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2. Previously to the invasion of the Hebrews, Palestine was inhabited by numerous independent tribes, many of whom were exterminated by the conquerors, but some of which kept up a constant warfare, and maiutained their independence until they were all subjected to the Romans, who finally subjugated the civilized world.
3. The character of the Hebrews was peculiar ; for their laws and institutions were calculated to keep them a distinct people, and they maintained the knowledge of the true God, when all other nations were idolaters. Their territory was extremely limited, their situation almost entirely inland, the sea coast being inhabited by the Phenicians; and yet they often repulsed the most formidable invaders, vanquished the surrounding nations, and were seldom destitute of able kings and learned historians.
4. Several years before the death of Jesus Christ, they had become a province of the Roman Empire, but their repeated attempts to throw off the yoke of bondage at last provoked the Roman Emperor to destroy the city and temple of Jerusalem, and to scatter their nation over the earth.
5. These events which had been predicted by the Messiah, whom the Jews had crucified several years before, were attended with circumstances the most dreadful which history records. Whilst the whole nation were assembled at Jurusalem, as was their custom, to celebrate the feast of the Passover, the Roman Emperor surrounded the city with his legions, determining at one blow to crush the rebellion.
6. The bravery and obstinacy of the besieged was only equalled by that of the besiegers. The sallies were frequent and the slaughter dreadtul, while the dissentions of the Jews increased the horror of their situation. At last, famine, more dreadful than the enemy, carried off thousands of the wretched inhabitants.
7. Josephus, a Jewish historian, in relating the sufferings of his nation by this famine, mentions the case of a woman who was reduced to the dreadful necessity of killing and eating her own child ; the rapacity of the starving soldiers, however, even envied her this dreadful supply.
8. The city being finally taken, a soldier set fire to the temple, and the conflagration of so vast an edifice led those who beheld it at a distance to suppose the whole city was on fire. The number of those who perished in this siege were about eleven hundred thousand; the remnant were carried away captive, and have ever since been scattered over the world.
9. Notwithstanding the dispersion of the Jews amongs other nations, and the persecutions which have every where followed them, they have, to a remarkable degree, preserv. ed their national character and religion, and, to the number of many millions, are still looking for another deliverer who shall restore them to their country ; thus fulfilling the prediction of the very Messiah, whom they have obstinately rejected.
10. After the destruction of the Temple, a considerable number of the Christians were suffered to remain in the Holy City; and at the end of the third century, the Emperor Constantine, who had embraced the Christian faith, ordered the rubbish wbich had been thrown upon those places where our Saviour had suffered, to be removed, and a magnificent churc' erected over the spot.
11. Not long atterwards, the Emperor Julian, assisted by the Jews, determined to rebuild their Temple, which prophecy had declared should be destroyed, without one stone's being left upon another. But he never completed the work, in consequence of earthquakes, fiery eruptions, and other extraordinary events, which destroyed their materials and killed
many of their workmen. 12. Upon the decline of the Roman Empire, the Saracens made continual inroads upon the Asiatic provinces, and finally obtained possession of Jerusalem ; and the aitempts to rescue the Holy City from the hands of infidels gave rise to what are commonly called the crusades. the supposed call of religion, millions of fanatics assembled rom every part of christendom and embarked for Palestine.
13. Their efforts were not entirely unsuccessful, for they finally expelled the Saracens, and retained possession about a century. But of all those who engaged in these expeditions, a very small number ever returned home; the greater part dying with fatigue and disease, or falling in the bloody battles which were fought with the infidels.
14. Judea is still a fertile country, and Jerusalem has The appearance of a splendid city, although it has so often changed masters and suffered so many sieges. We were pot prepared, says a late celebrated traveller, for the grandeur of the spectacle which the city alone exhibited.
15. Instead of a wretched and ruined town, by some described as the desolated remnant of Jerusalem, we beheld as it were a flourishing and stately metropolis, presenting a magnificent assemblage of domes, towers, palaces, churches and monasteries. As we drew nearer, our whole attenlion was engrossed by its noble and interesting appearance.
