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THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE
HE ninth annual report of the president and the
A comprehensive study of engineering education has been undertaken at the request of a joint committee representing the six national engineering societies. In co-operation with these societies a study of the history of important engineering schools and land-grant colNumerous engineering schools leges has been made. have been visited, special studies are being made of the situation of the student upon entering and upon leaving his engineering studies, and several thousand engineers are co-operating in formulating the views of the profession concerning the present methods and results of the engineering schools.
Because engineering is relatively a new profession, its professional consciousness is not as well developed as that in medicine and law, as is evidenced by the fact that engineering societies are of comparatively Thus the American Society of Civil recent date. Engineers, organised in 1852, held its first convention in 1869. The similar organisations of the mechanical and the electrical engineers were formed in 1880 and 1884 respectively.
of the demand for Because of this engineers, the engineering schools of the United States have had to do much pioneer work in education. Founded, as most of them were, since 1860, in response to the needs of growing industries for men trained in applied science, they have had to blaze their own trail through the forests of educational tradition; and, particularly in the early years of their existence, have had to defend their practices against existing habits of educational procedure. This fact makes the study of engineering education one of particular interest and importance, since it inevitably led to modifications in school practices both in the engineering colleges themselves and in the colleges for liberal humanistic training.
Although engineering was much simpler when the colleges were established than it is now, the founders of these institutions recognised clearly the novelty of the demands they were trying to meet, and organised their schools with a definite purpose of meeting those demands as fully as possible. The curricula of the early schools were devised only after a careful study of the conditions which the young engineer would have to meet on emerging from his course. That these curricula and the methods of training used were well The adapted to the purposes for which they were devised is shown by the admirable results obtained. wonderful development of the country in industrial and technical lines is in no small measure the work of the graduates of the engineering colleges, and stands as a monument to the far-sightedness, the sound instincts, and the high ideals of the men who guided the work. But this rapid expansion in industrial and technical lines, aided at every turn by the equally rapid development of science, has resulted in making the field of
Engineers have been forced to specialise in limited engineering very broad and extremely complicated. fields, and each year has witnessed a higher degree of specialisation and an increase in the amount of subjectmatter which must be included in the curricula of the schools. To meet this situation, the engineering schools have gradually patched the original curriculum by adding new subjects here and there and subdividing their instruction into an ever-increasing number of more highly specialised courses. The demands on the student's time have become severe, and the ingenuity of faculties to frame time-schedules which shall satisfy the requirements of all the various departments is being taxed to the utmost.
That there is a pressing need for a full and thorough study of engineering education is clearly recognised by the engineering profession. This recognition has manifested itself in the organisation, in 1893, of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, and in the increasing attention which the engineering societies and the engineering Press have given to this subject. It has recently been clearly expressed by the appointment of a joint committee on engineering education, whose membership is made up of fifteen representatives of the leading national engineering societies, and whose function is to examine into all branches of engineering and to formulate a report on the appropriate scope of engineering education."
The Carnegie Foundation is undertaking this study of engineering education in close conference and hearty co-operation with this committee. An important part of this inquiry will consist in a study of the conditions into which a young engineer enters immediately on graduation, and of the estimates which the engineering profession has formed of his needs and his equipment. Another part of the inquiry will consist of a study of the aims, the purposes, the curricula, the methods of teaching, and the educational experiments and investigations of the engineering schools. material, arranged in compact form, should be of value to schools and teachers, no less than to engineers and students.
The steps being taken to found an American Association of University Professors are of interest to all workers in higher education.
