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diversions among them except the constitutional power, the attempts he one-stringed fiddle ; but I understood has been able to make have been conthat they have a few athletic sports, stantly thwarted by prejudice and igsuch as wrestling and putting the norance. Had he the privileges or the stone. They often go to sea.
ties of an ordinary man, then, as we countered two among the crew of an all know, the barrener the rocks, the Austrian packet. They all profess the dearer seems the love of the native Greek faith, and are in their way very land ; but, situated as he is, he can religious. When passing a church hardly be accused of want of patriotthey bow and cross themselves, and ism if his stay in Montenegro should perform all sorts of pious movements, not extend beyond the time required which sometimes border on the ludi- in saving sufficient of his income to crous. Before going to sleep they quit it. make long prayers. Previous to visit- Our voyage from Cattaro to Corfu ing the Vladika, an armed Montene- was accomplished in a small trabagrian entered in the morning the house colo-the San Marco of Spalatrowhere we slept, and casting aside bis having on board three men and a boy. gun and cloak, commenced reading These boats, though not fast, are very mass to the assembled party. This safe, and the Dalmatians in general was the priest of the parish. The manage small craft well. The north older members of the community are wind is scarce at this time of the year, not usually very enlightened ; but but a beautiful tramontana blew duthrough the schools established by the ring the time we were working out Vladika; where instruction is dis- of the Bocca. This we lost entirely, pensed gratuitously, most of the rising and not a breath moved its calm wageneration can read and write their ters. We had also to wait some hours native language, and a sufficiency of at Port Rosa, situated at the entrance neatly printed books are issued from of the Bocca, for our papers. By the the press he keeps employed at Cet- time we were out at sea, the wind had tigna. No social distinctions are yet nearly died away, and the next day known among them; and the most found us employed gathering wild perfect equality prevails—even the pomegranates on the desolate shores sons address their father by his Chris- near Antiversi, in Albania. Again a tian name. The only exception is in beautiful tramontana sprang up, and the person of the Vladika- his lot on in a vessel of first-rate sailing powers, the whole is not an enviable one. The would almost have brought us in. All only educated mind among the many day we went gallantly along. The --the only polished gentleman among heads of Ducazzo-Dyrrichium of old simple peasants ; he is indeed an iso- — began to appear, and soon we passed it lated being. Handsome and in the in a foam. All night we held on, and in prime of life, yet there must be none the morning were beside the "infames to cheer his lot, or lighten his soli- scopulos Acroceruunia," and in sight of tude, nor any to whom he would the island of Sassina, near the harbour love to transmit his mountain throne. of Avlona, On we went still, till at In this respect the laws of his order length there appeared the land of the are stringent, and the breath of scan- Phæacians, “ like a shield upon the dal has never yet sullied his fair name, sea ; " but tliere was a cloud over it though it is quite true that whilst in which portended ill. It advanced his native land the temptations are towards us, and extended rapidly. It not very severe. I should not be sur- was soon evident to the most sanprised if a report I heard current guine that the wind was changing, should prove true, that he intended, and there was shortly no mistake at no very distant period, to relin- about the matter. I implored our quish the government of Montenegro, skipper to keep on, though he tacked and spend the remainder of his days to the coast of Apulia ; but he knew among a people more congenial to the "his trade too well the trade of a habits of a man of education. Were 'trabacolo consisting in never losing he an absolute potentate, an extended sight of shore. So we were obliged field for benefiting his countrymen to put in to Avlona harbour, deeply might be obtained; but with his more lamenting. Two days were spent here, not daring to land for fear of put- long an imprisonment in this little tub, ting ourselves in quarantine. Above with holes to creep in about the size the town rises the fortress of Canina, of a dog-kennel, and in the roughest but all wears a ruined appearance, possible weather, to find ourselves in The people of the neighbourhood, called one of the most comfortable hotels in Chimariots, have the worst reputation Europe, and surrounded by old friends. of all the Albanians. The coast of Since my visit to Montenegro, the Albania between this and Corfu has Vladika went to Vienna-I believe to a very barren and inhospitable appear- gain the mediation of Austria concernance. The snowy peaks of the Pindus ing the disputed territory of Lessandro. rise directly from the sea. A few After his return I understand he was bushes were visible on the mountains, visited by Lord Clarence Paget, combut timber of any size is scarce. Vil- manding her Majesty's frigate L'Aigle, lages and houses are seldom seen. A who had been sent to gain some inglad contrast was presented when, on formation regarding his territory; so the tenth day of our voyage, we ap- that, perhaps, a more accurate account proached the beautiful shores of Corfu; may be obtained than what is to be and it was no small comfort, after so found in these rough notes.
