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She replied, "I made them, but I have many enemies." Thākur
Jiu enquired who they were, and she replied, "Who, but Singh
Sādom!" Thakur Jiu then said, "Kick the pieces into the
Sōrā Nai and the Samud Nai." (Here the following is sung
by the reciter,

"Oh! The Day-horse, Oh! The Day-horse,

The Day-horse has gone to the river Gang,
The Day-horse has floated to the Sōra sea,
Oh! The Day-horse.")

Thakur Jiu then said to Malin Budhi, "I again give you a blessing, go make two human beings." Having prepared them she went to Thakur Jiu who said, "Well, have you got them ready?" She replied, "They are ready, give them the gift of life." He said, "Above the door frame is the life (or spirit) of birds, do not bring that; upon the sanga (cross beam) is the life of human beings, bring it." So she went, but being of low stature she could not reach the sanga, so she brought the bird's life from above the door, and no sooner had she given it to them, than they flew up into the heavens, where they continued to course about, whether for twelve years or twelve months is doubtful. The names of the birds were Hās and Hasin. At length the desire to breed came upon them, and they went to Thakur Jiu and said, "You gave us being, but we cannot find a place on which to rest." He replied, "I will prepare a place for you."

Living in the water were Sõle Häkō (Sole fish), Kätkōm (Crab), Lendet Kuar (Prince Earth worm), and Lendom Kuār. Thakur Jiu having called them ordered them to raise the earth above the water. Sōle Häkō said, "I will raise the earth above the water," but after repeated trials he was obliged to own his inability to do so. Then Katkōm came, and said, "I will do it," but he also failed. Lendet Kuär then came and undertook to accomplish it. He put his head under the water, and swallowed earth which passing through him fell upon the surface of the water, but immediately sank to the bottom again. Then Lendom Kuār said, "Within the water resides Kāchim Kuār (Prince Tortoise);

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if we fasten him at the four corners with chains, and then raise the earth on his back it will remain, and not fall into the water again." Having secured Kachim Kuar with chains Lendet Kuar raised the earth on his back, and in a short time there was an island in the middle of the waters. Thakur Jiu then caused a Karam tree* to spring up, and at the foot of the Karam tree he caused Sirōm grasst to grow. He then caused Dhōbi grass‡ to spring up, after which he covered the earth with all kinds of trees and herbs. In this manner the earth became firm and stable.

Then the birds Hās and Hasin came and alighted on the Karam tree, and afterwards made their nest among the Sirom grass at its foot. Here the female laid two eggs, and Raghop Buar ca me and ate them. Again she laid other two eggs, and again Raghop Buår came and devoured them. Then Has and Häsin went to Thakur Jiu and informed him that Raghop Buar had twice eaten their eggs. On hearing this Thakur Jiu said, "I shall send some one to guard your eggs." So calling Jaher-era, he committed the eggs of the birds Has and Hasin to her care. So well did she perform her task that the female was allowed to hatch her eggs from which emerged two human beings, a male and a female, whose names were Pilchu Haṛām and Pilchu Budhi. Thakur Jiu constituted Marang Buru (Great Spirit ?) their guardian. (Here the reciter sings,

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Hãe, hãe, two human beings,

Hãe, hae, are born in the water,

Hãe, hãe, how can I bring them up?

Hãe, hae, where can I place them?”

"My mother gave me birth among the Sirom grass,

My father had his dwelling at the Karam tree foot.")

Here they resided subsisting upon the grain of the grasses Suntu bukuc' § and Sama, and Maräng Buru came

Adina cordifolia Hook f. Benth.

† Andropogon muricatus, Retz

Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.

§ Eleusine Egyptiaca, Pers.
Panicum colonum, Lina.


to visit them daily. When they had grown up Thakur Jiu created the Kapil cow. She had two bull-calves, and on their attaining full age, Marang Buru one day said to Pilchu Hāṛām, "Make a plough." He replied, "I do not know how to make a plough." Marang Buru then said to Pilchu Budhi, "Granddaughter, you remain at home, we are going to the forest to cut timber." On reaching the forest Marang Buru shewed how to cut the trees, and which to cut for the separate pieces of the plough. Having accomplished this they brought the wood home, Marang Buru then said, "" Grandson, shape the different pieces of the plough, for I must leave you." The day following he came and said, "Have you completed the plough?" "Yes," he replied, "it is now finished." Marang Buru then said, Yoke the cattle to the plough," and when he had done so, he said, "Now plough. I must leave you again, but shall return to-morrow." Next day when he came he said," Have you finished ploughing?" Pilchu Hāṛām replied, "Yes." Then said Marang Buru, "We shall sow to-day." Pilchu Haṛām said, "What shall we sow?" Marang Buru said, "We shall sow Iri* and Gundli. +" After these had been sown they asked, "What shall we sow now ? " He replied, "Rice." So they sowed rice in the Gangi Jabani field. When the rice had grown somewhat Marang Buru ordered them to weed it, which they did. The rice grew and ripened. Then Marang Buru enquired, "Are the iri and gundli ripe ?” They replied, "They are." "Is the rice ripe ?" They replied "The rice is also ripe." Marang Buru addressing the girl said, "Clean the house with cowdung, to-morrow we shall offer the first-fruits of the iri, gundli, and rice." He then left them, as was his wont. On the morrow when he came he enquired if his orders had been carried out, and being answered in the affirmative, he said to Pilchu Haṛām, "Come, my grandson, let us go to bathe." After having bathed

