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and spacious accommodations for sleeping-rooms for the students are arranged on the second floor of the building. The Principal's lodge is on the same line with the College, but it forms a detached building on its north end.

The view of the College from the Society's chapel is very picturesque ; it occupies prominently the front of the picture; it would have a sombre aspect, if the majestic palm-trees, the bright green of the lawn in front with its fine sheet of water, and the bright light of a tropical sun did not relieve the effect which its massive walls, "darkened by time and a ruthless wind," tends to produce. The ground behind the College slopes gradually towards the sea; a little to the right the new buildings of Codrington estate, and its windmill, give variety to the landscape, until the eye, carried beyond it, rests upon the abrupt cliffs of Conset's Bay, against which the sea sometimes breaks mountains high. Of equal interest is the prospect from seaward. The high cliffs of St. John's, covered sparingly with underwood, form the background, and the Society's chapel, a small but very neat building, occupies the summit, and stands boldly in relief.

A spring of water clear as crystal issues from the foot of the cliff, and is enclosed in a covered building. It flows thence towards the College, and forms two sheets of water connected by a canal which the chief road crosses by a bridge. It is then led towards the new estate, forming in its way cascades, and affording facilities for bathing: as already observed, it is of incalculable benefit in irrigating the plantation. The stream is always running, and is a principal feature in this delightful spot. Nor ought we to omit to notice a pretty garden, with some curious trees from Trinidad and Venezuela. It is true that much more might be made of this garden, especially as, with the theological studies at the College, those of medicine are professedly connected. If then it is desirable to establish somewhere in Barbados a collection of curious plants, indigenous and foreign, that spot ought to be the garden of Codrington College. The facility which the stream offers for irrigation would greatly assist the formation of a botanical garden.

The retired situation of the College corresponds with its object; removed from the bustle of the world, the students are left to themselves and their studies; and the romantic environs are well-adapted to inspire and foster religious feelings.

Burnt Hill, in the neighbourhood of Codrington College, is well worth a visit; its description I must defer to the geological account of the island. I have likewise heard of a spring the temperature of which is warmer than the surrounding air.

A large pond at Kendal's plantation is to this day called Yarico's Pond, a name which will recall the pathetic story of Inkle and Yarico in the Spectator, founded upon a fact related in Ligon's history. Although

deprived of the romantic character, Yarico, as represented by him, appears in the nakedness of a savage and frail in virtue; the revolting ingratitude of the wretch who could sell that being as a slave for life who saved his by venturing her own, remains unaltered. "And so poor Yarico for her love lost her liberty," says Ligon'.

The Parish of St. Thomas.-Area 8500 acres; population 8504; number of sugar-estates 55: it consists mostly of table-land, of an undulating character, and is traversed from north to south by numerous ravines. It is the eighth in point of area, and the sixth with respect to its population. The parish-church was destroyed in 1831, and rebuilt in 1835-36, the corner-stone having been laid on the day of the patron Saint in 1835. There is besides a chapel-of-ease dedicated to the Holy Innocents, and a temporary place of worship at Fisher's Pond. Those exemplary missionaries the Moravians have two stations in this parish, Sharon and Clifton Hill: the latter lies very pleasantly on the summit of a hill on the great road to Scotland District. The former proprietor of the estate Clifton transferred the site and some adjacent land, with some other benefices, to this Mission.

A red or ochreous soil predominates in this parish; it is considered fertile, and some of the estates on the table-land are among the most productive in the island. The ravines which traverse the soil, being less exposed to the intense heat of the sun and winds, abound generally in a luxuriant vegetation. The verdure is here more permanent, as the evaporation from the surface in these confined places is less rapid; even during the severest drought some degree of vegetation is found in them. One of these ravines opens near Carrington's Hill, and extends southward towards the parish of St. Michael, where several branches unite. In this ravine there are some beautiful cedar-trees, and at the time when General Williams possessed a stately mansion in the neighbourhood, it was as famed for its garden and fruit-trees as Piers's in Christ Church. It now possesses some interesting fruit and forest trees; among the former may be mentioned a centenarian orange-tree.

