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which leads into Montenegro, and Bart., and afterwards garrisoned by issues up from the gates of the town the Vladika of Montenegro, since in a zigzag form, till it appears lost which time an Englishman has hardly in the clouds. Any one wishing to been seen by the people within their quit Cattaro, has indeed, like the gates. Consequently their ideas of robcountry waiter in England, but" three bing the stranger are faint and barbadesperate alternatives." He must rous; here, as throughout Dalmatia, wait for the next steamer, a whole should you give a man money, and the month if in winter, and return the sum be not even more than twice the way he came. Or he may attempt

value of the obligation, the poor iguoto pass through Albania to Greece or ramus is delighted, and thanks and the islands, which woudd in all likeli- blesses you most fervently. The clihood prove the last attempt he would mate of Cattaro is not considered ever make. Or he may hire one of the healthy. The inhabitants die of concountry trabacolos to take him where sumption in the winter, and fever in he likes. They are neither fast in the summer, and they generally have their sailing nor luxurious in their ac- a sickly appearance. There are smart commodation - the price being any silversmith shops, and many ornathing but cheap. In one thing the tra- ments are wrought with much neatveller has no difficulty, which is to dis- ness. There are several also devoted cover the first hotel, as their number is to the sale of arms, as the Montene.. strictly limited. Consequently in about grians here buy and repair the princihalf an hour, during which the steamer pal weapons they use. Pistols, guns, had taken her departure, we found and yataghans are mounted in silver ourselves the inmates of the principal and mother-of-pearl, coral and other salon in the Locanda della Corona. stones, with skill and taste. The popuIt is ever a comfort, when expectation lation are as remote in appearance is not at its highest, to find things from that of any town in western better; and happy the mind that seeks Europe, as in the most primitive part

of the East. The town's-people wear a The house was not very dirty, the black jacket of cloth or velvet, with landlady was full of kindness, and not silver basket buttons, a small cap, and destitute of good looks. After her wide drawers of the same cloth, with first paroxysms of welcome and sur- black stockings or high boots, and a prise had passed, then succeeded ad- red sash. The costumes of some of miration, then a general presentation the villages along the shores of the to all friends and relations of the family Bocca are very pretty. The women that could be summoned on a short from Dulcinea wear a body petticoat notice, with many fervent blessings and jacket of scarlet, with silver butand prayers for our welfare, and at 'tons and buckles, and a white coverlength, which pleased us as much as ing tastefully enfolding the head and any thing, a very eatable dinner. shoulders. The peasantry to the south During that day, and part of the en- wear the Montenegrian dress; the suing week, I improved my acquain- poorer ones, in extreme scantiness. tance with Cattaro-an acquaintance These profess, like that people, the which, before final separation, became tenets of the Greek church, and in apvery intimate indeed. It contains pearance and dialect do not differ from several small squares or places, with them. A bolder look, however, and an some churches and other public build- air of independence, usually mark the ings. There is a respectable café, Montenegrian. Between Čattaro and which is frequented by the officers of Montenegro there is no quarantine or the garrison, and on the whole it is restriction of intercourse. Without rather a neat little town. The popu- the latter the former would cease to lation may be about three thousand. exist—without the former life would It is fortified, having two gates to the be burdensome in Montenegro. Three land and one to the sea. Perched times a-week a bazar is held outside above, at a great height, is the castle, each of the land gates, to which the said to be of considerable strength. Montenegrians descend, themselves In the late war Cattaro was taken loaded with arms and independence, from the French by Sir William Hoste, and their women and mules with the


richest products of their country. Of the footsteps and extinguish the hopes these, mutton hams of peculiar excel- of the invader ; since which various lence, potatoes that cannot be imitated fertile pianuras have been gained on in these parts, salt fish from the lake the side of Herzigovina and Bosnia. of Scutari, (to be caught, I fear, no In 1781 Kara Mahmoot, hereditary more,) a root which looks yellow, and bey of Scutari, marched with a great dyes to match, with hides, poultry, and army into Montenegro. Advancing pigs, form the principal. One of the towards Cettigna, he was attacked in chief articles which they seek is salt, a narrow defile by the Vladika. This with which some of the above luxuries was a great day for Montenegro. The are compounded. This being a go- Albanians were utterly routed, and vernment monopoly, is sold at the Black Mahmoot, being taken prisoner, office in the town, and an animated surrendered his glory and his head to scene takes place on its opening, each his priestly conqueror, and it remains striving to be served first, and, as a there among the trophies of the Epismatter of course, all speaking at once. copal dwelling. The present Vladika

