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95. Write out the acids which occur in each of the four groups into which inorganic acids are divided.

96. How are sulphates detected by the blow-pipe ?

97. What happens when sulphuric acid is heated with silico-fluorides?

98. (a) How does sodium phosphate behave with solutions of the following reagents—magnesium sulphate, lead acetate, ferric chloride, and ammonium molybdate?

(6) How is phosphoric acid separated from solutions of phosphates insoluble in water?

(c) Give the distinguishing tests for ortho-, pyro-, and meta-phosphoric acids.

99. How is borax recognized by a flame reaction ?

100. (a) What reaction takes place when calcium chloride solution is added to an oxalate, and what happens when the resulting substance is ignited ?

(6) How are oxalates distinguished from phosphates ?

101. What is the most characteristic test for fluorides?

102. What is the most characteristic test for carbonates ?

103. How is silicic acid obtained from a soluble silicate, and how is it converted into silicon dioxide ?

104. State how chromic, arsenious, sulphurous, iodic, and arsenic acids are detected in the examination for bases.

105. How is sulphurous converted into hydrosulphuric acid ?

106. How are sulphites distinguished from hyposulphites ?

108. How is arsenious distinguished form arsenic acid ?

109. What is the effect of heat upon iodates, and upon iodic acid ?

110. What happens when sulphur dioxide is passed through a solution of potassium chromate?

111. How is chromium oxychloride prepared from common salt and potassium bichromate?

112. (a) How is bromine liberated from its compounds, and how is its presence recognized ?

(6) What happens when bromides are distilled with manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid ?

113. (a) How is iodine liberated from potassium iodide, and how is its presence recognized ?

(6) How can you detect chlorides, bromides, and iodides in presence of each other?

114. (a) How is silver chloride distinguished from silver cyanide ?

(6) How may ammonium sulpho-cyanide be obtained from sodium cyanide, and from mercuric cyanide ?

115. (a) How is hypochlorous acid obtained from calcium hypochlorite ?

(6) Give equations for the reactions which occur when hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid act upon sodium hypochlorite.

116. What are the tests for nitrous acid ?

117. How is free sulphuretted hydrogen obtained from sulphides, and how is it recognized ?

118. Give all the reactions for nitric acid.

119. (a) How is chloric distinguished from nitric acid ?

(6) How is anhydrous perchloric acid obtained ?

(c) How are perchlorates distinguished from chlorates ?

120. (a) How is arsenious separated from phosphoric acid ?

(6) Name the acids whose silver salts are insoluble in nitric acid.

(c) How are acids detected in insoluble bodies ? (d) How can barium sulphate be decomposed ?

121. State the group reagents of the organic acids, and show how they are divided into groups.

122. What is the action of caustic potash upon calcium tartrate ?

123. How is tartaric distinguished from citric acid ? Give two methods.

125. How are succinic and benzoic acids distinguished ?

127. What is the difference between the action of silver nitrate upon ferro- and upon ferri-cyanides?

129. Name the distinguishing tests for formic and acetic acids.

130. How is a soap formed from stearic acid, and how may the fat be separated ?

131. What reactions are produced by ferric chloride, and iodic acid upon morphine?

132. How is morphine separated from meconic acid? 133. Name the characteristic tests for strychnine.

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134. How is brucine distinguished from strychnine?

136. How are quinine and cinchonine distinguished from each other?

137. Name the tests for uric acid. 138. Name the tests for urea.

140. How is cane sugar distinguished from grape sugar, and how may it be converted into the latter ?

141. Name the tests for albumin.

142. What is the most characteristic test for starch?

144. How are tannic and gallic acids distinguished from each other?

145. How are carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen detected in organic bodies ?

146. (a) How would you separate a mixture of citric, tartaric, and oxalic acids ?

(6) How would you separate a mixture of citric, benzoic, and formic acids ?

148. Name the rare metals precipitated in the silver, copper, arsenic, iron, and potassium groups.

149. Name the tests for tungsten.

150. Give the formula of the substance produced by adding platinum chloride to solutions of thallium.

151. What reactions are produced by iodide and chloride of potassium in palladium solutions ?

152. What reaction takes place when caustic potash is added to rhodium salts?

153. What is the most characteristic test for osmium compounds ?

155. Name the most characteristic tests for gold.

156. Name the most characteristic tests for platinum.

157. What is the action of ferrous sulphate upon iridium salts ?

158. How does sodium phosphate react upon molybdenum salts ?

160. ow is selenium distinguished from tellurium ?

161. What is the blowpipe test for uranium compounds ?

163. How is beryllium distinguished from aluminium?

167. How are cerium, lanthanum, and didymium distinguished ?

168. What happens when zinc is added to solutions of titanium salts ?

169. (a) How is ammonium vanadate obtained ?

(6) What is the action of oxalic acid, sulphur dioxide, and zinc


acid solutions of vanadium pentoxide ? 170. What reaction is produced by sodium phosphate on lithium salts ?

172. How are cæsium and rubidium distinguished from each other and from potassium ?

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