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In the latest form of Siemens' recorder, a long chart, visible over a considerable length through a window (Fig. 10) is also used. It is furnished with a
FIG. 10.-Siemens' recorder.
pivoted galvanometer, and the pointer is pressed on to an inked ribbon which touches the chart. Clockwork is used to actuate this recorder.
The substantial advances made in this country in pyrometry during recent years may be cited as a useful guide as to how industry may be created and preserved. All the places at which pyrometers are made in Britain are under the direction of skilled scientific men, who are constantly devising new instruments and finding wider fields for their application. All are in close touch with the National Physical Laboratory, which has proved invaluable to them in securing uniformity of calibration, and in other ways. The result is a thriving and extending industry, not threatened by foreign competition, and not requiring artificial props to ensure its success.
MEMBERS OF SCIENTIFIC STAFFS OF
SINCE the publication, in our issue of July 15, of
the list of members of scientific staffs of universities, colleges, and other institutions on active service with H.M. Forces, we have received further lists which for various reasons did not reach us earlier. The names in the list subjoined are supplementary to those published in our register last week. In each case the list is limited to men who have been gazetted or have enlisted in one of the Services.
At the Meteorological Office permission to offer their services to the War Office or other Government department associated therewith for the period of the war has been given to Mr. G. I. Taylor, Schuster reader at Cambridge, and twelve members of the clerical and technical staff. Three of the attendants have left the service of the office to enlist. On the other hand, the
professional and scientific staff has been increased for special duty in connection with meteorological f service by the addition of six meteorologists, three whom are volunteers. More volunteers with profes sional qualifications in physics and mathematics ar required for duty at the observatories.
Anderson, Dr. J. S., assistant lecturer in physics, Officers Training Corps.
Chadwick, P.M., assistant lecturer in civil engineer. ing, 2nd Lieut. 2/2 Field Co., East Ang. Div. R.E. Coates, J. E., special lecturer in physical chemistry Lieut. R.N.V.R., attached to Air Department. Johnson, G. E., assistant in agricultural zoology, 2nd Lieut. 15th (S.) Batt. Royal Warwick Regiment. Jones, R. A., headmaster of training college for men, Major 15th (S.) Batt. Royal Warwick Regiment. Lea, Dr. F. C., professor of civil engineering, 2nd Lieut. Officers Training Corps.
McCombie, Dr. Hamilton, assistant lecturer in chemistry, Lieut. 3/7 Worcester Regiment.
Panton, R. C., assistant lecturer in civil engineering, 2nd Lieut. 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers (wounded). Thomas, W. Norman, lecturer in civil engineering, 2nd Lieut. 213th Fortress Co. R.E. (Warwicks). Whitworth, E. S., assistant in training college for men, Lieut. 1oth (S.) Batt. Royal Warwick Regt. Wishart, W. G., assistant lecturer in machine design, Mechanical engineering, 2nd Lieut. Roy. Gar. Artil.
Atkin, W. R., assistant lecturer and demonstrator in leather industries, 2nd Lieut. 5th Batt. K.O.Y.L.I. Birch, de B., professor of physiology, assistant director of medical services, 2/1st W.R. Division T.F. Carr, W., assistant in textile department, driver Army Service Corps.
Comber, N. M., assistant lecturer in agricultural chemistry, Lieut. 8th Batt. Yorks.
Dyson, H. A., assistant in textile department, private 15th Batt. West Yorks.
Firth, A., mechanic in engineering department, Sergt. 7th Batt. West Yorks.
French, W. E., assistant lecturer and demonstrator in electrical engineering, Lieut. 17th Batt. W. Yorks. Goode, C. W., milk tester in agriculture department, private T.F.
Hampshire, P., assistant in leather industries department, private R.A.M.C.
Jones, LI. R., assistant lecturer in geography, Capt. 7th Batt. West Yorks.
Lee, E., assistant lecturer in agricultural botany, Lieut. 4th Batt. W. Riding (killed in action July 10). Lloyd, W. G., demonstrator in physiology, Lieut. R.A.M.C.
Newby, A., assistant in textile department, private R.A.M.C.
Nuttall, J. M., demonstrator in physics, 2nd Lieut. 11th Batt. York and Lancasters.
Perkins, W. H., assistant lecturer and demonstrator in chemistry, Capt. O.C. Leeds Univ. O.T.C. Potter, V. J., laboratory assistant in agriculture, private 15th Batt. West Yorks.
Priestley, J. H., professor of botany, Capt General Staff, Expeditionary Force.