ESTHETICS OF DRESS.
A Case or flats. Of all the follies that can be fairly ourselves for this physiological factplaced to the charge of the human for we presume it to be one of the race--and, Heaven knows, they are best ascertained phenomena connectthick as guats in a summer sunbeam ed with the genus homo—it is better - none can be laid at more people's to take it as we find it; and if we doors than the fickleness and vagaries cannot hope to cure man of the abof the judgment in adorning, to say surdity any time this side of the milnothing of covering, man's outer scal- lennium, let us try if we cannot turn folding-the body. And the worst of the failing to some account, and make it is, that this folly-cap fits all men, it useful as well as ornamental. from the Red Indian of America to The chief quarrel to be picked with the sallow-faced, eye-slitted Chinese; man for his dressing propensities, is and through all the robed pomp of the on the ground that he not only hides solemn Turk to the chattering and and distigures the fair proportions capering monkeyism of the Parisian bestowed on him by his Maker, but exquisite-there are fops every where. that he ever and anon loads himself As Mr Catlin will tell you, one of his with such masses of useless incongruilanky Ojibbeway, or loway, or Cut- ties, that the very end and object of away, or Anyotherkindo'way Indi- his care are stultified. Instead of ans varies the feathers in his head- making himself smart, pretty, becomdress, and sticks new tinsel on his ing, beautiful—or any other word that buffalo-mantle, whenever he can get you can find in the dandy's dictionary them; spending as much time in be- -he frequently succeeds in making painting his cheeks on a summer himself positively ugly-frightful, in morning, as Beau Brummell, of de- the pure abstract sense of the termparted memory, ever wasted in ty- or detestable, in the lingo of the ing his cravat. And so it has ever Stultzean tribc-and relapses, as a been-so it will ever be; man is not Frenchman would say, from civism only a two-legged unfledged animal, to brutisi : Ah! quel animal que but he is also a vain imitative ape, l'homme! fond of his own dear visage, blind to But let it not be supposed that is his deformities, and ever desirous of speak of man only, as applied + setting himself off to the best advan- great branch of the species c tage. It is of no use quarrelling with by the most experienced
as homo vir; it is quite as true of the their dress, what a new thing it would other moiety, the homo femina. If it be in the world—quel progrés ! quel be possible that a woman should ever évènement ! be made frightful by any thing except The fundamental rule of dress we age, then it is surely by dress; if a take to be the following—utility in woman never does a foolish thing in all cases, ornament when practicable. any other way, yet at least she errs The first should ever precede, and in her habiliments; if she be fickle at serve as the basis to the second ; and all, (and speak to the fact, ye dis- it is the inversion of their due posiappointed bachelors and ye com- tions that causes so many applications plaisant husbands !) in what is she of the utile and the dulce to end in more fickle than in dress ? We sheer absurdity. The usefulness of might waste a life in finding a suit- any article or system of dress depends able simile for her volatility in this entirely upon climate, modified of matter: rainbows with changing co- course by the occupation or pursuits lours, water on a windy day, the wind of the wearer ; the beauty of it or the itself in the month of March, the suitableness of the ornament to the much - desiderated perpetual motion; character of the vestment. We defy all are feeble similes to describe a all the editors of the Recueils des Modes, woman's fickleness in dress. Shall Petits Courriers des Dames, Belles we liken it to her tongue's untiring Assemblées, &c., with even the poetplay? or shall we not rather say that laureates of Moses and Son, Hyam it is a psychological fact standing per and Co., with the whole host of se ? the concomitant effect and conse- Israelitish schneiders, to find out a quence of her beauty? But, dear better æsthetic definition of the law creatures! we are not going to quar- of dress than this. Who would have rel with them for what gives us so the effrontery to maintain that an much unconscious pleasure, (we do not Englishman, the very type of the usemean milliners' bills, gentle reader ;) ful at Calcutta in his cotton jacket we glory in living under a petticoat and nankeens, would in the same hagovernment, and in essentially petti- biliments be a suitably dressed man coatian times. All we shall do is to at St Petersburg ? and however much give a word of advice; and in trying a well-set ring may ornament an arison their caps for them, we will show tocratic finger, (though aristocratic them the rationale of their bows and fingers, like aristocratic hands, as Bytheir lace, if they will only have the ron observes, need no ornament to tell patience to sit still for the experi- their origin) who but an Otaheitan ment.
