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117. HYDROSULPHURIC ACID (Sulphuretted Hydrogen). H,S, c.w. 34.

1. AgNO3 produces a black precipitate of Aggs, insoluble in dilute acids.

2. Lead acetate, even when highly dilute, produces a black precipitate of PbS.

3. Sodium nitro-prusside, in presence of NaHO, produces a reddish violet coloration, even in very dilute solutions. The colour disappears in a short time.

4. HCl or H2SO4 decomposes most sulphides with evolution of H2S, recognized by its disagreeable odour and by its blackening paper moistened with solution of lead.

Reactions of the Acids belonging to Group IV.

118. Acids not precipitated by any reagent.

Nitric, Chloric, and Perchloric Acids.

NITRIC ACID. HNO3, c.w. 63.

1. Nitrates when heated evolve oxygen, and in some cases nitrous vapours also. On fusing a nitrate and adding a fragınent of charcoal, vivid deflagration


(For the reactions of Nitric Acid, see 22.)

119. CHLORIC ACID. HCIO3, C.W. 84.5.

1. H SO, decomposes chlorates with evolution of C1,0, a greenish yellow gas, having a powerful odour.

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If heated, violent explosions occur : the mixture ought therefore to be kept cold, and only very small quanti. ties should be used.

2. When chlorates are heated, oxygen is evolved and a metallic chloride remains, which may be dissolved in water and precipitated, as AgCl, by AgNO3 (See 5.)

3. Indigo solution, if added to the solution of a chlorate, is decolorized on addition of H2SO4, and solution of Na,SO3.

4. HCl decomposes chlorates with evolution of Ci and C12O4, a mixture called euchlorine.

5. Heated with charcoal, chlorates deflagrate violently.



1. H2SO4 does not act upon perchlorates in the cold, and on heating white fumes of HCIO, are given off but no explosions occur. (Compare 119, 1.)

2. KCl produces in strong solutions a white precipitate of KC1O4.

3. Indigo solution is not decolorized when added to perchlorates mixed with HCI.

4. Dry perchlorates evolve oxygen on heating.

5. Anhydrous perchloric acid is a colourless fuming liquid, which explodes with great violence when dropped on wood charcoal. (Roscoe.)


120. Detection of Inorganic Acids in Mixtures.

[The following acids are found in the examination for bases, which ought always to precede the examination for acids:–H2SO3, H2CO3, H2S, Si(HO)4, H,Cr04, H3 As O3, and H3 As 04.]

(a) Acids in Soluble Bodies.

1. Neutralize a portion of the solution with (NH4) HO and add BaCl, (or Ba(NO3)2 if Ag, Hg2, or Pb be present): precipitate indicates H2SO: H3 PO4, H3 As O3, H3 As O4, Si (HO)4, H,CrO4, Ox, C, T,* and large quantities of B(HO)3 and HF.

To precipitate, add water and then HCl : if a precipitate remair., H2SO4 was present.

2. To another portion of the neutralized solution add AgNO3: a precipitate indicates one or more of the following acids :(a) HCI, H Br, HI, HCN, H4Fe(CN)6, H3Fe(CN)6, H,S. (6) H3PO4, H3 As 04. Hz As O3, H,CrO4, Si(HO)4, B(HO)3, Ox, T, and Ci. To the precipitate add cold dilute HNO3. Acids under (a) are irsoluble, those under (6) soluble.

* Öx, Ti, and † are contractions for oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids. (For the further separation of these organic acids, see Table K.)


To a portion of the solution add Test separately for each acid by starch paste and one drop of a solu- the methods already given. tion of N2O3 in H2SO4. Elue coloration indicates HI. Add now

SEPARATION OF H3AsO3, H3AsO4, chlorine water till the blue colour

AND H3PO4. disappears, and shake with chloro- Acidify solution with H CI, ad I form. If this becomes reddish Na2SO3, and heat until no smell of brown in colour, the presence of so, is given off. Pass HS through HBr is indicated. HCI is de- the hot solution, filter, and test for tected in the presence of the others H3PO4 with ammonium molybby boiling down the solution to date : yellow precipitate indicates dryness and distilling the resi- H3 PO4. Precipitate another pordue with K, Cr,O, and H2SO4. tion with magnesia mixture, and (See 111, 3.)

test both precipitate and filtrate for arsenic.




For HCN by test 3, 114. For Ox and HF, by Ca Cl2 + acetic For H4 Fe(CN). by tests 3 and 4, acid. Confirm Ox by test 4, 100, 126.

and HF by test 3, 101. For H3 Fe(CN)6, by tests For B (HO)3, by tests 4 and 5, 99. and 3, 127.

For Si(HO)4, by tests 2 and 4, 103, For H2S, by test 4, 117. For H2CrO4, by tests 4 and 5, 110.

4 *For H NO3, by tests band c, 28. For H2SO3 by test 3, 105, and For H CI O3, by tęsts į and 2, smell of SO, on adding HCI, 119.

For Co, by test 2, 102.

(B) Acids in Insoluble Bodies,

Some idea of the nature of the compound is generally obtained by the preliminary examination (Tables A and B). If not dissolved by the

* If H I be present, it must first be removed by addition of Fe SO4 + CuSO4. (See 113, 2.)

ordinary reagents, the substance must be fused with about four times its weight of a mixture of Na, CO3 and K2CO3. When cold, extract the fused mass with water, and filter if necessary. The filtrate contains the acid, and is neutralized with HCl or HNO3, and examined by the methods given under (a).

The sulphates of barium, strontium, and calcium are decomposed by boiling with a concentrated solution of Na,CO3. Filter, and examine the filtrate for the acid.

Nitric acid and aqua regia oxidize sulphides to sulphates : hence the solution of a sulphide in these acids always contains H2SO4. In such cases a separate portion of the substance must be examined for H2SO4 by boiling with HCI, diluting with water, and then testing with BaClz.

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