Panicum frumentaceum, Linn.

+ Panicum miliare, Lamk.

they reaped iri and gundli. They prepared an offering of ▲ few ears of each, and milk from the Kapil cow. Pilchu Hārām then enquired, "To whom shall I offer it?" Marang Buru replied, "I know, I shall show you." So facing the East he presented the offering along with a suitable prayer.

After having performed this ceremony Marang Buru said to Pileku Hārām and Pilchu Budhi, "Reap it all, and separate the grain from the straw and chaff." When he returned next day he enquired if all had been reaped, threshed, and winnowed as he had directed. On knowing that it was so, he said to Pilchu Budhi, "Oh! Granddaughter, boil this rice, and then spread it out to dry, after which husk it." On his arrival next day he said, "Well, Granddaughter, have you husked the rice ?" She replied," I have done according to your orders." He then said, "Granddaughter, wash the floor with cowdung, and put some rice in water, and when sufficiently steeped take it out, and the Grandson and myself will go to the forest to bring Ranu ran."* On reaching the forest Marang Buru pointed out to Pilchu Hāṛām the plants to dig. When they had secured sufficient for their purpose they returned.


They then washed the roots they had brought in water, and placed them in a new basket. Maräng Buru then ordered them to bring a leafy branch of the Sōsō treet with which to cover the basket. "Oh! Granddaughter, take the put it into a basket to strain the water off, and then place it in the sun." Marang, Buru then ordered her to make

He then said to the girl, rice out of the water, and

* The root generally employed for the purpose of producing fermentation in the grain in the manufacture of rice beer is that of Ruellia suffruticosa, Roxb., which is known to the Santals as Chaulia. The root of another plant of the species Plectranthus, Nat. Order, Labiatæ, is also used for the same purpose. It is said that when an extra strong brew is desired the root of Clerodendron serratum, Spreng, is added. This plant is known to the Santals by the name of Saram lutur, or the Sambur's ear from the resemblance the leaf bears in shape to the ear of that animal.

+ Semicarpus anacardium, L. f..

the rice into flour, and to Pilchu Haṛām he said, "Take the ranu ran and grind it very fine." When this had been done it was put into a new earthen pot with water, and afterwards the liquid was poured off into another vessel, and the ranu ran thrown away. Marang Buru then directed them to make the flour into a paste with the water in which the ranu ran had been. When this was done he ordered them to make the paste into balls, and put them into a basket with straw. He then left them, but returned in three days.

He then said to Pilchu Budhi, "Well, Granddaughter, what is the ranu like now?" She replied, "It is dry." He then said, "Take the ranu out from the basket, and put it into an earthen pot; I will come again to-morrow, and you, Granddaughter, in the meantime prepare some rice." When he came next day he found rice husked as he had ordered. He then said, "Boil some rice, and having washed a part of the floor with cowdung, empty the rice out on it to dry.”

The following morning he found the rice dry, and told the girl to bring the ranu balls which were in the earthen pot, and having bruised them with the wooden measure, to mix them up with the boiled rice, and then to return all again to the earthen pot, and after sprinkling a little water over it, to cover the mouth of the vessel. He then left them saying he would return in three days.

When he returned, he said, "Oh! Granddaughter, is the handi* ready?" She replied, "Oh! Grandfather, the handi smells strongly." Marang Buru then said, "Heat some water and pour it on the handi, and having done so wash the floor with cowdung while we two go to bathe. On their return from bathing Marang Buru said to Pilohu Budhi, "Bring some of the handi, the Grandson and I will offer a libation," When the handi was brought he poured out a libation, and then turning to Pilchu Hārām and Pilchu Budhi, he said, "Drink the handi, drink

• The name given by Santals to the liquor prepared from rice, or other grains.

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