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Since then at intervals specimens have been brought to me, one or two at a time. These were found in the beds of nalas, having been evidently washed by the rain out of the soil forming the banks.

About two years ago the great find took place. This consisted of a dozen magnificent specimens, which were dug up by coolies engaged in making the road which goes from the village of Kolber to the boundary of the Hāzāribāgh district. They were found in one lot about a foot below the surface, and brought immediately to me. I acquired the complete find. Those I sent to Ránchi are from this lot. The axe-heads are of various sizes. I have one perfect specimen which weighs only half a seer, and it resembles in shape a modern American axe-head.

The method of manufacturing these axe-heads seems to have been to run the metal into a mould, of the shape of, but thicker and smaller than, the finished article. It was then beaten out to the required thickness. This appears to me to account for the variety in the shape of those that have been found. A little difference in the thickness cast in the mould, or else the metal beaten irregularly, would result in the slight differences in shapes which exist. I possess one of these rough castings.


By Satindra Narayan Roy, M.A., B. L.

POLYTHEISM and the want of a rigid cult have ensured a steady flow of converts into the fold of the Hindu religion. It is wrong to suppose that Hinduism is not a proselytizing religion. It is specially adapted for the slow but sure conversion of the aborigines.

In the north of Balasore there is a small village called Lakhannath. It is situated on the river Suvarnarekha. Some fifteen years ago a few Santāl families settled in a portion of this village, which was called after them Santal Sãi or the Santāl colony. At first they spoke their own language and subsisted mainly by manual labour. They gradually brought a large tract of fallow land under the plough and became independent cultivators and learnt the Oriyā language. They originally ate beef, but the influence of their Hindu neighbours led them to give it up. They also learnt habits of cleanliness.

When they first came to the village they used to sleep after the toil of the day, unwashed, with mud on their feet and ankles.

But gradually they learnt to take regular ablutions.

Some five years ago, they were engaged in digging a tank and so found a large number of stone idols. The proprietor of the tank left the stone idols to their fate. One fine morning the whole Santāl colony was up and doing. After a good deal of carousing they resorted to the spot in a body with pipes and ketile-drums, and cleared the ground and smeared the tallest idol with vermilion, In their forest homes the Santāls used to worship rough unhewn stones and to sacrifice fowls before them. But influenced by their Hindu environment a lamb was now offered instead of a hen. Next year there was an epidemic of cholera. The Santals


and the Hindu villagers sacrificed two lambs jointly at the altar of this new deity to appease him and to abate the epidemic. The deity was called Kharakhāi, which means a deity living upon sunshine. A Brāhman who had been ostracised for an amour with a Häri or sweeper woman became the priest of the Santāls and the worship of Kharakhāi. His only duty consisted in renewing the vermilion on the tallest idol when it lost its gloss. At the time of an epidemic the Hindus and the Santāls still offer sacrifices to this deity.


By Satindra Narayan Roy, M.A., B.L.

WITHIN the last fifteen years there bas sprung up a new Hindu god whose worship has rapidly spread throughout the districts of Puri, Cuttack, Balasore and even Midnāpore. This new deity is called Trināth, that is, the incarnation of Vishnu, Siva, and Brahma. The ceremonies that accompany his worship are very simple. One pice worth of pān (betel-leaves), one pice worth of gānja (Cannabis Indica), one pice worth of oil, are all that is required in the worship of this god. The betel-leaves are placed on a little raised platform after being dressed with betel-nut, catechu and slaked lime. Three ordinary clay lamps, dried in the sun, are then placed on the platform and the wicks lighted with one pice worth of oil. Three chilims or smoking-bowls are then filled with one pice worth of Cannabis Indica and set fire on, It is distinctly enjoined that no other costly ceremonies are necessary. The worship of Trināth does not take place in a secluded corner of the house. The householders, their friends and relatives, should all assemble before the raised platform where the worship is to take place. It is not necessary that a Brāhman should be called in, although the practice is to take the help of the family-priest. When everything is ready on the platform, an Oriyā manuscript written with a style on palm-leaves is read aloud with a sing-song intonation. It describes the origin of this peculiar worship. We have said above that this worship is only fifteen years old. It originated in the village of Sripur, on the bank of a small river called Sonbhadra, a tributary of the Mahānadi. During this short period of fifteen years Trināth worship, as we have seen, has spread far and wide. It is spreading still. Whenever


there is a serious illness in a family, or other small calamity from which no family can be exempt, Trināth is worshipped in the manner prescribed above, both in Oriyā and in Bengali families, in the first quarter of the night. After the worship is over, betel-leaves are freely distributed among those present. Those of the audience, who are addicted to smoking it, take a whiff or two of the sacred Cannabis Indica.

The origin of this worship is attributed by the people to the ingenuity of some astute family-priest, who has benefited the priestly class as a whole by placing this worship within the reach of all. By making the presence of the family-priest optional he bas raised bimself above all adverse criticism. The manuscript that is read aloud at the worship of Trināth is a lengthy one. It takes full three hours to read it quickly. We shall give a short summary of this manuscript which is entitled “Trināth Charita Akhan', or the story of Trināth. Once upon a time, there lived at Srīpur a very poor Brāhman called Madhusudan. He was a beggar by profession. He was one of those itinerant Brāhmans whom Hindu society has enabled to beg from door to door without much loss of self-respect. His wife gave birth to a son, but there was no milk in her breast. The Brāhman could not engage a wet-nurse for want of money. So he sold his brass and bellmetal utensils for rupees five only. But no cow could be had for such an insignificant sum of money. One day Madhusudan was sitting in the house of a big money-lender of the village, who had a herd of three hundred milch cows. This money-lender had a cow, Bula by name, who was very wild and used to do much damage in the fields of his neighbours. While sitting with the Brāhman, the money-lender learnt of the damage done by this cow the night previous. angry, and, in a fit of rage, cried out that he would dispose of the cow for five rupees only. The Brāhman saw a ready solution of the difficulties he was in, and forthwith offered his five rupces. The merchant was now in a fix. He was caught by his own words. After a good deal of hesitation the merchant consent.' ed to the bargain and the Brāhman joyfully started home with

He was very

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