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maintained and improved their advantage; and the voice of the emperor was heard, encouraging his soldiers to achieve, by a last effort, the deliverance of their country. In that fatal moment the janizaries arose, fresh, vigorous, and invincible. The sultan himself on horseback, with an iron mace in his hand, was the spectator and judge of their valour: he was surrounded by ten thousand of his domestic troops, whom he reserved for the decisive occasions; and the tide of battle was directed and impelled by his voice and eye. His numerous ministers of justice were posted behind the line, to urge, to restrain, and to punish; and if danger was in the front, shame and inevitable death was in the rear of the fugitives. The cries of fear and of pain were drowned in the martial music of drums, trumpets, and attaballs; and experience has proved, that the mechanical operation of sounds, by quickening the circulation of the blood and spirits, will act on the human machine more forcibly than the eloquence of reason and honour. From the lines, the galleys, and the bridge, the Ottoman artillery thundered on all sides; and the camp and the city, the Greeks and the Turks were involved in a cloud of smoke, which could only be dispelled by the final deliverance or destruction of the Roman empire. The single combats of the heroes of history or fable amuse our fancy and engage our affections: the skilful evolutions of war may inform the mind, and improve a necessary, though pernicious science. But in the uniform and odious picture of a general assault, all is blood, and horror, and confusion;

nor shall I strive, at the distance of three centuries and a thousand miles, to delineate a scene of which there could be no spectators, and of which the actors themselves were incapable of forming any just or adequate idea.

The immediate loss of Constantinople may be ascribed to the bullet, or arrow, which pierced the gauntlet of John Justiniani. The sight of his blood, and the exquisite pain, appalled the courage of the chief, whose arms and counsels were the firmest rampart of the city. As he withdrew from his station in quest of a surgeon, his flight was perceived by the indefatigable emperor. "Your wound," exclaimed Palaeologus, " is slight; the danger is pressing; your presence is necessary; and whither will you retire?" "I will retire," said the trembling Genoese, "by the same road which God has opened to the Turks;" and at these words he hastily passed through one of the breaches of the inner wall. By this pusillanimous act, he stained the honours of a military life; and the few days which he survived in Galata, or the isle of Chios, were embittered by his own and the public reproach. His example was imitated by the Latin auxiliaries, and the defence began to slacken when the attack was pressed with redoubled vigour. The number of the Ottomans was fifty, perhaps an hundred, times superior to that of the Christians: the double walls were reduced by the cannon to a heap of ruins: in a circuit of several miles some places must be found more easy of access, or more feebly guarded; and if the besiegers could penetrate in a single point, the whole city was irrecoverably lost. The first who deserved the sultan's reward was Hassan, the janizary, of gigantic stature and strength. With his scimitar in one hand, and his buckler in the other, he ascended the outward fortification: of the thirty janizaries, who were emulous of his valour, eighteen perished in the bold adventure. Hassan and his twelve companions had reached the summit; the giant was precipitated from the rampart; he rose on one knee, and was again oppressed by a shower of darts and stones. But his success had proved that the achievement was possible: the walls and towers were instantly covered with a swarm of Turks; and the Greeks, now driven from the vantage ground, were overwhelmed by increasing multitudes. Amidst these multitudes, the emperor, who accomplished all the duties of a general and a soldier, was long seen, and finally lost. The nobles who fought round his person sustained till their last breath the honourable names of Palasologus and Cantacuzene: his mournful exclamation was heard,— "Cannot there be found a Christian to cut off my head 1" and his last fear was that of falling alive into the hands of the infidels. The prudent despair of Constantine cast away the purple: amidst the tumult he fell by an unknown hand, and his body was buried under a mountain of the slain. After his death, resistance and order were no more: the Greeks fled towards the city; and many were pressed and stifled in the narrow pass of the gate of St. Rom ami 3. The victorious Turks rushed through the breaches of the inner wall; and as they advanced into the streets, they were soon joined by their brethren, who had forced the gate Phenar on the side of the harbour. In the first heat of the pursuit, about two thousand Christians were put to the sword; but avarice soon prevailed over cruelty; and the victors acknowledged that they should immediately have given quarter if the valour of the emperor and his chosen bands had not prepared them for a similar opposition in every part of the capital. It was thus, after a siege of fifty-three days, that Constantinople, which had defied the power of Chosroes, the Chagan, and the Caliphs, was irretrievably subdued by the arms of Mahomet the Second. Her empire only had been subverted by the Latins: her religion was trampled in the dust by the Moslem conquerors. Gibbon.


This creature's face was all hairy, and its body covered with scales, one lying over the other so hard that no weapon can pierce them; its legs and feet thick and strong, and from its shoulders there grew two wings so large that they covered it down to the feet, not of feathers but of a shaggy leather, black as pitch and shining, and so hard that they resist all arms, and with these wings the monster covers itself as with a shield, and from under them come its arms, which are as strong as lions' paws, all covered with smaller scales, and its hands are like eagles' claws, and their five talons so sharp and strong that there is nothing in the world so hard that they cannot pierce it and tear it piecemeal. In each jaw it has two long teeth that grow out a cubit long, its eyes are round and huge, and red like fire, so that at night they can be seen far away, and all fly before it. It bounds and runs so fast that no game, how fleet soever, can escape; it seldom eats or drinks, and sometimes goes without food feeling no pain of hunger; all its delight is to kill men and living animals. When it finds any lion or bear who resists it, then it grows furious, and sends a smoke like flames of fire from its nostrils, and roars so horribly that all living things fly from it as from death, and its stench is rank poison: and when it ruffles its scales, and gnashes its teeth, and shakes its wings, it is as if the earth shook. They call it endriago, said Master Helisabad, and it is such as I have described; moreover, because of the sin of the giant and his daughter, the wicked enemy entered it, and hath greatly increased its force and cruelty.

The endriago came on breathing smoke and flames of fire in its fury, and gnashing its teeth and foaming, and ruffling its scales and clapping its wings, that it was horrible to see it; and when the knight saw it, and heard its dreadful voice, he thought all that had been told him was nothing to what the truth was, and the monster bounded towards them more eagerly because it was long

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