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in Badoli fort for three days at the end of which the Kiskus returned to Kōenda fort. The bride wished to return to her father's house in their company, but they objected saying, "Stay where you are, in five or six days we will return for you. She was deaf to all entreaty and followed them home. After ten days the Marndi bridegroom came for his bride and was regally entertained three days. When he expressed his intention to return home, his mother-in-law said, "Yes, you shall go tomorrow. "Clothes were washed and the bride informed that the next day she would be required to accompany her husband.

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When the bridegroom and his companions were ready to leave, the girl was called, but she refused to quit her room. She was then forcibly brought out and her father addressing the bridegroom said, " She belongs to you, take her away. When he asked her to come with him she turned her head away and sulked. Her mother then said, "Take her with you. If she will not go, drag her, or employ any other means which may seem best to you. The bridegroom having received permission seized her and dragged her off. She caught at every branch and bush on the way, and he lopped them off one after the other with his kāpi or battle axe. After they had proceeded a considerable distance in this manner, and his arm having become wearied, in attempting to cut off a branch which she had clutched he missed his stroke and chopped off one of her fingers. He bitterly lamented the mishap, and fearing the vengeance of her brothers when it became known, he cut her down with his kāpi, and then cut his own throat with the same weapon.

2.-The manner in which the Santals were taught music and to dance.

In the beginning the Santals worshipped no deities, and did not know the use of musical instruments, and could not dance. Two of their number, one belonging to the Tūḍū sept and the other to the Besra, set out on an exploring expedition and penetrated deeply into the heart of the great forest. Towards evening they heard the sound of music and not knowing what

it was they went to see from whence it proceeded. On nearing the place they became afraid, and in order to see over the brushwood they climbed up into a tree, and beheld Mōrēko, Jāher-erā, Mārāng Būrū and Gōsaē-era dancing. Suddenly one of the dancers stood still and said, "There are human beings near, I smell them. " Jāher-era said, "Whether you smell men or beasts, do them no harm, but bring them here." The two adventurers danced with the bōngās all night learning both to play and dance. In the morning they were given two drums and dismissed with the following injunction, "Go and tell your people all about us. Tell them to venerate and respect us and annually to offer sacrifices to us. You must also instruct them to play music and to dance, and we order you to teach the people of twelve villages every night. This, it is said, they accomplished, and in this manner the Santāls learned the use of musical instruments and the art of dancing.


3.-Legend of the vulture.

When the Santals had increased and become families, they were in the habit of laying their infants outside in the courtyards of their houses to sleep. A vulture which had its nest somewhere near by carried off many babies who were lying exposed in the various courtyards of the houses. At length the Santāls were aroused to action. They said, "This vulture if allowed to continue its depredations will in course of time make the country desolate, come let us go and search for it and destroy it. " So armed with their bows and arrows they set out, and after traversing many leagues of hill and dale they found the vulture sitting upon her nest on a high Sohōdā (Bombax Malabaricum) tree in the Siri forest. The nest was so compactly constructed of materials impenetrable by an arrow that even a chink through which she could be shot was not apparent. On more careful inspection they observed that an argom [1] was built into the nest and it was [1] This is an implement drawn by two oxen and used by cultivators to crush clods.

decided to shoot her through the hole into which the shaft had been inserted. Two of the brothers Kārā and Gūjā, the best bowmen of the family, were selected to do the deed. To Kāṛā, the elder, was given the first opportunity, and so accurate was his aim that his arrow entering by the hole in the argom pierced the breast of the vulture as she sat over her young ones in the nest. She flew out but having received a deadly wound fell to the ground with such force as to cause a huge depression in the earth's surface which, filling with water, became a lake.

Having rid the country of the vulture they turned their steps homewards hunting as they went. A Mürüm deer (Nilgai) fell to a well-aïmed arrow, and a pole was cut on which the deer was slung to be carried home. On reaching the entrance to the village street they deposited their burden on the ground and sat down to rest. A knife was needed to flay and cut up the carcase and a man was sent to bring one.


The eldest of the seven brothers pulled up some khasi (Saccharum spontaneum) grass and sat on it. The second brother pulled several handfuls of Marnḍi (Ischæmum rugosum) grass to sit on. The third brother was ordered to flay the deer, and the fourth to cut up. To the next in order of birth was assigned the duty of wrapping pieces of the venison in leaves to roast in ashes. He had just bathed and had laid his wet loincloth (bhāgwā) aside and by mistake he folded it up in leaves instead of a piece of venison and placed it in ashes to be baked. When it was thought the meat would be sufficiently cooked it was rescued from the ashes and the charred leaves stripped off when it was seen that it was a bhagwa and not flesh. The others said to him, "What have you done? We told you to wrap venison in leaves and bake it in hot ashes and you have baked your bhagwā instead." He replied, "I laid the bhagwā near the meat and thus made the mistake."

It was at this time that several of the tribal divisions had their origin. The one who sat on the khasi grass (Saccharum spontaneum, Linn.) became Kisků. He who sat on the Marnḍi grass became Marndi. The slayer of the Mūrūm (Portax pictu) duer became Mūrūm Thakur, and he who shot the vulture Chil-bindha

(or vulture-piercer). The one who baked his bhāgwā in place of venison became Lât Tūdu, one who ate baskē dākā or stale rice in the morning was named Baske, and he who was sent to bring a knife and fire became Sōren.

4.-Legend of the confusion of tongues.

In the early days of the world all the dwellers on it regarded themselves as belonging to one family and dwelt at peace among themselves. The god Marang Bürü, for reasons best known to himself, wished to break them up into different castes or tribes, and with that end in view he caused large quantities of certain kinds of food to be prepared and placed on huge leaf-plates, which he caused to be deposited on a large level plain. Having gathered all the males together he pointed out to them the plates of food and ordered them to select whichever they liked best. There was an immediate rush in the direction indicated by Marāng Būrū and the first to arrive chose the plate of beef, and seizing it bore it off in triumph to the jungle. The next in order to arrive chose the plate of goat's flesh, the next who came chose the fish, and the last had perforce to take what all the others had rejected, a dish of milk and rice. The first party, strong in wind and limb, and not lacking in intelligence as their choice of the beef amply attested, became Santāls. Those who followed and took the goat's flesh became Mundās and those who took the fish became Bhūias. last of all who had to be content with rice and milk were the ancestors of the Brahmans.


By Sarat Chandra Roy,M.A.

The few legends that some old Mundās still recount about the mythical adventures of their gods are, like similar legends amongst other savage or barbarous races, characterized by a belief in sorcery and 'shape-shifting' or metamorphosis and generally by a 'confusion of all things in an equality of presumed animation and intelligence.'

I-Myths regarding the Principal Deities.

The Supreme Deity of the Mundās is known as Singbōngā or the Sun-god, and the being who ranks next to him in the Munda pantheon is Bārndā sometimes identified with Marăng-bürü or the Great Mountain. Although in religious symbolism the Sun represents Singbōngā who is regarded with religious respect and awe as their only moral and benevolent deity, and some high hill is identified with Barna or Marang-būrū, in the mythical stories about them, they are represented as personal beingspersons in the same state of savagery as the people who invented them. A few of these myths are given below.

1.-How Singbongā created Man.

Singbōngå first fashioned two clay figures, one meant to represent a man and the other a woman. But before he could endow the figures with life, the horse apprehensive of future trouble from them trampled them under its hoofs. In those days the horse had wings and could move about much faster than now. When Singbōnga found that the horse had destroyed his earthen figures of men, he first created a spider and then fashioned

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