Watts, A. E., mechanic in physics department, private 15th Batt. West Yorks. Westmoreland, A., laboratory attendant in geology, bugler 7th Batt. West Yorks.
Whitaker, G., laboratory attendant, private R.A.M.C. Woodhead, A. E., demonstrator in tinctorial chemistry and dyeing, Lieut. Leeds University O.T.C.
Bourdillon, R. B., chemistry tutor, University College, Lieut. R.F.C. (S.R.).
Edmunds, P. J., demonstrator in physics, 2nd Lieut. Royal Engineers.
Hartley, H. B., chemistry tutor, Balliol College, Capt. 7th (S.) Batt. Leicestershire Regiment. Schuster, E. H. J., biology fellow, New College, Lieut. Wessex Royal Garrison Artillery. (Gill, W. B., demonstrator in physics, is Lieut. in the R.E. and not R.G.A., as stated last week.)
SIDMOUTH: THE HILL OBSERVATORY. Lockyer, Dr. W. J. S., chief assistant, Lieut. R.N.V.R. (Air Service).
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
CAMBRIDGE.-The following awards for research have been made at Emmanuel College :-Studentship of 120l., J. Conway Davies, for research on the baronial opposition to Edward II.; studentship of 100l., O. H. Hoexter, for an investigation of certain problems of currency; grants from the Research Studentship Fund, G. Matthai, Mackinnon student of the Royal Society, 501. towards expenses while investigating the morphology of coral; J. Morrison, 6ol. towards the expenses of investigation of the relative age of the intrusive rocks in the Shap district.
LONDON.-Dr. F. A. Bainbridge has been appointed to the University chair of physiology, tenable at St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School. He has been professor of physiology at Durham since 1911.
The D.Sc. degree in organic chemistry has been granted to Mr. O. L. Brady, Royal College of Science, and the D.Sc. degree in engineering to Mr. Oscar Faber, an external student.
A new Board of Studies in Horticulture has been constituted, and regulations have been approved for diplomas in town-planning and civic architecture, and in town-planning and civic engineering.
Honorary bachelor degrees are to be conferred, in faculties other than medicine, on internal students who, on account of war service, have been prevented from completing the courses of study and examinations for their degrees.
MANCHESTER. Since the outbreak of the war 520 cadets have been granted commissions. Of these 210 were not members of the University, but were enrolled in the University Officers Training Corps, under the command of Major Sir Thomas Holland, the professor of geology. The officers of the contingent have specialised in such subjects as map reading, elementary field engineering, infantry tactics, military law, signalling, and army organisation. Cadet Sergt. Edgar has also given lectures on military history. Students in the department of economics have been working under the direction of Prof. Chapman, in collecting statistics for the Board of Trade. In the chemical, metallurgical, and engineering departments, both in the faculty of science and that of technology, important work is being done for the War Office and for the Admiralty, and a considerable number of the members of the staff and students are engaged in scientific investigations and tests for the Government.
The women members of the staff have organised among the women students two Red Cross detachments and other groups offering special social service.
Science announces that Mr. J. J. Hill has given 25,000l. to Harvard University to endow a professorship of transportation in the graduate school of business administration. We learn from the same source that a trust fund of 20,000l., the proceeds of which are to be divided between the William Pepper Clinical Laboratory of Medicine and the Latin and Greek department, is bequeathed to the University of Pennadelphia. sylvania under the will of Samuel Dickson, of Phil
THE trustees of the Beit Fellowships for Scientific Research, which were founded and endowed two years ago by Mr. Otto Beit, in order to promote the advancement of science by means of research, have recently elected to fellowships the following :-Mr. W. B. Haines, of Leytonstone, Mr. C. K. Ingold, of Chiswick; and Mr. H. N. Walsh, of Cork. Mr. Haines studied at University College, London, from 1907 to 1913, at the University of Göttingen, 1913-14, and has since been at the Imperial College. Mr. Ingold was an exhibitioner of the University of London in 1912, and a royal scholar in 1913; from 1911 to 1913 he was at the Hartley University College, Southampton. Mr. Walsh received his education in Ireland. He was a scholar, medallist, and prizeman at University College, Cork, and is now assistant to Prof. Alexander. The three fellows will carry on their respective researches in the Imperial College of Science and Technology.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