The movement has been inaugurated by a meeting held in Baltimore for the formation of a national association of university professors. For some years university teachers have realised that specialisation in teaching tended more and more to bring them together as specialists, not as unversity teachers. The physiologists, chemists, and philologists meet in groups, but nowhere has there been provided a body under which all university teachers shall come together, not as specialists but as university teachers, to consider the problems and the organisation of higher education. Such a body ought to be able to promote in a helpful way the discussion of questions relating to higher education and to the organisation and conduct of our universities; such, for example, as the organisation of universities into departments, the relations of research to teaching, the awarding of degrees, the methods of appointment and promotion, the relations of faculties and trustees, and numerous other questions directly affecting the ideals and the needs of university teachers and affecting no less the progress and develop. ment of the universities themselves.
Such a body bringing together university teachers in all subjects, who meet not as specialists but as men engaged in teaching, ought to exercise an admirable influence in arousing in the minds of a large number of university teachers now absorbed in their own specialities an interest in university questions and a greater readiness to study such questions together. Too many university teachers are content to be ab
sorbed in their own fields of study or research, and give little time or thought to the larger problems of university life and university progress. Such a body as this ought to furnish the opportunity and the incentive towards such thinking.
Such an organisation of university teachers ought to accomplish much in the creation of what one might call professional consciousness. It will help towards a more definite appreciation on the part of teachers themselves, and on the part of the public, of what it means to be a university teacher. The association may well hope in time to grow into an influence comparable in the case of university teachers to that exercised by the American Bar Association for lawyers or by the American Medical Association for physicians. Hitherto there has been little of professional solidarity amongst university teachers. The term professor has had with us a very indefinite meaning. It has been applied unthinkingly to secondary-school teachers, college teachers, university teachers, and to many whose connection with teaching is most remote. In this uncertainty lie certain difficulties which the association will meet, for in the public mind there is as yet no very clear differentiation between the university professor and the secondary-school teacher, just as many of our universities are such in name only.
The plans of the Association of University Professors have not yet been worked out to the point of detailed organisation. Doubtless those who have the matter in charge have in mind a somewhat loose organisation like that of the lawyers rather than a highly detailed organisation like that of the physicians. So far as the plan has as yet developed, it contemplates nothing further than the formation of a body representative of university teachers, a body in which questions affecting the work of the university and the interests of teachers, the relations of schools and colleges, and similar questions, may be discussed from the point of view of university teachers, and which may present to university bodies and to the public a statement of such questions from the point of view of the profession itself. Those who have to do with universities and colleges, whether as trustees, presidents, or teachers, will welcome this movement heartily.
The foundation's earlier studies of medical education are continued in this report in recommendations for changes in the classification of medical schools; a study of medicine and politics in Ohio; and a survey of medical education on the Pacific coast, which shows that the State of Washington, which has no medical school, has a plentiful supply of physicians trained in good schools all over the country, while California, with eight medical schools, is swamped with poorly trained doctors.
The report concludes with a discussion of "Standards and Standardisers," which shows that the Carnegie Foundation has had little to do with the setting up or enforcement of college standards, this being the work of college faculties. All that the foundation has done is to cause fuller discussion of such matters and to urge the claims of honesty and sincerity.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
A BURSARY in memory of Mr. Robert Hepburn has been founded by his sister at University College, Dundee. It will be tenable for three years, and open to any male or female student of medicine at the college.
PROF. W. MORGAN, who fills the chair of automobile engineering in the faculty of engineering of the University of Bristol, has been released from his
duties for the period of the war. He will, we understand, be engaged upon work in connection with the production of munitions.
THE governors of Guy's Hospital have received from the trustees and executors of the will of the late Sir William Dunn 25,000l. new War Loan 4 per cent. fully-paid stock for the endowment of a lectureship in pathology in the Guy's Hospital Medical School, to be known as the "Sir William Dunn Lectureship in Pathology."
IN connection with the erection of the permanent buildings of the University of Western Australia, two prizes of a hundred guineas and twenty-five guineas respectively were offered for the two best designs for the laying out of the University's grounds at Crawley Park, Perth, W.A. A large number of designs were sent in, and the following awards have now been made by the board of adjudication:-First prize, H Desbrowe-Annear, Melbourne, Victoria; second prize, H. W. Hargrave, Perth, W.A. The design submitted by Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons, Ltd., Crawley, Sussex, has in addition been granted an honourable mention.