would admire the application of them Before embarking on such an im- to the gouty toes of some " fine old portant project, allow us to say that English gentleman ?” Usefulness we are not going to quiz old Whang- first, then, and ornament afterwards ; Fong for his pig-tail and peacock think first of what you actually want feathers, nor his Cannibalean majesty for your health or comfort; cut your for his obstinate refusal to wear a coat upon that pattern, clap on your decent pair of inexpressibles ; it is a lace afterwards ; but enrich it only to stiff subject to meddle with the dress- improve its appearance, not to intering propensities of people that live fere with, to conceal, or to alter its “ in many a place that's underneath original destination. the world.” For all we care, Abd el To begin, however, methodically, Kader and his Arabs may stifle them- let us take what are commonly underselves up in their greasy blankets stood by well-dressed English people swarming with ancestral vermin un- of the present day, and let us criticise der a nearly tropical sun; and the them from top to toe. And first, good people of Igloolik may bedeck then, of a gentleman's head-le chef, themselves with the spoils of fish, as the French call it—and the chapeau, flesh, and fowl, to set the fashions of its present gear. What a covering! the Arctic circle. We are going to what a termination to the capital of speak merely of our home acquaint- that pillar of the creation, Man| what ances and our European friends; if an ungraceful, mis-shapen, useless, these only would be reasonable in and uncomfortable appendage to thio seat of reason, the brain-box! Does of the highest antiquity, and based, it protect the head from either heat, we have no doubt, on utility. We cold, or wet? Does it set off any of must be candid enough to say, that natural beauty of the human cranium? we give up the argument as to the Are its lines in harmony with, or in intrinsic beauty of this species of cap becoming contrast to, the expressive truly we think it the very type of features of the face? Is it comfort- all that is slovenly; but for use, there able, portable, durable, or cheap ? is not a more comfortable, portable, What qualities, either of use or orna- pliable, buyable, and washable a comment, has it in its favour that it should modity, than your—nightcap are wo be the crowning point of a well-dress- to say? no—than your bonnet Grec. ed man's toilet? The hat is, beyond Hats, properly so called, whether of all doubt, one of the strangest vesti- cloth or fur, were evidently the invenmental anomalies of the nineteenth tion of some out-of-door people; but century.
then they were not the brimless pyraThe history of the hat is this :--The midal canisters of the present fashion, simplest covering for a man's head but were either caps with dependent after his own unshorn locks—(do not brims, or else broad and flexible Sparemind us of the matted and living nish sombreros. The very idea of locks of the Indians or Hottentots)- a hat is that of utility-something to must have been something like the keep off the sun and the rain-any Greek skull-cap. This we hold to thing will do for warmth that will have been the root, or nucleus, of the aid the hair in keeping in the natural hat; and yet even this cap-had a fault caloric of a man's head; and hence in point of utility, for it failed to sha- we much doubt whether the Irish, dow the eyes : and on the earliest that hot-headed nation, ever wore Greek monuments we find a cap with hats in early times. From the want a wide brim appended, or a flattish of shade being carly felt by civilized straw-hat following close upon the nations, more than shelter from rain, Phrygian bonnet. A light flattish hat and from hat-shapes being found on has its recommendation in a warm early southern monuments, we are incountry, but it will not do for the clined to think that the hat was more winds and storms of a northern clime; extensively worn in Southern than in and hence all the old Gauls, the north Northern Europe; more, as it is, in ern nations, the Tartars, and the pea- Southern England than in Northern sants of Europe, for many a long cen- Scotland. Hence, although we find tury wore a modified cap-sometimes many iron skull-caps, like hats, used swelling out into ornamental propor- by the military in the fifteenth centions, at others shrinking into the tury; and although we find traces of primitive simplicity of the Phrygian hats even in the plebeian costumes of or Greek cap. Shall we confess it, fas- the middle ages—yet we look upon tidious reader ?