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The state of anarchy is very graphically described in the letters of this subahdar: “All the zamindars are refractory, owing to the slack rule of my predecessors ” (page 134). The “zamindars on the further side of the Katjhuri, in the jurisdiction of Sayid Sher Khan, have refused tribute and declared war againt him” (page 59). “Krishna Bhanj, of Hariharpur, the leading zamindar of this province, during the interregnum spread his power over the country from Medinipur to Bhadrak, a distance of 50 or 60 kos, seizing the property of the inhabitants and wayfarers and severely oppressing the people” (pages 72 and 107). “The fort of Machhara or Bachhara (?) was wrested from Shuja's men by Lakshmi Narayan Bhanj, the Rajah of Keonjhur, during the time of disorder” (pages 52, 58, 129). "For the last three years, the zamindars on the further side of Katak have been collecting vast forces and getting ready for war” (page 72). “Bahadur the zamindar of Hijli is in rebellion” (page 130). “Chhut Rai has dispersed the ryots of Medinipur, and is building a fort in the jungles with evil intentions” (page 190). It is useless to give a list of the names of the other rebel zamindars here, as they will be mentioned in detail in the history of Khan-i-Dauran's campaigns which follows.

The farman appointing Khan-i-Dauran to Orissa was sent from the Imperial Court on 3rd April, 1660 (Alamgirnamah, 474). He received it at Allahabad, where he was subahdar, and soon set out for his new province “in the very height of the monsoons, defying raging storms, excessive mud, and flooded rivers, which had closed the paths" (Muraqat, 85). On 26th September he entered Medinipur, the first town after crossing the Orissa frontier (page 130). After spending some days here to settle the district, organise the civil administration and revenue collection and station faujdars in all directions, he set out for Jaleshwar, in the meantime writing to the zamindars of northern Orissa to meet him on the way and respects as loyal subjects (page 131). His intention was to "finish the Hijli business” first. Bahadur, the zamindar of that port, had rebelled, and had to be subdued before

pay their

the Mughal route from Medinipur viá Narayangarh and Jaleshwar to Baleshwar could be rendered safe. But “the other zamindars report that the country of Hijli is now covered with mud and water, and, not to speak of cavalry, even foot soldiers cannot traverse it. After a time, when the roads of the district became dry again, the campaign should be opened ” (pages 132 and 134). So, Khan-i-Dauran put off the idea, and went direct to Jaleshwar, which he reached in the latter half of October [?] (page 156).

At the news of the Governor's approach, both Bahadur and Krishna Bhanj, the Rajah of Hariharpur (i.e., Mayurbhanj), wrote to him professing submission and promising to wait on him at Jaleshwar (pages 133, 136 and 181). The Mughal faujdar of Remuna, on the Mayurbhanj frontier, wrote to the new Governor that the agents (wakils) of these two zamindars had reached him to arrange for their masters' interviews. He was ordered in reply to reassure them with kindness and send them back to their masters that they might come without fear or suspicion and see Khan-i-Dauran at Jaleshwar (page 181).

Section 7.--HARIHARPUR (MAYURBHANJ) AFFAIRS. Bahadur evidently changed his mind and held off; Krishna Bhanj [*] came, but met with a terrible fate, which is best described in the Governor's own words : “When I reached Jaleshwar, which is near his zamindari, Krishna Bhanj saw me after wasting a month on the pretext of choosing a lucky day{for the visit], and offered false excuses (for his late disloyal conduct]. During the inquiry and discussion for settling the amount of the revenue to be paid by him, he, inspired by pride in the largeness of his force, drew his dagger and rushed towards me. His companions,

[-] On page 156 we read that he expected to reach Jaleshwar on 19th October bat on page 137 we have a letter written by him on the 24th from the bank of the river of Jaleshwar.

[•] His offences are thus summed up : “He kept one thousand horses and ten or twelve thousand foot soldiers, and was obeyed and helped by all the zamind are of this country. (During the ap aroby] he had plunderod the tract from Bha drak 1 Medinipur,/oarried off the ryots to bis own territory, increased their cultivation and ruined the Imperial dominions" (page 107).

too, unsheathed their swords and made repeated charges. The grace of the Emperor saved my life. We slew Krishna Bhanj and many of his men. The rest fled. Some chiefs, such as Udand, the zamindar of Narsinghpur, Chhattreshwar Dhol, the zamindar of Ghatsila, and Harichandan, the zamindar of Nilgiri, threw away their weapons and delivered themselves up as prisoners ” (pages 72 and 107-109).

“ The relatives of the slain Rajah [of Mayurbhanj] raised disturbances, molesting the ryots. So, I started for Hariharpur to punish them and halted at Remuna on the frontier of his dominion. His brother, Jay Bhanj, submitted, begged pardon, and brought to me his mother and son and three elephants and some money as a present (peshkash), and begged the tika of the Rajahship and zamindari for the son. I agreed, and then started to panish the rebels near Katak” (page 109).


