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ground even at the edge,-the edges having been formed by their peculiar conchoidal fracture.

Although relics of the Paleolithic period are not so well marked in Chōtā Nagpur, there appear to be abundant relics of the Neolithic period, particularly in the southern and southeastern parts of the Ranchi District; and from the association of some stone objects with the reputed sites of the ancient Asuras in whose interments relics of the Copper Age abound, it would seem that the use of stone beads and certain stone implements, tools, and articles of household use, continued well on into the Copper Age-and even into the Early Iron Age.

It may not be out of place to notice here that such stone implements from the Manbhum District and the Santal Parganās as I have hitherto seen are generally more highly polished and shew a greater variety of shapes and would therefore seem to belong to a somewhat later age than the majority of the Ranchi celts. (1) And the same may be said of the ancient stone beads from the Santal Parganas of which a small collection has been recently presented to our Society by the Hon'ble and Rev. Dr. A. Campbell.

In the preparation of the subjoined description of some select specimens from my collection, I thankfully acknowledge my indebtedness for material assistance to my geologist friend, Mr. S. K. Biswas, M.A. My thanks are also due to my friend Mr. P. K. Banerjee, M.A., B.L.

Figure 1-represents one of the finest collection. It is a heavy broad-bladed axe

specimens in my made of highly

(1) Three stone celts from Manbhum have been presented to the Society by the Hon'ble and Rev. Dr. A. Campbell, and a small collection (made for him by Rev. P. O. Bodding) of stone implements from the Santal Parganas has been presented to the Society by the Hon'ble Mr. E. H. C. Walsh, C.S.I., I.C.S. Rev. Mr. Bodding has also described some specimens from the Santal Parganas in J.A.S.B., LXXX, Pt. III, No. I (1901), and LXXIII, Part III, No. 2 (1904).

Since the above was in type, the Rev. Mr. Bodding has very kindly presented me with some stone-celts from the Santal Parganas.

ornamental quartzite streaked grey and white. It was found at village Omtō (police-station Ranchi). It is highly polished and of excellent finish, triangular in shape and perfectly symmetrical. The faces are convex and skilfully rounded to form the sides, so that a section across the faces and sides represents a perfect ellipse. The faces slope gradually to form a slightly crescentic blade which meets the sides at sharp angles, the greatest breadth being just above the edge from one corner to another. The slightly curved side and the convex faces taper to a pointed butt. One corner of the blade is broken. Its dimensions are :-length, 18 cms.; breadth,—of the original blade, 9 cms.,-of the present broken blade, 7 cms.; thickness at the middle, 3.5 cms.

Figure 2-represents a medium-sized triangular polished celt in hornblende or pyroxine schist, from village Chacho Nawatoli (police-station Mandar), The colour is grey with dark patches. It has a crescentic edge and flattened sides slightly tapering to a flat straight butt. Its faces are very slightly convex, and the angles which they make with the sides are only slightly bevelled and the last quarters of the faces slope sharper than the rest and form a slightly flattened edge which meets the sides at sharp angles. Its dimensions are:-length, 7.5 cms.; breadth,—at the edge, 5.5 cms. and at the butt-end, 3.5 cms.; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 3-represents a highly polished wedge-shaped chisel made of compact dark green quartzite (resembling flint). It was found at village Sōdag (police-station Ranchi). The straight flat sides broaden towards the thick flat butt, and the corners are slightly bevelled. The slightly convex faces gradually become broader and broader and finally slope towards the crescentic edge which is much impaired shewing signs of rough use. Its dimensions are:-length, 8 cms.; breadth,-at the edge, 5.5 cms.,-at the butt, 35 cms.; thickness near the butt, 1.5 cms.

Figure 4-represents a beautifully designed and highly polished celt from village Arra (police-station Ranchi). It is made of compact ailicious schist and has a fine symmetrical triangular shape. It is reddish grey in colour. Its convex faces

meet the flat sides imperceptibly, the corners being skilfully bevelled. The sides and faces all taper towards a narrow, thin, and slightly rounded butt. The crescentic edge is much impaired and blunted. Its dimensions are :-length, 10.5 cms. ; breadth, at the blade, 5 cms.,-at the butt, 1.5 cms.; greatest thickness, 2.5 cms.

Figure 5-represents a chisel of compact basalt from village Kākrā (police-station Ranchi). The faces are plano-convex, and the sides taper to a narrow flat butt. It is chipped all over except at the edge which is polished. Towards the blade the faces are bevelled to a crescentic edge which meets one side at a sharp acute angle, the other corner being broken. Its colour is reddish grey. The dimensions are :-length, 9.5 cms. ; breadth,―of the blade, 6 cms.,—of the butt, 2 cms.; thickness, 3 cms.