—we strongly suspect the Spanish and Italian hat of the sixthe cap worn by that idle fellow Paris, teenth century, as the more immediwhen he so impudently ogled the god- ate origin of its degenerate successor, desses on Mount Ida, to have bcen very the actual chapeau. We need not similar to the good old bonnet de nuit trace the variations of its form through of our grandfathers—(shall we whisper the seventeenth century, from the it, of ourselves ?) Yes, that little high-crowned things of Henry III. of cocked-up corner at the top looks like France, and James I. of England, to a budding tassel; he never had such the graceful beavers of Louis XIII., bad taste as to tie it with a riband Philip III., and Charles I. of Enground his brows; and we do not read land; the change was all in favour of in Homer that Helen, though a capital the beaver; and certainly the hat workwoman, ever gave him one; but reached its culminating point of exwe are inclined to believe that the old cellence during the reign of our marpunty-dunty, pudding-bag-shaped cap tyr king. Who has studied the splenwhich is still worn by the French pea- did portraits of Vandyke, or the heads santry in their field occupations, and of Rubens, and has not perceived the is still patronized by a large portion uncommon grace given to them by of Queen Victoria's loving subjects, is the well-proportioned and not excessive hat? Who does not remember church-beadle with his large-caped the fine portrait of Rubens himself, coat, silver-licaded cane, and monwith his black Spanish hat turned up strous three-cornered hat. Our moin front, the very perfection of that dern great ladies, strange to say, style of head-dress? Put a modern seem to have an especial affection for hat by the side of this hat of Rubens, this hat, since they take particular and say wbich bears off the palm; care to have a couple of footmen bethere can hardly be two opinions upon hind their carriage glorying in this the subject. The great change of this capital atrocity, while on the coachhat took place, as is well known, in box they encourage the older form of Louis XIV.'s court, where first of all the flat cocked hat of Louis XV. feathers were laid all round upon the All cocked hats, be it observed, are flat of the brim, and next the brim glorious rain-traps; the only imwas edged with lace, and pinched or provement they are capable of is one not cocked up, for greater use in military yet patented, namely, the appending service. It might have been useful of neat flexible spouts, say of Macinfor a military man, especially one who tosh cloth, from each corner, so as had to handle a bayoneted musket; to convey the water in pleasant but it was a fatal invasion of the prin- meanderings over the back and coatciple of beauty to adopt a permanent tails. In dry weather these spouts cock. There is no doubt that the might be tied up, and would form flat cocked hat, the small three-cor- graceful curves either before, behind, nered pinched hat of the days of Louis or on one side of the cocked flaps, XIV. and Louis XV., gave much while in a shower they would add smartness to the soldier, and much dignity to utility, as they hung all neatness to the civilian ; the change, adown the back of the wearer. One too, corresponded with other altera- kind of utility, however, the old tions of dress, from the loose and cocked hat certainly had ; it served flowing, to the tight and succinct in some degree, maugre the looping principle; but picturesque effect was up of the brim, to shelter the face entirely lost; all the sentimentality, from the sun; not indeed when worn all the romance of the hat, evaporat- full front, as it was in Dr Johnson's ed in the formal cock. But this small time, and as we remember the houseflat hat of the seventeenth and eight- hold. troops used to wear it-but eenth centuries, was perfection and when, by a daring innovation of revobeauty itself, compared with the out- lutionary times, it came to be turnrageous and elevated cocked hat ed round on its human pivot, and lay which came into fashion sometime gently athwart the line of vision. before 1750, and which is the imme- Thus it is that our generals wear it diate prototype of the present military in this nineteenth century; thus it was cocked hat. Here the principle of that the Great Duke got all through utility was entirely abandoned; it was Spain with it; though Napoleon, who sacrificed to the display of an unna- greatly reduced its dimensions, altural brim. The hat was no longer ways kept to the orthodox full-front; formed by the pinching up of a cir- and in all positions, except the latter, cular brim of moderate dimensions; it certainly does shade some portion but three enormous flaps were made of the face from the sun.
But while, to rear their unwieldy height in the for example, the projection of one air, and were strengthened, stiffened, peak shades the nose, the ears and and supported, against the envious cheeks are left to fish for themselves; winds, to the torment of the wearer, or else, if the hat wheels round again and to the disfigurement of his per- to the front, the ears come under its
All through the first half of benignant shade, but the tip of the the tasteless reign of good old proboscis suffers awfully. The cocked George III., did this horrible co- hat has always been a two-horned vering disguise the beau's head; and dilemna ever since the third peak the effect of it may still be judged moved up in the world from its oriof by his grandchildren, when they ginal position of horizontal equality, contemplate, not without awe, the and aspired to be a near neighbour of rubicund figure of some metropolitan the cockade or towering plume.