WE are requested to make known that the latest date for the receipt of applications from candidates desiring to be examined at Local Centres for the Aitchison Memorial Scholarship is September 1, and from those who wish to be examined in London, September 15. Applications should be made to Mr. H. F. Purser, 35 Charles Street, Hatton Garden, E.C. It will be remembered that the scholarship in ques tion was founded in memory of the late Mr. James Aitchison, in consideration of the many and valuable services rendered by him to the optical industry and the development of optical education, and specially in recognition of his unselfish and constant endeavour to secure better training for optical students. The scholarship course, tenable at the Northampton Polytechnic Institute, Clerkenweil, covers two years, and its total value is 30l. It is proposed to offer the scholarship in alternate years.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
Academy of Sciences, August 17.-M. Ed. Perrier in the chair. Paul Appell: Contribution to the study of the functions of higher degrees.-W. Kilian and Antonin Lanquine: The coexistence, in the neighbourhood of Castellane, of pyreneo-provençal dislocations and of Alpine folds, and on the complexity of these orogenic phenomena.-Joseph Pérès: Bessel's functions with several variables.-H. G. Block: The equation of elastic rods.—José Rodriguez Mourelo: The phototropy of inorganic systems. The case of calcium sulphide. These sulphides were made by heating precipitated chalk (100 gr.), common salt (o' gr.), sodium carbonate (0'03 gr.), sulphur, and certain phosphoregens, such as manganese and bismuth salts. The colour develops in a strong light, not sunlight, in two or three minutes. In one set of experiments the proportion of manganese added varied between o'i per cent. and o'0001 per cent. The observed colours passed through reddish-violet, pink, to an intense violet, the maximum phototropic effect being obtained with 0'005 per cent. of manganese. The colours were increased in intensity by the addition of both manganese and bismuth.-M. Pontio: A method of control for rapidly estimating the quantity of nickel deposited in nickel plating. The method is based on the use of a solution of dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, which attacks the underlying metal (copper, iron) more rapidly than the deposited nickel.-Alberto Betim A layer of euxenite in Brazil. This deposit
was found near Pomba (Minas-Geraes), Brazil.
NEW SOUTH WALES.
Linnean Society, June 30.-Mr. A. G. Hamilton, president, in the chair.-A. R. McCulloch: Notes on, and descriptions of, Australian fishes.-H. S. H. Wardlaw: The temperature of Echidna aculeata. The temperature of Echidna shows a regular daily variation of about 3° C., its morning temperature being about 30° C., and its afternoon temperature about 33° C. These temperatures are considerably lower other mammals than the temperatures of most in Sydney, Echidna (37° С.). During winter hibernates for short periods at a time. During the periods of hibernation, its temperature sinks almost to the level of the air, so that Echidna behaves like cold-blooded animal.-R. J. Tillyard: The development of the wing-venation in zygopterous dragon-flies, with special reference to the Calopterygidæ. The paper deals with the tracheation of the larval wing in the genera Calopteryx (Palæarctic) and Diphlebia (Australian), the only two genera of the Calopterygidæ available for study. The results are most important, since they establish the fact that, throughout the suborder Zygoptera, the radius is unbranched, whereas in the Anisoptera it always possesses a branch, known as the radial sector, which over the two most distal branches of the media. In the Anisoptera, the media has only three In the Zygoptera it branches besides the main stem. has four. The extra branch lies between M, and M., and is analogous to, but not homologous with, the radial sector. For this newly demonstrated branch the name zygopterid sector is proposed, with the notation Ms, to preserve the analogy with the radial sector Rs. Important results following from this are (1) that the crossing of Rs over M1-, no longer separates the Odonata from all other insects; (2) that the dichotomy between Anisoptera and Zygoptera becomes far more pronounced than heretofore, by the basic difference in the condition of the radius in the two suborders; (3) that Handlirsch's fossil suborder, Anisozygoptera, must be dropped; all these fossils, tested by the character of the radius, become true Moreauia miraZygoptera. Dr. S. J. Johnston :
bilis, gen. et sp. nov., a remarkable trematode para-
spaces between the transverse folds of the mucous membrane, where it lies completely hidden. It is remarkable in its lateral expansion, being five times as broad as it is long. It is so different in its structure from known forms that it is looked upon by the writer as the representative of a new subfamily with fairly close affinities to Liolopinæ.
The Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire, (London: H. Jenkins, Ltd) Pp. xii+717. 1915. 7s. 6d. net.
The National University of Ireland. Calendar for the year 1915. Pp. clxxxiv +583. (Dublin.)
Thèses présentées à la faculté des Sciences de l'Université de Paris. Série A. No. 764. Pp. 155(Marseille Barlatier.)
Outlines of Sociology. By Prof. F. W. Blackmar and and Dr. J. L. Gillin. Pp. viii+586. (New York: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan Co., Ltd.) 8s. 6d. net. By F. Cajori and L. R. Elementary Algebra. (New York: The Macmillan Odell. Pp. vi+206. Company; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) 35.
Evolution: Organic and Social.
Plant-Life in South Africa and California
Letters to the Editor:
The Analogy between Radicles and Elements.-Prof.
The Density of Molecules in Interstellar Space.-Dr.
The Great Aurora of June 16, 1915.-Prof. E. E.
Foreign Philosophers.-Hugh Richardson
Prof. Paul Ehrlich
Frederick Victor Dickins, C.B.
Use of Celluloid in Periscope Mirrors.-—Edward M.
Life-Habits of the Okapi. By Sir H. H. Johnston,
University and Educational Intelligence
Editorial and Publishing Offices:
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.C.
Editorial Communications to the Editor.
Telegraphic Address: PHUSIS, London.
SUPPLEMENT TO "NATURE."
MEMBERS OF SCIENTIFIC STAFFS OF UNIVERSITIES, COLLEGES, AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS ON ACTIVE SERVICE WITH H.M. FORCES.
MANY of the universities, colleges, and technical
institutions in the United Kingdom have prepared lists of members of the staff, and of past and present students, serving with the forces of the Crown during the present war. Men engaged in teaching scientific and technical subjects, or in research, at these institutions have, in common with other professional classes, put aside their work voluntarily at the call of their country and taken their places in various branches of naval or military service. It has been our sorrowful duty to record that several workers in science have met their deaths while thus employed; and on such occasions the thought of others in the field has always been before us. In order to obtain a rough
census of men on active service, we have communi
cated with the registrar of each university and university college in the United Kingdom, and also with the principals of the technical schools and colleges included in the Association of Technical Institutions. We asked for the names of members of the scientific staffs now serving with the Army or Navy, with their positions on the staffs and rank in the forces. From the information thus obtained we have been able to compile the subjoined list, which will be of interest to many readers of NATURE.
Medical men have only been included in the list
when their names have been sent in as those of members of general scientific staffs. It would be out of place for us to attempt to prepare a list of the thousands of medical men serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps, the work of which must command the admiration of the whole civilised world. We are also unable to give the names of the many men whose scientific and technical knowledge are being used in the provision of munitions of war and for other national services at home. One technical school informs us that its workshop is now turning out a large number of shells a week, and another that the three engineers on its staff are, in addition to their teaching duties, performing war service by making munitions in the engineering workshops connected with one of the Royal factories.