When the Khan reached Katak, Rajah Mukund Dev of Khurda," the leading zamindar of this country, whose orders are obeyed by the other zamindars”,-“whom all the other zamindars of this country worship like a god [8] and disobedience of whose order they regard as a great sin ” (pages 77 and 102), waited on him with due humility, accompanied by the other zamiņdars and Khandaits [of Central Orissa] (page 110). Then, "owing to the badness of the climate, a malady seized the governor and he was confined to bed for two months, unable to move about.” “The rustics [i.e., uncultivated local zamindars] seized the opportunity and caused disorder. Rajah Mukund Dev absented himself from the force sent by me to punish the rebels, and himself caused lawlessness. The Mughal troops subdued many of the rebels and took several forts. After recovering a little I (1.e., Khan-i-Dauran) on 7th February 1661 set out from Katak against the other forts which


[*] Cs. Stirling : “ The title of sovereignty has been alwsys acknowledged, by the general voice and feeling of the country, to vest in the Rajahs of Khurda. Down to the present moment the Rajahs of Khurda are the solo fountain of honour in this district " (86).


my "subordinates were too weak to capture” (page 77). "On 16th February I arrived near the forts of Kälupărah, Mutri, Karkahi, Kburdih) and (three) others,-seven forts close to each other on the side of a high hill. An assault was ordered next day. When our troops appeared near the forts, the enemy in a numberless host consisting of parks and infantry, both Khudshān (?) and zamindars of Bānki and Ranpur, and other Bhumiah: and Khandails,-offered battle. Our men slew many of them and carried their trenches at the foot of the hill and after repeated charges entered their [main ?] lines. The enemy fought with matchlocks, arrows, khāndahs, sablis, duārs, dhukans, sintis, etc., but being unable to resist fled away with their families. A great victory—unequalled by that of any former subahdar—was won. The seven forts were captured. Two or three days were spent in settling the conquered district and appointing thanahs(pages 99-101),

“On 20th February, 1661, I left for the conquest of Khurda, the ancestral home of Mukund Dev, situated in the midst of a dense jungle and lofty hills (page 78). On the 23rd, I encamped a mile from Khurda. The Rajah had fled from it, and we seized a vast amount of booty and many prisoners at his capital” (page 102). During the last 50 years, no other subahdar had reached these places. They were all conquered by my army ! and the rustics became the food of the pitiless sword. I gave Mukund Dev's ,throne to his younger brother Bhunar

(pagel 78). [Stirling spells the name as Bhowerber]. The victorious subahdar halted at Khurda for some days. The fate of the premier Rajah of the province struck a salutary terror in the hearts of the other evil-doers. « All lawless men are now waiting on me with every mark of abject submission. The zamindar of Bānki and Khand Narendra (the zamindar of Ranpur) have sent trusty agents to arrange for their interview with me. The path for collecting the revenue has been opened in all places and mabals. Rajah Mukund Dev, who had been ill-advised enough to defy my authority and withhold tribute, finding no way of escape from our heroes, saw me penitently on 18th March,

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The rebel Bharat [Patnayak], too, has done the same (pages 158-159). Mukund Dev was afterwards restored to his throne, as we know from other sources.

An interesting bit of the history of the Khurda Rajahs is furnished in a letter of Khan-i-Dauran to his agent at the Imperial Court. “Received

“Received your letter reporting that a counterfeit Gangadhar has gone to the Court and secured an interview with Kumar Ram Singh (Kachhwa, son of Mir za Rajah Jay Singh] through the mediation of Rai Brindaba ndas, the musharraf of the elephant department, and offered to pay every year 12 lakhs of rupees as tribute if the State is given to him. When I arrived in this province, Mukund Dev was the Rajah of Khurda. As he caused disturbances, I expelled him from his zamindari and gave the tika of Rajahship to his younger brother and reported the case to the Emperor. I have learnt the following facts from trustworthy men :-when the late Mutaqad [*] Khan was subahdır, he slew Narsingh Dev and made his nephew Gangadhar Rajah. Balabhadra Dev, the elder brother of the slain, became Rajah after killing Gangadhar with the help of the officers of the State. When he died, Mukund Dev succeeded at the age of four years only. During the administration of Muhammad Haiat, the agent of Shuja, a pretended Gangadhar appeared and created a disturbance. He was slain by a confedoracy of the zamindars near Katak. After my arrival in the province, another man claiming to be the same (Rajah) appeared in Tilmāl (in South Orissa). Muhammad Jan, the faujdar of that district, arrested him and sent him to me, and he is still confined in the fort of Mankhandi at Katak, They say another man assuming the same name is roving in the jungles” (pages 186-187).

SECTION 9.—MORE CONQUESTS BY KHAN-I-DAURAN. On 8th March 1661, the subahdar left Katak to chastise Lakshmi Narayan Bhanj, the Rajah of Keonjhur, who had wrested the fort of Machhara or Bachhara from Shuja's men

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[*] The Persian Ms. reads Muta mad, a mistaka.

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