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worship and service of the Protestant Church of England contained in the English Liturgy is the same in the main body and essentials, chief materials, frame and order, with that of the Popish worship; and whoever will take the trouble to search into the Popish Breviary, Ritual, Missal, and Pontificial, which four comprehend their whole liturgy, will find, though there are some variations and alterations, yet the substance, chief material, and order are the same, and that our Prayer Book is taken from the Roman Catholic service-collects, matins, even-songs, epistles, gospels, creeds, litanies, consecration, administration of sacraments, baptism of infants, with godfathers and godmothers, kneeling at the altar; confiteor, absolution, burial, matrimony, visitation of the sick, ordination of Priests and Deacons, consecration of Archbishops, Bishops, &c.
These six canticles are word for word from the mass-book : Benedicite opera
omnia,” “ Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel," Magnificat anima
sis mea," “Nunc dimitis,” “ Quicunque vult,” “Te Deum laudamus," with “Gloria Patri," directed to be repeated frequently and after every psalm; besides the “ Pater Noster," to be five times repeated before the service of the Lord's day is completed*.
* Would it not be better to repeat the Lord's prayer five times consecutively? It would come nearer to the Popish pattern of saying beads, and on that account would probably be more acceptable.-Editor,
Now in the canticle “Benedicite opera omnia”. are some very strange things ; “O ye frost and cold, bless ye the Lord, praise him and magnify his name for ever;" “ O ye wells, bless the Lord;" “ O ye whales,' “ O ye green things,” stars and moon,"
," “ showers and dew;" and then, to finish this odd assortment, “ Ananias, Azarias, and Misael,” for in fact the whole of the song is apocryphal; but whatever is its origin, and whatever its spirit, such as it is, every clergyman has sworn that he receives it with “unfeigned assent and consent."
The Prayer Book follows the Popish worship in numerous ceremonies; kneeling at confession and absolution, whilst "the Priest" is standing-repeating the sentences of “ Pater Noster” after the Priest--standing up at “ Gloria Patri”standing whilst the Apostles' creed is repeated repeating after the Priest, “ Kyrie Eleison, Christe Eleison, Kyrie Eleison"*-reading or singing “Quicunque vult," i. e. Athanasian creed--saying or singing litanies, with responses from the choir-kneeling at the altar during communionreading the Ten Commandments by the Priest standing—whilst the people on their knees iterate the same prayer after each commandment--the alternate reading of the Psalm verses by Priest and people--sitting at the lessons-rising up again
* Lord have mercy upon us-Christ have mercy upon us-Lord have mercy upon us.
at canticles-bowing at the name of Jesus-turning to the East-singing anthems and solos-performing voluntaries on organs--wearing surplices, rochets, hoods, scarfs, square caps, and other trumpery prescribed to the clergy, either in the rubrics of the Prayer Book or in the canons. Now all this elaborate trifling and voluntary humility comes direct from the Church of Rome, which was many centuries in perfecting that Lexicon of superstitions which we have copied and translated in our Prayer Books.
Pope Gregory I made that form of service which they call the Mass, and added many ceremonies unknown before. There was another mass called the Mass of Ambrose, and as much dispute had arisen about their respective merits, Pope Adrian, (about the year 800,) pretending to be divinely directed, decided for the Mass of Gregory. He prescribed the singing of Psalms in alternate parts as we have them in our Cathedrals. He commanded the singing Kyrie Eleison, or, as we have it, “Lord have mercy upon us, Christ have mercy upon us, Lord have mercy upon us;” that “ bowing and ducking of three Popish masquers to one another," as Milton calls it.
The prescript number of Psalms and lessons came from the hand of Gregory VII. A. D. 1073.
The Absolution by the Priest from Thomas Aquinas, in the thirteenth century, who also has decided that the same honour is to be paid to an image in a Church as to Christ himself.
Peter Gnapheus, Bishop of Antioch, A. D. 500, recommended the repetition of the Creed every time divine service was performed in public. The Popes took the hint, and we have obeyed the Popes. The Epistles and Gospels were by Pope Damasus; and Pope Anastasius ordered standing at the Gospel; and thus every part of the Prayer Book has been concocted by Popes or Popish Doctors, and all that we have in our public worship has received the impress of the Fisherman's seal.
From Rome also we have our Prayer Book calendar-Saint Prisca, 18th January; Bishop Fabian, 20th; Saint Agatha, 5th February; Valentine, 14th February ; Saint Chad, 20 March ; Abbot Benedict, Ambrose, Saint George, Saint Dunstan, and the Invention of the Cross, with many other such days, kept as holidays at Cambridge, and celebrated with surplices and additional ceremonies.
As you may not, my dear uncle, have a breviary at hand, I will here give you one of our prayers as it stands in the Popish service. “O God from whom all holy desires,” &c. “ Deus, a quo sancta desideria, recta consilia, et justa sunt opera ; da servis tuis illam quam mundus dare non potest pacem, ut et corda nostra mandatis tuis dedita, et hostium sublatâ formidine, tempora sint tuâ protectione tranquilla per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum.” Ad vesperas.
One specimen of the collects as they are in the breviary may also be instructive, for the collects are generally said to be the best part of the Prayer Book. Collect for the seventh Sunday after Trinity :-“ Deus, virtutum cujus est totum quod est optimum, insere pectoribus nostris amorem tui nominis, et præsta in nobis religionis augmentum, ut quæ sint bona nutrias, et, pietatis studio, quæ sunt nutrita custodias, per J. C. D. N.”
We thus find that we owe the very best of our scraps of prayers to the Popes, who, though they made unceasing war against the Lamb, could occasionally talk the language of Zion, that they might thus, if it were possible, deceive the very elect. Allow me to add now one of those collects which we have ungraciously rejected :-“ O Lord God Almighty, who for the salvation of immortal souls didst ordain that the blessed Francis of Sales should make himself all things to all men, grant, we beseech thee, that we being endowed with the excellencies of thy love, may, through the direction of his counsels and the suffrage of his merits, attain unto everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord.”
If, however, we have escaped from prayers of this sort, and that not without difficulty, we have taken good care to follow the Popish service in other passages without altering a syllable.