The Times of India Directory and Year Book Including Who's who

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Sir Stanley Reed
Times of India Press, 1963 - India
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Issues for 1919-47 include Who's who in India; 1948, Who's who in India and Pakistan.

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Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist to mould his material according to his ideals in hisstudio (Cunningham)Curriculum is the sum total of student activities which
the school sponsors for the purpose of achieving its objectives (Albert & Albert)Curriculum is defined as all the directed learning experience of children and youth under theinfluence of the school ( American Association of the School administration( 1953)Curriculum as any schematic and systematic arrangement of materials o f instructionsextending over a considerable period of time and planned for a clearly differentiated group of students. ( National league of Nursing)
OFFICIAL CURRICULUMIt include the stated curriculum frame work with philosophy and mission recognized list of outcomes, competencies and objectives for the programme and individual courses , course outlineand syllabi.LEGITIMATE CURRICULUMIt is the one agreed on by the faculty either implicitly or explicitly. These written documents aredistributed to other faculty members students, curriculum committee members and accordingagencies to document what is taught.OPERATIONAL CURRICULUMit is the curriculum which actually taught by the teacher and how its importance iscommunicated to student. This curriculum include knowledge, skill and attitude emphasized byfaculty in the class room and clinical settings.ILLEGITIMATE CURRICULUMIs known and actively taught by faculty yet not evaluated because descriptors of the behaviorsare lacking. Such behaviors include caring compassion power and its use.
HIDDEN CURRICULUMConsist of values and believes taught through verbal or non verbal communication by faculty.Faculty may be unaware of what is taught through their expressions, priorities and interactionswith students, but students are very aware of the hidden agendas which may have a morelasting impact that the written curriculum. The hidden curriculum includes the way interactwith students the teaching methods used and the priorities setNULL CURRICULUMRepresent content and behavior that are not taught. Faculty need to recognize what is notbeing taught and focus on the reason for ignoring that content, behavior areas. Eg: includecontent skill faculty think are teaching but are not such as critical thinking. As faculty reviewcurriculum n all components and relationship need to be evaluated.STUDENT CENTERED CURRICULUMProgramme has the students view. In this student should want something, perceive somethingdo something and get satisfaction form the resulting experience. It is related to pupil interestlearners have to be active the programme is flexible democratic and community.CORRELATED CURRICULUMTwo or more subjects often exist in a school side by side with no apparent connection. In somecases these points are natural for eg: mathematical formula for solving problem in physics andchemistry.INTEGRATED OR FUSED CURRICULUMIt means blended together. A pouring together of subjects and students might provide astronger base of learning. For eg: post basic nursing programme all the subject which basicstudents learned in four years will be studied within 2 years as they had a preliminary trainingin diploma course and post basic nursing will become stronger base of learning.TRADITIONAL CURRICULUMThe traditional curriculum which has been in vogue for a sufficiently long time is conceived interms of subjects. It is nothing but a statement of the subjects of study with indications of theirextend and time limit. Each subject is a separated entity and its nature and score is clearlydefined. All stress is on the intellectual attainment of the child rather than on the values of studies for personal and social development.
ACTIVITY CURRICULUMThinkers like Rousseau, Montessori, Dewey and Gandhi realized that education which does notinfluence the child conduct is not worth the time, money and energy invested on it. Comeniussuggested that whatever has to be learnt it must be learnt by doing.Rousseau said students must be made him busy in his work shop, where


The Cooperative Movement 196061
A Tourists Guide
Social Welfare in India

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