chair.-J. Boussinesq: Reflections on the principles of Academy of Sciences, July 12.-M. Ed. Perrier in the the dynamics of Aristotle and their agreement with experiment in the case of uniform phenomena.— B. Boulyguine: The representation of an integral number by a sum of squares.-J. Deprat: The mode of formation of two Japanese volcanic centres, Aso-San and Asama-Yama, compared with the volcanic centres of ancient geological periods. The structure of the volcano of Aso-San is exactly comparable with the great volcanic centre of Anglona, in Sardinia. AsamaYama has another type of structure, and in its mode of working recalls Mt. Pelée. It compares exactly with the trachyte dome of Monte Ferru, in Sardinia.D. Eginitis: The geological phenomena observed during the two last earthquakes at Leucade and Ithaca. The dislocations due to seismic phenomena can be traced historically from the first century right up to the present time, and represent a continuation of the great geological phenomena which have separated the island of Leucade from the mainland of Greece. There is no conclusive evidence of volcanic manifestations, the appearance of clouds on the Leucade mountains, observed during the last earthquake, being most probably due to dust arising from the fall of rocks.-F. Bordas and S. Bruère: Contribution to the study of the phenomena of putrefaction. It is the custom in France, in the country, to bury small animals which have died on the farm in the manure heap. It is shown that complete resolution of the organic elements of the body takes place very rapidly under these conditions, the organisms present in the manure assisting the rapidity of the decomposition.Marc Tiffeneau : Comparison of the various adrenalines and their homologues, measured by their action upon the arterial pressure in a dog under the influence of atropine. The dogs used in these experiments were
placed under the influence of chloral and atropine, and the advantages of this method are described. Lævorotatory adrenaline, either natural or synthetic, was proved to be from 15 to 20 times more active than its dextrorotatory isomer. This is in accordance with the fact already known, that the synthetic racemic compound has about half the activity of the natural adrenaline.-P. Petit: Some observations on malt amylase. Extracts with water or dilute alcohol contain a large proportion of foreign material and do not keep. By the use of aqueous acetone in the manner described a solution of diastase can be prepared the activity of which remains constant for several weeks. This solution can be precipitated by a mixture of ether and acetone, giving a disastase which can be dried, and which is of high activity.-Em. Bourquelot, M. Bridel, and A. Aubry Researches on the preparation of glucosides from glycerol with the aid of a-glucosidase. CAPE TOWN.
Royal Society of South Africa, June 16.-Dr. L. Péringuey, president, in the chair.-R. W. Shufeldt : Osteology of Palæornis with other notes on the genus. A description is given of one of the most abundant parrots of India-Palaeornis torquatus, or the ring-parrot-so named for the reason that in the adult a ring or collar forms a part of the plumage of the neck. Miss A. V. Duthie: Note on apparent apogamy in Pterygodium newdigatae. This paper deals with a cleistogamous variety of the South African orchid, Pterygodium newdigatae, and is of special interest because cleistogamy, rare enough among orchids, appears here to be accompanied by apogamy. Sections of the ovary and column at various stages of development show no trace of pollen tubes. The glandlike "pollen masses," which remain permanently embedded in the tissue of the rostellum arms, do not appear to develop beyond the mother cell stage.-F. Eyles : A record of plants collected in Southern Rhodesia. This record includes representatives of 160 families, 869 genera, and 2397 species, besides 112 varieties. The flowering plants are arranged on Engler's system as set out in the "Genera Siphonogamarum " of Dr. C. G. de Dalla Torre and Dr. H. Harms, 1900-1907. The ferns and fern allies are arranged in accordance with the system of Engler and Prantl, as shown in the check list of flowering plants and ferns of the Transvaal and Swaziland by J. BurttDavy and Mrs. Pott, 1911. With regard to the lower cryptogams, the arrangement is that of Strasburger's "Text-book of Botany," 1903.-J. S. v. d. Lingen: Description of (1) a simple apparatus for finding “g"; (2) a simple apparatus for standardising a given vibrator.
Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Report on the Excavations at Grime's Graves, Weeting, Norfolk. March-May, 1914. Pp. 254+ plates. (London: H. K. Lewis.) 5s. net.
Jahrbuch des Norwegischen Meteorologischen Instituts für 1914. Pp. xii+ 147. (Kristiania: Gröndahl and Sön.)
Nedboriagttagelser i Norge utgit av det Norske Meteorologiske Institut. Aargang xx., 1914. (Kristiania Aschehoug and Co.) 3.00 kronen. Canada. Department of Mines. Mines Branch. Petroleum and Natural Gas Resources of Canada. Vol. i. By F. G. Clapp and others. Pp. xviii+378. (Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau.)
Lessons in Elementary Physiology. By T. H. Huxley. Enlarged and revised edition. Pp. xxiv +604. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) 4s. 6d.
