660-May 1667. *
Tarbiyat Khan, June 1667–October 1669.
Safi (or Saif] Khan, October 1669—?
Rashid Khan, ?–March 1676.
Shaista Khan, March 1676—December 1676 (?)
Nurullah, (as agent of Prince Azam), June 1678 —?
Kamgar Khan, ?-1704.
Murshid Quli Khan, 1704-1725.

SECTION , --THE EXPANSION OF THE MUGHAL PROVINCE OF

ORISSA. In the 16th century the independent Rajahs of Orissa were crushed between the upper mill-stone of the Afghans advancing southwards from Bengal and the nether mill-stone of the Qutb Shahi power of the Golkonda) expanding northwards from the Madras side. Under Akbar the Mughals

. held only the northern portion of Orissa, while the central portion was ruled by native princes with semi-independent powers, but bearing the title of monsabdars in the Mughal peerage. The Qutb Shahis held the southern extremity of the province. In the reign of Shah Jahan the power of Golkonda was broken by the Mughals in 1636 and 1656, and Qutb Shah became a loyal feudatory of the Emperor of Delhi, paying him an annual tribute.

* In Muraqat, page 48, Ihtisham Khan says that he has been recently appointed Subahdar of Orissa and would reach Medinipur on 9th Rabi-ul-awral, year one of Aurangzib's reign. This would yield the date 25th November 1658, when Shuja was iu possession of all the country between Benares and Orissa, and therefore no officer of Aurangzib could have reached Medinipar. Moreover, Ihtisham Khan was sent to Bengal after the defeat of Shuja in January 1659. I have, therefore, changed the date to 9th Rabi-ul-awwal, year two (=14th Novem• ber 1659). The Alamgirna mah says that the Emperor learnt of Khan-i-Dauran's death on 7th December 1667 (page 1067), but on page 1050 le is represented as dead in the preceding Jane. I have accepted the latter date.

Early in Aurangzib's reign Mäluh (or Malud) was the southernmost outpost of Mughal Orissa, and beyond it lay the QutbShahi district of Chicacole, from which the Golkonda tribute "appertaining to the province of Orissa,” about Rs. 20,000 a year, was sent to the Mughal Subahdar of Orissa (Muraqat, 51, 160).

This result, however, was achieved after much fighting. On 13th Bahman, 12th regnal year, (about the end of January, 1618), Jahangir records in his Memoirs, “At this time it was reported to me that Mukarram Khan, the governor of Orissa, had conquered the country of Khurda, and that the Rajah of that place had fled and gone into Rajmahendra. Between the province of Orissa and Golkonda there are two zamindars, one the Rajah of Khurda and the second the Rajah of Rajmahendra. The province of Khurda has come into the possession of the servants of the Court. After this it is the turn of the country of Rajmahendra. My hope in the grace of Allah is that the feet of my energy may advance further. At this time a petition from Kutb-ul-mulk reached my son Shah Jahan to the effect that as the boundary of bis territory had approached that of the King [i.e., the Mughal Emperor], and he owed service to this Court, he hoped an order would be issued to Mukarram Khan not to stretch out his hand, and to acquire possession of his country (Rogers and Beveridge, i, 433).

In the winter of 1629-30, Baqar Khan, the Governor of Orissa, marched to Khirāpārah, 4 miles from Chattarduar, a very narrow pass on the frontier between the Qutbshahi kingdom and Orissa, and 24 miles from Mahendri, and plundered and laid waste its territory. The approach of the rainy season compelled him to retire without doing anything more. In the autumn of 1630

. he set out again, with friendly levies from the zamindars of Khalikot, Kudla and Ala, and on 3rd December arrived in the environs of Mansurgarh, a fort built by a Golkonda officer named Mansur, 8 miles from Khirāpārah. The enemy offered battle in the plain outside the fort, but were routed, and then the commandant of the fort, a Nāikwār, capitulated. Baqar Khan returned,

after leaving garrisons at Khirapärah and Mansurgarh (Hamiduddin's Padishahnamah, I.A., 333). The Qutbshahis assembled in force to recover the fort, but Baqar Khan on hearing of it made a forced march and defeated the Deccan army. The news of this second victory reached the Emperor on the 23rd April 1631 (Ibid, 373).

SECTION 4.--BAQAR KHAN'S ADMINISTRATION.

Complaints against Baqar Khan's oppression of the peasantry and zamindars repeatedly reached Shah Jahan's ears and at last on 24th June 1632 an order was issued removing him from the post. It is said that this Governor called all the zamindars of the province together and then threw them into prison to extort revenue. By his order seven hundred of the captives were massacred, and only one escaped and carried the tale to Shah Jahan's Court. This fugitive produced a list (tumar, rent-roll) showing that Baqar Khan had collected forty lakhs of rupees from the province. The Khan was in consequence recalled, and ordered to account for the money (Masir-ul-umara, iii, 484). His successor Mutaqad Khan ruled the province long and well, and died on 17th October 1651 in extreme old age.

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From September 1657, when Shah Jahan fell ill and a war of succession broke out among his sons, to 6th May 1660, when Shaja fled from Dacca and Aurangzib became the sole master of Eastern India, there was anarchy in Orissa. The troops and most of the officers were withdrawn by Prince Shuja for his two advances on Agra and latterly for his prolonged struggle with Mir Jumla in the Rajmahal and Malda Districts. Taking advantage of this state of things, all the Orissa zamindars withheld the revenue, and several of them built forts and looted their neighbourhood, for which they had afterwards to pay a heavy penalty, as we shall see in the section on Khan-i-Dauran's administration. But, by the autumn of the year 1659, Mir Jumla had established himself in Western Bengal in sufficient strength to enable him to letach from his army Ihtisham Khan to take charge of the governorless province of Orissa. Ihtisham Khan's stay there was too short to enable him to restore orderly government. That arduous task fell to the lot of Khan-iDauran, who in April, 1660, was transferred from Allahabad to Orissa and worked there as subahdar till his death in May, 1667.

Ihtisham Khan's first acts were to issue a proclamation that the khutba should be read in all the mosques of Orissa, in the name of the new Emperor Aurangzib (Muraqat, 45), and to send a parwanah to all the mansabdars, zamindars, chaudhuris, kanangoes, &c., of the province announcing his own appointment as subahdar and ordering them to meet him at Narayangarh, whither he would march from Medinipur, the northern frontier of the province, some time after 14th November 1659 (16rd, 47-49).

When, less than a year afterwards, he was replaced by Khani-Dauran, and sent to Bengal to serve under Mir Jumla, he tried to carry away with himself as prisoners for default of revenue, the brothers of Rajah Nilkantha Dev, Gopinath, the brother of Bharat Patnayak and chief officer of Rajah Mukund Dev, and the other zamindars of the environs of Katak. As their zamindaris could not be administered nor any rent collected in the absence of these men, the Mughal faujdar of Katak secured the release of Gopinath Patnayak by himself signing a bond for Rs. 14,000 to Ihtisham Khan.

And the other captives were similarly released. For this the faujdar was severely censured by Khan-i-Daurar, who insisted that they should be unconditionally delivered up to him as Ihtisham Khan's successor in office (Muraqat, 183-184, 156-157).

SECTION 6.-MUGHAL RECONQUEST OF ORISSA UNDER KHAN-I

DatraN, 1660-1663.

The first part of Khan-i-Dauran's viceroyalty was devoted to a task that was practically equivalent to the reconquest of Orissa for the Mughal Government, as Imperial authority had disappeared from the province during the late War of Succession.

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