In presenting the subjoined list, it may be desirable to repeat that it is limited to members of scientific staffs of the institutions named. The number of past and present students serving with the King's forces is greater than could ever have been anticipated. The Oxford roll has 8000 names, Cambridge has nearly 9000, Edinburgh 4000, the Imperial College of Science and Technology 1200, and other universities and colleges are similarly represented. The recent report of the Board of Education for the year 1913-14 (Cd. 7934) gives some striking facts as regards the decrease thus caused in the number of students in English colleges. From thirty-four universities and university colleges in England and Wales which are aided by grants from the Board, 2530 full-time students, or about 30 per cent. of the total number of full-time men students, had withdrawn to join the Forces by the end of January, and it may be safely assumed from the activity of the Officers Training Corps attached to these institutions that the number will steadily increase. In the men's training colleges for elementary teachers (excluding university training departments) about 645 out of a total number of 1420, or about 45 per cent., are already serving with the
Cranston, A., researcher in chemistry department, 2nd
Lieut. 9th Batt. Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Murray, Dr. J. R., university assistant in physiology,
Thomson, A. L., univ. assist. in zool., 2nd Lt. (Temp.) 13th Batt. Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
ABERYSTWYTH UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES. Bury, assistant-lecturer and demonstrator in chemistry, 2nd Lieut. Gloucester Regiment.
Grant, R., county agriculture organiser for Pembrokeshire, 2nd Lieut. Welsh Regiment.
James, T. C., lecturer and demonstrator in chemistry,
Walton, C. L., assistant-lecturer in economic zoology,
ASPATRIA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. Charleton, L. S., lecturer in surveying and bookkeeping, Lieut.
ASTON TECHNICAL SCHOOL. Nash, J. H., teacher of mechanical drawing, private, Birmingham City Batt., 15th R. Warwick Regt.
BARROW TECHNICAL INSTITUTE.
Baythorp, A. J., teacher of mechanical drawing, Lieut. Royal Garrison Artillery.
Milne, K., teacher of mechanical drawing, private, Yeomanry. |
Seed, D., teacher of mechanical drawing, 2nd Lieut. Royal Garrison Artillery.
BELFAST: MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE. Adair, J. T., teacher of flax spinning, Lieut. Bedfordshire Regiment.
Forth, F. C., principal, Capt. Royal Irish Rifles. Gooch, H., lecturer in physics and electrical engineering, Lieut. Royal Engineers.
Longworth, G. H., engineering workshop instructor, Staff-Sergt. Army Ordnance Corps. Naylor, T. M., lecturer in mechanical and electrical engineering, Eng. Sub-Lieut. Royal Navy. Nixon, W., teacher of naval architecture, Capt. Tyneside Scottish.
Stanley, R., professor of physics and electrical engineering, Capt. Royal Engineers. Wright, T. M., instructor in physical training, Company Sergt.-Major Army Gymnastic Staff.
BELFAST QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY. Crymble, Dr. C. R., senior assistant in chemistry, Lieut. 3rd Batt. Royal Irish Fusiliers. Crymble, P. T., lecturer in applied anatomy, Capt. R.A.M.C. (T.F.).
Dwerryhouse, Dr. A. R., lecturer in geology and geography, Capt. Royal Garrison Artillery (S.R.). Emerson, E. C. T., demonstrator in anatomy, Lieut. R.A.M.C.
Glendinning, W. G., assistant in chemistry, despatch rider.
Gooch, H., extra Murch lecturer in electrical engineering, Lieut. Royal Engineers.
Harper, E. M., assistant in chemistry, 2nd Lieut. 7th Batt. Munster Fusiliers. Livens, G., late demonstrator in botany, 2nd Lieut. 5th Batt. Wiltshire Regiment.
M'Cloy, Dr. J. M., assistant in pathology, medical officer in base hospital.
M'Connell, R. J., demonstrator in anatomy, 'Lieut.
Stanley, R., extra Murch professor of electrical engineering, Capt. Royal engineers.
Wilson, Dr. W. J., lecturer in hygiene, Lieut. R.A.M.C. (T.F.).
BIRMINGHAM: MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL. Lawrence, R. R., laboratory assistant, metallurgical department, 2nd Lieut.