Having in a few days almost ex- is not unworthy of his martial uncle. hausted the varieties of Cattaro, and He is truly the flower of the house of the weather assuming a more favour Petrowitch. On his first arrival from able aspect, it became time to execute St Petersburg to assume the governour intended journey up the mountain. ment, his appearance was that of a Times were stirring in Montenegro. Frankf gentleman, and his babits The nation was at war with two those of a priest; but he discovered pashas, and the Vladika had taken before long that the dress of his native the field in person. Rumours were mountains better became his manly numerous; we could not have come at form, while the troubles in which his a better time, and our trip promised state was so constantly engaged, soon to be one of interest, His highness's made him exchange the crosier for the postmaster, a gigantic warrior, * wait- sword, and become as ardent a wared on us to furnish mules and guides. rior as his predecessor. Ever since Cesarea Petrarca, gentleman, of Cat- the beginning of the summer, war had taro, hairdresser, auctioneer, and ap- been waged with Osman Pasha of praiser, ex-courier, formerly chef de Mostar, concerning a disputed terricuisine to the Vladika-an " homme tory. On one occasion the opposed capable," as he not unaptly styled forces were in sight for a week. himself, attended us to cook and inter- The Montenegrians consisted of seven pret; and we started for Cettigna on thousand foot—the Turks (I write acthe 17th of November, about nine cording to my information) of forty o'clock. I may here say a few words thousand horse. (!) Every day they concerning the state of politics then fought, sometimes for two, sometimes existing in Montenegro. For the last four hours and upwards, as fancy dichalf century or more, under the aus- tated. About fifty persons had been pices of the late revered bishop, so more or less injured in this pastime, highly sainted in soul, † and so beauti- but their ardour was rather increasing fully preserved in body, the Montene- than diminishing, when the pasha of grians, backed secretly by an influen- Scutari, without notice or warning, tial power in the north, have been seized on the islands of Vranina and pursuing a system of territorial en. Lessandro, at the head of the lake of croachment as well as internal im- Scutari. The Montenegrians had there provement. Anciently their domain a post of about twenty men, but they consisted of but a range of gloomy and were overpowered, several killed, and barren rocks, which would alike oppose the rest sent captive to Scutari. Not


* It was this man's father who, shortly before our arrival, having been entrusted to receive from Lloyd's Company a packet containing a large sum of money, converted the contents into two cannon-balls, and forwarded them to the Vladika. + The late Vladika received the honours of sanctity after his death.

Meaning dressed in the European or Frank costume.

satisfied with this, he fortified Lessan- gusi, the paternal seat of the family dro in such a manner that no Monte- of Petrowitch. Here the present Vlanegrian could fish in the lake with any dika was born, in a mansion which kind of pleasure or comfort. This was was pointed out to us.

It is a longa vital blow. Visions of the market shaped hut, built of loose stones, of Cattaro rose before the eyes of the without windows or upper story. A nation. Peace with Osman Pasha somewhat better dwelling is the prowas concluded at any sacrifice, and perty of the bishop's uncle, who gothe Vladika instantly hastened to con- verns the village and adjacent district. centrate his energies toward the reco- Passing on by the hamlets of Bayitzi very of the lost islands.

