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found Lita inside. She brought him up as her own child.

Liță had long locks of hair. river one of his locks came off. fig and cast the fig adrift. princess who was bathing in the river. The princess was taken with the lock and told her father the king that she would have none but the owner of that lock of hair for her husband. king sent out messengers far and near and eventually found Lița who in due course became his son-in-law.*

One day while bathing in the He put the lock of hair inside a The fig was picked up by a young



A man had seven sons. The youngest boy whose name was Gukchomdeya was employed as a shepherd. One day, when he went out with his flock he took some fried pulse to eat. At midday while the sheep and the goats gathered together under a tree to rest the boy began to eat the fried pulse. Many of the sheep and goats began to work their mouths while sleeping and the boy thinking that they were making faces at him, flew into a rage and killed them all. When he came home without his herd he was questioned by his mother and he told her what he had done. His brothers were very angry and they went and fetched the carcases home. To mark their displeasure they refused to give him any of the mutton. He begged for some blood and entrails and these they gave him out of pity. Setting out on a journey with these provisions he came to a camping ground which was being prepared for the reception of the king. In the evening he climbed up a tall tree below which the royal tent was pitched. The king arrived next morning with his retinue course he undressed and prepared for his bath. mat under the tree and his valets began to anoint and to shampoo his body. While the king lay flat on his back

and in due

He lay on a him with oil

The latter part of the story bears a remarkable resemblance to story No. (2) which has already appeared in this Journal. [Vide J.B.O.R.S., Vol. I, Part II, page 257.] It is an instance of one story being grafted on to another.

This is another version (differing in many of the details) of story No. 5 which has already appeared in this Journal. Vide J.B.O.R.S., Vol. I., Part II, page 263.]

Gukchomdeya dropped the entrails right on to his uncovered belly. The servants rose with a start and they feared that by some diabolical means the royal belly had burst. The panic soon spread over the entire camp and there was a general stampede and the king soon found himself alone in the jungle. The king then left the camp and departed. After he had left, the boy climbed down and collected all the booty he could find in the deserted encampment, and returned home. He asked his mother to go and fetch his brothers, adding, "Now will I give them the full value of the entrails which they gave me." When his brothers appeared he distributed amongst them all that he had brought away from the royal camp and they were highly pleased. His brothers thought that he had received a very high price for the entrails which they had given him out of pity and in order to enrich themselves they killed their sheep and goats and went to the market with the entrails. They soon found out their mistake. They failed to get any customer and came in for some abuse into the bargain, for people regarded it as an insult to be offered such worthless stuff. Returning home crestfallen they asked Gukchomdeya how it was that their experience as to the marketableness of entrails was so different from his. The boy said in reply: "It is not enough for you to expose the entrails for sale at the stalls; you must notify your wares by crying out at the top of your voice and then there will be no want of customers." They tried this plan but it failed entirely. Furious with rage they determined to punish Gukchomdeya for having thus befooled them. When they threatened to chastise him the boy appealed to them for mercy and pointed out that he had not deceived them and had given substantial proof of his own good luck. They relented and spared him a beating; but they proceeded to make a partition of the family goods and chattels and in doing so they dealt very unfairly with Gukchomdeya by giving him nothing but a lame old bull. The bull was unfit for any work. One day it went to the other oxen, the property of Gukchomdeya's brothers, which were engaged in work and urged them to go on strike.

The brothers found this out and forthwith killed the lame bull. Gukchomdeya asked them for the skin. This they gave him. He dried the skin and set out with it on a journey. In the course of his wanderings he arrived at a spot which Beparis (tradesmen) use as a halting-place. He climbed up a tree and lay in wait until some Beparis came and unpacked their bullocks in order to take rest. Quite suddenly he dropped the skin which fell with a loul thud, and the Beparis fled panic-stricken. The boy then climbed down and collected all the goods which the Beparis had abandoned, loaded the bullocks with the goods and went home. He told his mother that he wanted to distribute amongst his brothers the sale-proceeds of the old bull's skin, and he asked her to borrow from them a paila (vessel used as a grain-measure) and a stick from them. He then gave away all the goods and all the bullocks, using the paila in measuring out the former and the stick in driving the bullocks to each of his brothers. His brothers, hoping to make a short cut to affluence, killed all their bullocks and took the skins to the market for sale. No one bought the skins. Many abused them for offering such trash. They returnd home sorely disappointed and firmly deter mined to kill Gukchomdeya. Seizing him, they sewed him up in a sack and flung him into a river. After it had floated down a long way the sack was seen and dragged out by a Goālā who was tending his herd on the river bank. The Goālā opened the sack and found the boy alive. The Goala had a sword and a stick with him. The boy asked him for a loan of the sword, and having possessed himself of the weapon he turned round on the Goala and thus thundered forth :-" You have marred my happiness by dragging me out of the water. Woe to you." As he brandished the sword the Goālā took to his heels and never turned back, regarding the boy as a river devil. Gukchomdeya took possession of the cattle and drove the herd home. As on the former so on this occasion he asked his mother to go and fetch his brothers so that he might distribute amongst them the cattle which represented the value of the sack which they had se generously given him. His brothers were overjoyed and they

eagerly asked him to sew them up in sacks and to throw them into the river so that they might return home rich as he had done. Gukchomdeya put each of his brothers in a sack but before. casting them into the river he took the precaution of belabouring them with sticks so that they were all killed. "Why are you beating us?" they inquired. "It is to ensure your good luck," he replied. Having thus got rid of his brothers he came home. His sisters-in-law (for all his brothers were married men and he alone was single) asked him about their respective husbands. He told them in reply that they had gone abroad to acquire wealth. As a long time passed by and they did not return each of the widows pressed Gukchomdeya to take her to wife. He was thus obliged to take all the six women. Needless to say

that between these six women Gukchomdeya's earthly career was of brief duration.

By the Hon'ble and Rev A. Campbell, D.D.

The exclusiveness of the people of India is carried by them to the greatest extremes. Each caste among the Hindus, and each tribe among the aboriginal peoples will only, as a rule, eat or intermarry with persons of their own caste or tribe. In no other country of the world are the people so exclusive, and one wonders how it has come to be so. Was it introduced by the Aryans, or did they find it in existence among the people of India when they entered it? Did they bring it with them, or did they adopt it from the aborigines of India? They have assimilated much which is not Aryan, and why not this also? Exclusiveness of the type found in India does not exist among people who claim the same origin as the Brahmans. Non-Aryans seems to have exerted a greater influence over Aryans than Aryans over Non-Aryans. Hinduism has absorbed tribe after tribe of Non-Aryans, and with them also many of their religious ideas and customs, but many of the aboriginal peoples of India are up till the present day practically uninfluenced by Aryan religious ideas and customs. The Santāls, Munḍās and other cognate tribes who inhabit Chotă Nagpur and one or two of the adjoining districts do not seem to have had much intercourse with the Aryan people of India, and among them the exclusiveness already referred to exists in all its rigour. Santāls, for instance, will only eat food cooked by one of themselves. In one of the earlier famines the British authorities were under the impression that Santāls would eat food cooked by a Brahman, and it was only when it became known that they preferred death from starvation to contamination that special arrangements were made for them. With regard to marriage the same exclusiveness exists. No Santal

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