16. There is much, he continues, to be seen at Jerusalem, independently of its monks and monasteries, much to repay pilgrims of a very different description from those who usually resort thither, for all the fatigue and danger they must encounter.
17. At the same time, to men interested in tracing the antiquities referred to by the documents of sacred history, no spectacle can be more mortifying than the city in its present state ; for the mistaken piety of the early Christians, in attempting to preserve, either confused or annibilated the memorials it endeavoured to perpetuate.
18. Viewing the city from the Mount of Olives, the most conspicuous object is the mosque erected upon the site and foundations of Solomon's Temple. The sight was so grand, that we did not hesitate in pronouncing it the most magnificent piece of architecture in the Turkish empire.
19. The buildings erected by the superstition or veneration of the different sects of Christians, are fast decaying ; and the donations of the few pilgrims who resort thither, are hardly sufficient to maintain the few priests who have the care of the sacred edifices, and are oppressed by the Turks, to whom they are obliged to pay an enormous tribute for even the little freedom which they are permitted to enjoy.
THE FAITHFUL AMERICAN DOG.
AN officer in the late American army, on his station at the westward, went out in the morning with his dog and gun, in quest of game. Jenturing too far from the garri. son, he was fired upon by an Indian, who was lurking in the bushes, and instantly fell to the ground.
2. The Indian, running to him, struck him on the head with his tomahawk, in order to dispatch him ; but the button of his hat fortunately warding off the edge, he was only stunned by the blow. With savage brutality he applied the scalping knife, and hastened away with this trophy of his horrid cruelty, leaving the officer for dead, and none to relieve or console him, but his faithful dog.
3. The afflicted creature gave every expression of his attachment, fidelity, and affection. He licked the wounds with inexpressible tenderness, and mourned the fate of his beloved master. Having performed every office which sympathy dictated, or sagacity could invent, without being able to remove his master from the fatal spot, or procure from him any signs of life, or his wonted expressions of affection to him, he ran off in quest of help.
4. Bending his course towards the river, where two men were fishing, he urged them with all the powers of native rhetoric to accompany him to the woods.
The men were suspicious of a decoy to an ambuscade, and dared not venture to follow the dog; who, finding all his caresses fail, returned to the care of his master; and licking his wounds a second time, renewed all his tenderness; but with no better success than before.
5. Again he returned to the men ; once more to try hik skill in alluring them to his assistance. In this attempt he was more successful than in the cther. The men, seeing bis solicitude, began to think the dog might have discovered some valuable game, and determined to hazard the con sequences of following him.
6. Transported with his success, the affectionate creature hurried them along by every expression of ardor. Precently they arrive at the spot, where, behold! an officer
wounded, scalped, weltering in his own gore, and faint with the loss of blood.
7. Suffice it to say, he was yet alive. They carried him to the fort, where the first dressings were performed. А suppuration immediately took place, and he was soon conveyed to the hospital at Albany, where in a few weeks, he entirely recovered, and was able to return to his duty.
8. This worthy officer owed his life, probably, to the fidelity of this sagacious dog. His tongue, which the gentleman afterwards declared gave him the most exquisite pleasure, clarified the wound in the most effectual manner, and his perseverance brought that assistance, without which be must soon have perished.
THE MILLER OF MANSFIELD.
Enter the King alone, wrapped in a cloak.
King. No, no, this can be no public road, that's certain. I have lost my way undoubtedly. Of what advantage is it now to be a king ? Night shows me no respect, I can neither see better, nor walk so well as another man. When a king is lost in a wood, what is he more than other men ? His wisdom knows not which is north, and which is south; his power a beggar's dog would bark at, and the beggar himself would not bow to his greatness. And yet how often are we puffed up with these false attributes ! Well! in losing the monarch, I have found the man. But hark! somebody is near.
What were it best to do? Will my majesty protect me ? No. Throw majesty aside then, and let manhood do it.
Enter the Miller. Miller. I believe I hear the rogue. Who's there! King. No rogue, I assure you. Miller. Little better friend, I believe. Who fired that
King. Not I, indeed.