and Donikrai, we arrived at the EpisOur party consisted of ourselves copal residence about half-past five in and two mules, one being for the lug- the evening, and immediately took up gage-Cesarea Petrarca, in the full our quarters in the first hotel. I will pride of office, and armed for our not say that the decorations of the protection with a very small sword chief apartment were in the highest and a very small gun—a woman who style of magnificence; but the bed was had charge of the mules—and Spiro clean, and to find any thing clean in Martinowitch, an old and respect these parts may be considered a vicable Montenegrian, with Milo history gained. Our hostess was from son, to act as guides. We began the Cattaro, the seat of every refinement ascent about ten o'clock. Close out to the ideas of a Montenegrian ; and side the walls was pointed out a vil- our host was a kind civil man, speaklage, the residence of a race of valiant ing both French and Italian, and had batchers, who have ever been at feud been formerly engaged in the great with the Montenegrians, by whom war. For the present he found it their numbers have been much re- convenient to remain in Montenegro, duced. A tale was related of three having been lately concerned in an having defended themselves against unfortunate affair near Budua, four hundred of the enemy. After where certain tenements were harried following the steep but otherwise and burned. Cattaro, therefore, and good road for about two hours, we its delights, were denied him for the arrived at a stone with different spe- present; but it was hoped that the cies of eagles on two sides, * which temporary bad odour would soon pass marks the boundary of the respective away. The village was nearly deterritories. The road instantly de- serted; few remained that night in generates into an indifferent mule. Cettigna but ancient men. The Vlatrack. It took another hour to gain dika was on and away. He had the principal ascent, then, pursuing departed that morning, his brother our way along the high land, we remaining to take charge of the place. reached a small hamlet, where we To-morrow the assault of the fortress stopped a few minutes to comfort was to commence, or, some said, it ourselves with what could be pro- had already begun. We felt we had cured. The path from hence to Cet arrived at a good moment, and were tigna passes over a country which, at prepared to hasten in the morning to any season, must appear barren and the scene of action, thirsting with exin hospitable. The peaks of the high- citement. It was thought not unlikely est mountains in Montenegro rise im- that a battle might take place. The mediately above it. The ground was evening was cold and wet, and we now covered with about an inch of therefore took up our position over the snow, and the air extremely cold. A kitchen fire. In these regions this is few stunted bushes of beech under- placed in the middle of the room, and wood, which serves for fuel, seemed the smoke gets out how it can, or not to be the only vegetation. Every at all. A peculiar sensation in the thing else, grey rocks, sharp and eyes will present itself to the mind as rugged, to the smallest fragment. We the result of such an arrangement. passed on our way the village of Ne- The kitchen, however, besides being

* The Vladika bears the Russian eagle rising from a crown,

the warmest, was by far the gayest however-the elevation of the plain place. Here we watched our dinner itself being very great. The most cooked, and ate it afterwards; heard ancient building, indeed the only one of wars and rumours of wars ; listened which seems not to have been erected to heroic ballads, chanted by a war- within these few years, is the monasrior, and accompanied by a species of tery. This was till very lately the one-stringed fiddle; and made the residence of the Vladika and his preacquaintance of two very fashionable decessors, and it was here the King young men. One was the bishop's of Saxony lodged when he visited nephew, a handsome lad about seven- Montenegro in 1836.* It is situated teen, who was, on account of his on the side of the rocks which bound youth, very shy and modest, and act- the plain, and consists of several ed as cavaliero servente to the kitchen- buildings of different periods joined maid. The other was a remarkably together. The oldest has two rows good-looking and well-dressed young of arched passages, or cloisters, in man, whom I had observed on enter- front, one above the other. Behind ing thc place, and set down to be the convent, a wall runs up the hill, somebody. He was, alas ! but a tailor and encloses a small circuit of rocky from Bosnia, who had come on a spe- ground. The whole is in a very uncerculation to Cettigna. A barren pro- tain state of repair. On the summit fession his, where fashions remain the of a small rock immediately above, is same summer and winter, and a suit a round tower, built apparently for lasts till it drops off. He was an ac- ornament at no very ancient dato, complished musician, as well, on the but never finished or roofed. It does one-stringed instrument; boasted of not owe its decorations to the hand a white pocket-handkerchief, and his of the architect. They are of a rarer Italian, added to our Servian, made kind. From the ends of poles fastenup about twelve words in common; so ed into the top of the wall, two or that the evening passed very sociably, three dozen heads, in all stages of and we retired to rest full of hope for decay, overlook the residence of a the morrow. But when that morrow Christian bishop. These are Turks came, one melancholy prospect of rain or Albanians who have fallen in dif. and mist presented itself. The white-ferent encounters, or possibly in cold clouds hung on the mountain-tops blood, as the Montenegrians never immediately above. Not a breath of spare the life of a prisoner. It was wind was stirring, and the rain de- with somewhat doubtful feelings that scended in torrents. There seemed I contemplated these trophies. Around, not a chance of its clearing, nor did the earth was strewed with skulls and it during the whole day. It was not, other relics of humanity. It was said therefore, considered prudent to pro- that no head had been put up for ceed, where no bed was to be found, nearly two years. Certain it is, that and where the chance of even shelter the Lord Vladika did not cause to be was any thing but certain. Add to placed there the heads of eighteen which, my companion in arms was Turkish commissioners, who, in the taken with a violent cold; so we felt August previous, entered Montenegro obliged to restrain our military ardour to discuss a boundary question. But for one day, and proceeded to seek why should I tell tales? I was hossuch recreation as the metropolis af- pitably received, and treated, me and forded. Cettigna, the seat of the go- mine, with civility and kindness, not vernment of Montenegro, and resi- only by the Vladika, but by every dence of the Vladika, is yet a city of individual I met, and returned with no great magnitude. It is situated my head undisturbed by the trip. prettily enough on a little plain, Some of the countenances still bore around which the rocky summits of traces of good looks, though withered the mountains rise in the form of an by the sun and storm of years. It was amphitheatre; not to any great height, a severe test for beauty ; but the head