Assheton, Dr. R. T., lecturer in animal embryology, 2nd Lieut. Ist Cambs.
Bragg, W. L., lecturer in natural sciences, 2nd 'Lieut. R.H.A. (Leics.).
Deighton, F., teacher of vaccination, Lieut. R.A.M.C. Dunlop, J. G. M., assistant-lecturer in chemistry,
Lieut. 2nd Dublin Fusiliers (died August 26, 1914). Entwistle, F., second observer, the Observatory, Lieut. Fay, C. R., Gilbey lecturer in agriculture, 2nd Lieut. 3rd The Buffs (East Kent Regiment).
Gray, J., demonstrator in comparative anatomy, 2nd Lieut. 5th Royal West Surrey.
Gregory, R. P., university lecturer in botany, Lieut. Hele, T. Shirley, lecturer in natural sciences, Capt.
Heycock, C. T., Goldsmiths' reader in metallurgy, 'Lieut.-Col. Commanding 1st Cambs. (T.F.).
Hill, A. V., Humphrey Owen Jones lecturer in physical chemistry, Capt. 1st Cambs.
Hindle, E., assistant to Quick professor of biology, Lieut. R.E. (Signalling Section).
Legg, S., senior laboratory assistant, engineering de- Hopkinson, B., professor of mechanism and applied
BRADFORD: TECHNICAL COLLEGE.
Chevalier, J. J. F., station engineer, 2nd Lieut.
Palmer, G. R., assistant-lecturer in mathematics,
and school child, Lieut.-Col. R.A.M.C. Short, Dr. A. R., lecturer on first aid and home nursing, Capt. R.A.M.C.
Stanley, H., lecturer in physics, Lieut. 4th Batt. Gloucester Regiment.
Statham, Dr. R. S. S., demonstrator in first aid and home nursing, Lieut. R.A.M.C.
Tipton, F. N., lecturer on telegraphy, Army telegraphist in France.
Wood, E. B., research assistant in the automobile engineering dept., Lieut. Army Service Corps.
BURNLEY: MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE. Basnett, W., laboratory attendant, private R.A.M.C. Kay, T. H., teacher of commercial subjects, private Army Service Corps.
BURY: MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL. Brammall, A., head of commercial department, Corpl. (Army).
Brooks, A. W., lecturer in book-keeping, Sergt.-Maj. (Army).
Buxton, G. V., lecturer in mathematics, private (Army); killed in action June 6, 1915.
mechanics, Major C.U.O.T.C.
Inglis, C. E., lecturer in mechanical engineering, Lieut. Royal Engineers.
Kempson, F. C., demonstrator of human anatomy, Lieut. R.A.M.C. (5th Bedford).
Lees, S., fellow of St. John's, Engineer-Lieut. R.N.
Lucas, Dr. K., demonstrator in physiology, Army Air-
Nicholas, T. C., sub-lecturer in geology, Staff-Major
Parker, W. H., sub-lecturer in agriculture, 2nd Lieut. 11th Suffolk.
Peters, R. A., research fellow (physiology), Gonville and Caius, Univ. demonstrator, Lieut. R.A.M.C. Potts, F. A., director in natural science, Trinity Hall, Roberts, H., lecturer in physiology and anatomy, 2nd Lieut. 9th West Riding Regiment.
Robertson, D. H., sub-lecturer in economics, 2nd. Lieut. 11th London.
Rolston, W. E., junior observer, Solar Physics Observatory, Lieut. East Kent Regt. (The Buffs). Stratton, F. J. M., University lecturer in astrophysics, Capt. 20th Div. Syn. Co., R.E.
Thirkill, H., demonstrator in experimental physics, 2nd Lieut. R.E.
Thomas, H. H., curator of botanical museum, 2nd Lieut. Chesh. Brigade R.F.A.
Wilson, G. H. A., lecturer in mathematics, Capt. (Army).