Steam Power. By Prof. W. E. Dalby. Pp. xvi+ 760. (London: E. Arnold.) 21s. net.
The Book of France. Edited by Winifred Stephens Pp. xvi+272. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., Paris E. Champion.) 5s. net.
Agricultural Laboratory Manual. Soils. By Prof. E. S. Sell. Pp. iv+40. (Boston and London: Gir and Co.) 1s. 6d.
Aids to the Analysis and Assay of Ores, Metal, Fuels, etc. By J. J. Morgan. Second edition. Pp viii+138. (London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox.) 3.
The Science of Mechanics. A Critical and Historica! Account of its Development. By Prof. E. Mach Translated by P. E. B. Jourdain. Pp. xiv+100. (Chicago and London: The Open Court Publishing Co.) 2s. 6d. net.
Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers. By G. Cantor. Translated ty P. E. B. Jourdain. Pp. ix+211. (Chicago and London: The Open Court Publishing Co.) 35. 6d. net. Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense. Edited by G. A. Johnston. Pp. vii+267 (Chicago and London: The Open Court Publishing Co.) 3s. 6d. net.
The House Fly: a Slayer of Men. By F. W. Fitzsimons. Pp. vi+89. (London: Longmans, Green and Co., Ltd.) is. net.
The British Mycological Society. Transactions for the Season 1914. Vol. v., part i. May. Pp. xii+186. (Worcester: E. Baylis and Son.)
THURSDAY, JULY 29, 1915.
THE STUDY OF METALS AND ALLOYS. An Introduction to the Study of Physical Metallurgy. By Dr. W. Rosenhain. Pp. xxii+368. (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., 1914.) Price 10s. 6d. net.
may be doubted whether the title of this book has been happily chosen. So far as its subject matter is concerned, with the exception of one chapter on the mechanical testing of metals, it has hitherto been described by the term "Metallography." The latter, which dates back to 1721,
was originally used to signify the description of metals and their properties. In this sense it is certainly obsolete, but it was re-introduced in 1892 to describe the microscopic structure of metals and alloys, since when, as Dr. Desch points out in his text-book, "Metallography" (Longmans and Co.), "it has been generally accepted, gradually receiving an extension of meaning to include investigations by other than microscopic means." Dr. Rosenhain, in using the term physical metallurgy to describe such subject matter, writes: "The scope of physical metallurgy is an exceedingly wide one, and one which brings it well over the borderland of several sister sciences-such as chemistry on the one side, physics on another, and that branch of knowledge generally known as 'strength of materials' in yet another direction. Besides these, crystallography bears largely on our subject. This being the case, it appears to the writer that "Metallography" is the more appropriate title, as being both more accurate, more inclusive, and better suited to a rapidly growing science. Nowhere in this book, so far as can be seen, does the author attempt to bring the terms "Physical Metallurgy" and "Metallography" into relation with each other, and there are places where he appears to use them as interchangeable expres
The book is divided into two parts. The first deals with the structure and constitution of metals and alloys, the second with the properties of metals as related to their structure and constitution. As the title indicates, it is an introduction to a particular type of study, but it also serves as an introduction to a metallurgical series which is in course of publication under the author's editorship. This being so, he writes :-"The treatment of the whole subject in the present work has been intentionally kept somewhat general, the object of the author being to awaken interest and to stimulate thought and ideas rather than to communicate a great mass of detailed data." The
author has certainly achieved his purpose. He has written an interesting book full of suggestions, and he has presented his subject with remarkable fairness, and due acknowledgment to other workers. Chapter xi, dealing with the effect of strain on the structure of metals, a field of investigation in which he has been one of the pioneers, is one of the best pieces of writing extant on this subject.
No one acquainted with Dr. Rosenhain's technique will be surprised to hear that the photographic illustrations are excellent, but some of the diagrams are far from satisfactory. In describing the copper-aluminium equilibrium, certain letters are used in the text which are obviously meant to correspond to similar letters in the constitutional diagram, but which are conspicuous there only by their absence. It is somewhat surprising to come across the statement (page 110):-"No investigation of the constitution of a system of alloys can be regarded as really complete until a study of electrical conductivities and temperature coefficients has been carried out." Very few systems are composed of alloys which are ductile from one end of the series to the other. In the great majority of cases, as the author himself points out, there exists in the middle regions of the binary series a zone of brittleness and weakness where, not only can the alloys not be drawn into wires, but where they cannot even be turned in a lathe. Determinations of electrical conductivity would in such cases have to be made on rods cast to shape, and owing to their proneness to contain cavities or blow-holes, they would not be suitable for exact work and therefore as evidence in questions of constitution. Microscopical and thermal analyses still remain the fundamental methods of investigation in the determination of the constitution of alloys, and in most cases they are sufficient.