* He passed but one night in Montenegro, at Cettigna, and returned the following day to Cattaro.

of one young man certainly stood the place does not probably contain a trial. Fine features, of a cast fre- hundred souls. It being now noon, quently seen towards the north of and the rain unabated, we determined Ålbania, and a set of the best teeth, to see all the sights of the city. His (this is very general,) showed that he highness's residence was first visited. might have once been more prosperous

It contains the Chamber of Deputies, in love than he proved to be in war. a printing establishment, and various I thought of a relic, and took up a apartments for the accommodation skull, the best I could find, but it was of friends and relatives. Entering full of red earth, and seemed damp one of these we found the Vladika's and unpleasant; so I put it down brother, whom I have previously al. again. I next discovered a beautiful luded to, and had the honour of a tooth; this would have surpassed the presentation. He is a very ordinaryformer in elegance and convenience, looking personage; and, as the powers but I fancied it not either, and came of language were wanting to express away, trusting to my mind for a re- our feelings, we soon took leave. The membrance of the spot. From hence bishop's rooms for public and private I made a sketch of the present resi- reception, consist of a billiard-room no dence of the bishop, the second among bigger than is necessary for the due the remarkable edifices of Cettigna performance of the game, at which he and its environs. It was built within is a great adept, a small anteroom these five years, under the auspices of and bedroom. His valet and chainno less than my trusty attendant berlain, a well-dressed Montenegrian, Petrarca. The style is not, strictly did the honours. In the billiard-room speaking, imposing. Perhaps this the walls are hung with arms, though arose from suggestions of economy, or some of these were now absent on possibly from the mind of the archi- service. I observed some fine Turktect being at that moment unprepared ish swords, some of an ancient date, with any other. Simplicity in design presents to different Vladikas; some ' and execution characterize it through- Albanian daggers, straight, with a oat. It consists of a long single build- triangular blade, resembling the aning of one low story, containing two cient Venetian misericordes; and a rows of about twenty windows on handsomely mounted and antique each side. There is a door in the Servian sword, the blade with the middle, and at each end a small wing wolf-mark, so well known in the placed crosswise, and a very little Highlands and other parts of Europe. higher than the rest, containing a There were some handsome fire-arms; window above and a door below. and, among others, a splendid pipe Both before and behind, a large court lately presented by Osman Pasha of is enclosed by a low wall of loose Mostar. In the anteroom I remarked stones, with little turrets at the cor- with pleasure a small three-legged pers, and two doorways in the prin- stand, with a basin and towel; and I cipal. In the front court are some have heard that other contrivances for old brass and iron cannon, lying dis- the purification of the Episcopal permounted-trophies of Turkish war. son are not wanting, though no such Behind is an attempted kitchen gar- met my eye. In the bedroom, where den. The remainder of Cettigua is the odour of tobacco still remained small, hardly worth mentioning-six unmitigated, was a cabinet, which, or seven houses with an upper floor, when opened, displayed objects well and about twice as many ordinary worthy the attention of the next bots. This forms the metropolis of pasha who may visit Cettigna. RusMontenegro. But small as it is, I sian orders and snuff-boxes uncountdoubt if there be a bigger village in able, set in the choicest brilliants; the country, the population, though presents from the Emperors of Aussufficiently numerous, dwelling in tria of no mean value; a remembrance small scattered hamlets. The better or two of the King of Saxony, &c. dc. houses act as bostelries when called All these were opened by the camcon, which may be the case when Par, riere to our free inspection ; but not lament is sitting; but apart from the for this, nor the trouble we afterwards bishop's officials and retainers, the gave him when exhibiting the sacer

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