Figure 6-shews a broad chisel of dark grey silicious schist from village Chēnēgutu (police-station Khunti). The sides are sloping, and the slightly crescentic edge is formed by bevelling off principally the front face and slightly the back face. The flat butt meets the sides almost at right angles. The corners of the blade are slightly rounded to meet the sides. Its dimensions are :-length, 6.25 cms.; breadth,-at the blade, 3.75 cms.,-of the butt, 2 cms. ; thickness, 1 cm.

Figure 7-represents a small chisel made of grey gneiss, from village Salgi (police-station Khūnti). The faces are almost flat but highly bevelled towards the lower part to form the crescentic blade. The sides are rough and unsymmetrical, but are slightly rounded to meet the faces and taper towards a broad flat butt. The blade is much damaged. The dimensions are :-length, 7.5 cms.; breadth,—of the blade, 5 cms.,—of the butt, 2.5 cms.; thickness near the blade, 2 cms.

Figure 8-shows a polished chisel made of soft grey silicious slaty rock, found at village Būrju (police-station Khūnti). The edge and butt are rounded, and the faces which are convex almost meet in the slightly flattened sides. One of the faces is more bevelled to meet the edge which is much impaired through

use. The dimensions are:-length, 9.5 cms. ; breadth,-of the blade, 5 cms.,-near the butt, 2.5 cms. ; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 9-shows a small polished celt from village Janumpiri (police-station Khunti). It is made of brown æonic tinted rock. The sides are straight and flat and slightly bevelled to meet the convex faces, and taper towards a narrow irregular butt. One of the faces slopes more than the other to form the crescentic blade which is rounded to meet the sides. The dimensions are-length, 7.5 cms.; breadth,-near the edge, 5 cms.,-at the butt, 1.75 cms. ; thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 10-represents a chisel of soft greyish white schistose stone from village Bindā (police-station Khūnti). It is partly polished. One of its faces is convex and the other flat but bevelled highly to form the blade which is rounded. The sides are quite irregular but generally taper towards the butt which is thin, narrow and rounded. The dimensions are :— length, 8.25 cms.; breadth,—at the blade, 3.5 cms.,-near the butt, 1 cm.; thickness near the blade, 1-75 cms.

Figure 11-represents a small polished celt with convex faces well rounded to meet the broad sides. It was found at village Soparōm (police-station Ranchi). Ranchi). The material which is compact gneiss is much weathered and the specimen is thickly covered with a brown coating. The rounded edge formed by the gradual slope of the faces, meets the sides in well rounded corners so as to form a continuous band with the sides. The siles and faces taper towards a fine butt. The dimensions are:length, 6 cms.; greatest breadth, 2-75 cms.; greatest thickness, 1.5 cms.

Figure 12-represents a thin chisel formed of dark grey silicious schist, from village Chendagutu (police-station Khūn ti). The faces are almost flat, but bevelled towards the edge to form the crescentic blade which is much impaired. The edge makes sharp angles with the sides which are rough and straight but slightly rounded to meet the faces, and converge towards the rough rectangular flat butt. The dimensions are:-length, 115 cms. ; breadth,-of the blade, 6-25 cms.,-of the butt, 2.75 cms. ; thickness, 1.5 cms.

Figure 13-represents a thin elongated celt, mostly chipped but slightly polished, made of indurate schist. It was found at Iti (police-station Khunti). The edge which is rounded is broken, being either damaged by use or chipped at the time of manufacturing. The faces are convex, and the sides flat. The butt is rounded. The dimensions are :-length, 10 cms. ; breadth, near the blade, 5.25 cms.,-near the butt, 3.25 cms.; thickness near the middle, 1.75 cms.

Figure 14-represents a chipped chisel in quite a crude state, only slightly polished, made of dark green compact gneiss. It was found at village Pangura (police-station Khunti). The sides are not symmetrical, one side being straight and the other rounded. The sides taper towards a flat butt unequally disposed between the sides. The faces are nearly flat but slope gently towards the edge which is circular and not at all polished but only pecked. The middle of the edge has been recently broken. The dimensions are:-length, 10.5 cms.; breadth of the oblique butt, 35 cins. ; greatest thickness, 2 cms.

Figure 15-represents a well-polished broken celt of dark grey compact gneiss, from village Bindā (police-station Khunti). The convex faces slope gradually towards each other anĮ meet to form the straight sides and rounded edge. The edgə and sides meet at well-rounded angles and form one continuous band. A portion of the upper part is broken, and the butt, as it is, is broken and quite irregular. Its dimensions are :length, 7 cms.; breadth,-of the blade, 5.5 cms., of the broken butt, 5 cms.; thickness of the butt, 2 cms.

Figure 16-represents a broad flat-bladed axe of silicious schist, also from Binda (police-station Khunti). Both the faces are well polished, and slope downwards to form the edge which is broader than the general breadth of the implement. The thick rounded butt meets the flat sides which are almost parallel up to about a quarter of their length from the blade upwards towards the butt. The dimensions are:-length, 9.75

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