The author regards as anomalous and as requiring further research (page 305) the fact that a brasses cannot as a rule be hot-rolled (although they can be cold-rolled) whereas a+B brasses can be hot-rolled even though ẞ is considerably harder than α. He mentions, however (footnote to page 145), that he has recently seen an a brass successfully hot-rolled, and suggests therefore that "the hot shortness of the brasses may not be an inherent property of the alloys." In reality the explanation is quite simple. Lead is an invariable constituent of all commercial brasses. It is almost insoluble in a brass and the red shortness of this material is due to the presence of films of liquid lead among the solid a crystals. If, however, a brass is made from copper and zinc free from lead it can be hot-rolled without difficulty. The
B constituent, on the other hand, dissolves lead appreciably above 470° C., and hence at the temperature of hot rolling the a+B alloys do not contain liquid lead and are not hot short.
H. C. H. CARPENTER.
PENCIL AND PEN IN SYSTEMATIC
(1) Catalogue of the Amatidae and Arctiadae (Nolinae and Lithosianae) in the collection of (Nolinae and Lithosianae) in the collection of the British Museum. By Sir G. F. Hampson. Plates i-xli. (London: British Museum (Natural History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) Price 33s. 6d. net.
(2) A Revision of the Ichneumonidæ based on the Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), with Descriptions of New Genera and Species. Part iv., Tribes Joppides, Banchides, and Alomyides. By C. Morley. Pp. x+167. (London: British Museum (Natural History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) Price 6s. (3) The Syrphidae of the Ethiopian Region based on Material in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History), with descriptions of New Genera and Species. By Prof. M. Bezzi. Pp. 146. (London: British Museum (Natural History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.)
(4) British Museum (Natural History): British Antarctic ("Terra Nova") Expedition, 1910. Natural History Report. Zoology, vol. i., No. 3, Cetacea. By D. G. Lillie. Pp. 85-124. (London: British Museum (Natural History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) Price 7s. 6d. (5) Catalogue of the Fresh-Water Fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. iii. By Dr. G. A. Boulenger. Pp. xii+ 526. (London: British Museum (Natural History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) Price 21. 5s.
(6) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mollusca (Fresh-water Gastropoda and Pelecypoda). By H. B. Preston. Pp. xix +244. (London: Taylor and Francis, 1915.)
to be examined to make sure that species appar ently new to science have not been already described. Assistance is afforded by elaborate monographs of separate groups, such as Sir George Hampson's monumental catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalanæ, in thirteen volumes. But there is no finality in these obliging auxiliaries, for, as usual, while Sir George's catalogue was being issued between 1898 and 1913 other workers were industriously grapher has had to provide a supplement, beginmaking it incomplete, so that already the mononing with a first volume of nearly 900 pages. unavoidable, when several independent expeditions Some complication in descriptive work is also make their way to the same goal, as within the last few years has been the case with ships visiting the antarctic region and exploring the marine fauna at stations along the route.
To meet the initial difficulties in investigation of species nothing is more time-saving to the naturalist than trustworthy illustrations of the group he is studying. Faithful colouring is in some parts of the animal kingdom an additional boon of great value. The drawback is the initial costliness of production, and, consequent upon this, prohibitive prices forcing the student in many instances to rely upon borrowed copies or occasional visits to distant libraries. During the last two centuries the extreme desirability of wellillustrated zoology has been evidently fully appreciated though very variously provided for. Among individual efforts none is more remarkable than that of the Dutch physician, Albert Seba, who in the first half of the eighteenth century must have spent a fortune over the production of his 450 large folio plates, many of which are double. Latreille in 1830 commended them as excellent, though he condemned the "Accurata Descriptio" as worthless. At the same period Cuvier and his colleagues paid the plates an extraordinary compliment by re-issuing the whole mass with a brief revision under the editorship of Guérin. then, also, the French Government was issuing 198 rather larger and much more refined plates, illustrating the voyage of the Astrolabe, to which Mr. Edgar A. Smith makes several references in his recent memoir.
As the accomplished authors whose works are mentioned at the head of this notice must all be acutely conscious of the expediency of doing unto others as they would that others should do unto them, it is interesting to compare the different ways in which they have dealt with the supply of illustration. (1) The forty-one plates of Hamp son's supplementary volume are filled with deli cately coloured representations seemingly of all the species recorded in the supplement which have