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and whose glances were delightful because of the playful movements of the eyebrows (1.7), (h) whose uras (breast) grows eager with desires by the music of many birds, (i) who makes it the fit occasion for his leisure by coming out of his house[5] (1.9) on hearing the sound of the peacocks (l. 8) which is like the sound of the Turya (trumpet) (l. 9), (j) who dwells (7. 11) at PATTANA SUBARNAPURA (1.10) [where exists the goddess] Bhagabati Panchāmbarī Bhadrāmbikā (7. 10)—who at the prayer of all people for their desired-for boons grants them in her mercy (l. 9 and 10), (k) who is exceedingly mighty (Atisaya-ūrjita) in his victorious campaigns, () who is bent, as it were, with the weight of his own prowess (l. 11), (m) whose footstool (Padapithol) is kissed by the crest-jewels (7. 12) of the head-gears of all the Nripatis or Subordinate Kings (l. 11), (n) who in character resembles such renowned (Prathita) Kings as Nala, Nahusa, Māndhātā, Dilipa, Bharata and Bhagiratha (ibid, l. 12 and l. 1 on Plate 2, page 1), (o) who has conquered Karnata, Lata, the lord of Gujrat (gurjesvara), (p) who is the conqueror of Dravida country[], (q) who is the paramour of the Bhu (the world) (Plate 2, page 1, l. 1), (r) who has taken off like a lustful lover (Lampatah) the tinkling waist girdle[7] (kanchi) [of a girl]—that is to say, who has denuded the kanchi country of its glory (ibid, ll. 1 and 2), (s) who has been elected in a Svayanbara as their lord by the countries of Kalinga, Kōngada, Utkala and Kosala (ibid, l. 2), (t) whose body has been cooled by the wind in the sky (Umbara) raised in the victorious assault against the noted countries of Gauda and Radha (ibid, ll. 2 and 3), (u) who is the full moon in the pure sky of Vanga (Bengal), and (v) who has become the lord of the Trikalinga countries by having conquered them with his own arms (ibid, ll. 3 and 4)-he it is Sri Mahasiva

[] Proper construction of Bhavanadabatirya with the other portion of the text, in this grammatically defective composition, was rather difficult; my translation of this small portion may be treated as tentative.

[] This is the translation of Dravidajayi as correct reading suggested by me.

[7] Kanchi stands for Conjaveram as well as the ladies' girdle called kanchi-for a pun in the sentence.

Gupta Sri Yayatideva, (w) who is Mahārājādhīrāja and overlord (Paramesvara), (x) whose feet many Rājanyas (minor Rājās) worship by bowing themselves down, and (y) who himself meditates upon the feet of Sri Mahābhava Gupta who was a great devout worshipper of Mahesvara and was highly honourable (P. Bhattaraka),—is present here in peace ( ) [ibid, Il. 4-6].

plements found in the Ranchi District.

By Sarat Chandra Roy, M.A.

The first recorded discovery of stone implements in the Ranchi District appears to have been that of a beautifully-made solitary stone celt found by Professor Valentine Ball, F.R.S., at the foot of a small hill near the village of Burhādi in thana Tāmār, and described by him in the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for the year 1870 (page 268). The only other find hitherto recorded was that of a few small stone arrowheads, both of the leaf-shaped and of the chisel-edged patterns, a few polished celts, besides two stone polishers, some worked cores and flakes and a number of stone beads, discovered by Mr. W. H. P. Driver at Ranchi and described by Professor J. Wood-Mason in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for the year 1888 (Vol. LXII, pages 387-396).

About a year and a half ago my attention was drawn to the occurrence in the Ranchi District of these stone implements by a triangular stone axe-head (Plate I, fig. 21) presented to me by a Munda client who believed it to have been a thunder-bolt and had kept it in his house for its supposed curative virtues. It was a splendid specimen of a stone celt almost wholly chipped, the edge alone having been ground to a high polish partly due to its having been rubbed by its finder against another piece of stone as often as it was required for medicinal purpose. I then set about collecting ancient stone implements in the Ranchi District, and within the last eighteen months my collection has reached up to nearly to nearly a hundred celts and fragments of celts besides certain other relics of the Stone Age. A few of these were picked up by me and the rest collected mostly from Mundās and Oraons who either ploughed or dug them up in their fields

or picked them up while grazing their cattle. Besides these I have secured two beautiful polished quartzite celts from the Hazaribagh District of Chōtā Nāgpur.

In my paper on "Some Remains of the Ancient Asuras in the Ranchi District" published in the last issue of this Journal, reference was made to a few stone implements found in or near some of the reputed Asura sites. The bulk of the stone implements collected by me in the Ranchi District are, however, unconnected with Asura sites, and would seem to belong to an antiquity more remote than that of the Asura period of Chōtā Nagpur history.

Whereas traditions about the ancient Asuras are still widespread in the Ranchi District and implements and ornaments of copper dug up now and then in the district are invariably attributed to those pre-Munda inhabitants of the district, no traditions have survived of the earlier race of men who made these stone celts for use as common implements of every-day life. In fact, these are no longer considered by the people of Chōtā Nagpur as the work of man's hands at all, but are invariably believed to have been "thunder-bolts", and are commonly known as "ther-pathhal " or " ther-diri" (thunder-stone). The finders of a few of the stone-celts in my collection assured me in perfect good faith that they were actual thunder-bolts picked up by themselves on or near the spots where lightning had struck shortly before their discovery. Some Oraons further told me that these "lightning stones" fall from the sky to strike down bhuts or evil spirits residing in particular trees. It is believed that although these "thunder-bolts " penetrate the ground to some depth, they gradually return to the surface after a time.

Owing to this supposed celestial origin of these stonecelts, medicinal virtues are generally attributed to them by many people in the Ranchi District as elsewhere in India and in many other parts of the globe. of the globe. In cases of headache, difficult urination, rheumatic or other pain in any part of the body, and in affections of the lungs, water with which one of these "lightningstones" has been rubbed over another flat stone, is applied to the

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