The calcareous rocks of these ravines frequently jut out and form considerable caverns; at other times they are shelving, resembling in their structure deep recesses. The roofs of these caverns and recesses are hung with stalactites, which increasing in size frequently reach the ground and unite with the calcareous concretions on the floor. A similar instance has occurred at Social-rock Gully on a large scale, and a column has been formed which supports the canopy-like recess. The romantic beauty of this ravine, the luxuriant vegetation, and the freshness which always prevails near it, have caused it to be a favourite resort

1 1 Ligon's History of Barbados, p. 55. Ligon is lavish in his praise of her beauty; he describes her as of excellent shape and colour, being of pure bright bay.

for picnic parties and social amusements. It unites near the estate called "the Spring" with another, and within a short distance of that junction is Cole's Cave, the most celebrated cavern in Barbados; I consider it about 750 or 800 feet above the level of the sea. The entrance is at the bottom of the ravine, almost masked by a vigorous vegetation. It is formed by some tower-like cliffs, which admit only a feeble light from above through a small fissure. The mouth of the cave occupies its western side; though narrow at the entrance, it becomes more spacious; and the roof is in some instances from fifteen to sixteen feet above the ground, sometimes concave and smooth, in other instances uneven and set with stalactites nearly touching the floor, which is covered with great masses of stalagmite. At the distance of about three hundred feet from the entrance, the cave divides; one branch extends east by south, the other south by west. The former does not extend very far, and the floor, in consequence of large masses of carbonate of lime, is higher than that of the larger cave. The division of these two caves is called "the Fork." The roof of the larger cave presents a most remarkable appearance in consequence of its being studded with numerous cavities or pits of a rounded form, resembling inverted saucers or calabashes. They are from a few inches to twenty inches in diameter, and from half an inch to four and even six inches in depth1. A short distance from the Fork a clear stream issues from the side of the cave and continues southward, forming in its way miniature cascades; heaps of clay, accumulated no doubt during years, lie on its banks; rounded pebbles of quartz are said to have been found in it. At a short distance from the spot where the stream issues the cavern becomes more spacious, and a basin is formed which has received the name of "the Bath." From hence it gradually lessens in height, and becomes ultimately so low as to render it necessary for the visitor to

What can be the origin of these cavities? Their inverted position renders the answer very difficult. The author has seen during his travels in Guiana similar basins excavated in granite; and on the banks of the Caphiwuin he recollects having seen them likewise in greenstone; but they were not inverted. Humboldt observed them in hard stone on the Orinoco, and he tells us that in one instance he used such a cavity as a bowl to prepare lemonade in. They are sometimes filled with rounded quartz pebbles, and as they are mostly to be met with near cataracts, where eddies and whirlpools abound, it may easily be imagined that by constant attrition in the lapse of ages these holes may have been hollowed out. In Cole's Cave they are however inverted, and do not cover the bottom, but the roof of the cavern. It has been supposed that they are places from whence stalactites formerly depended, which having dropped off, chemical agency co-operated to render these cavities smooth. It appears to me more likely that the stream brought down by the ravine, which during freshets flooded the cavern, was confined in its course by the tortuous winding of the subterranean passage, and formed into eddies, produced these curious inverted cavities on the roof upon a similar principle, as the eddies near the cataracts in South America hollow out the much harder granites and greenstones. The presence of stalactites in the cavern is a demonstrative proof that the cavern was aërial when they were formed.

stoop and follow the course of the stream by crawling along it. It is not possible to follow the cave for a greater distance; no outlet of the stream has been discovered, and it may be, as is frequently the case in the Morea, that the outlet is submarine1. Tradition says that a party who wished to ascertain in what direction the stream flowed, brought a duck with them, which was marked and then put in the water and carried away by the current. Some days afterwards it was recovered near Fontabelle, nearly seven miles in a straight line from the cave. The duck, it is said, was exhausted and nearly stripped of its feathers, perhaps by passing through fissures and coming in contact with projecting rocks. The story is possible, but not likely; unfortunately there is another version of it, which says that the duck was recovered in Scotland District. Harrison's Cave, in the neighbourhood of Cole's, is of less extent and interest.

The road which leads from Bridgetown through the western part of the parish to Mount Hillaby, Apes' Hill, &c., after reaching the summit of Messhouse Hill or Freetown, skirts the foot of some wall-like cliffs near Belair and Fortress. After passing the latter estate, the road descends suddenly towards a glen; high bushes of bamboo are planted on its side, which form a kind of arch, leading to a lovely spot called Porey's Spring. A stream of clear water, which has its source near Mount Misery, descends from the height above and falls into a reservoir by the roadside; spurting in a gentle arch, it gives a feeling of freshness, especially at mid-day. Large masses of coral rocks lie in confusion around, some of considerable height and clothed with verdure, consisting of finely pinnated Ferns, the large-leaved Pothos, succulent Peperomias, and the curious sickle-shaped Xylophia. The spring is public property, and was bequeathed by the former proprietor to the island. The water is excellent, and there have been several projects formed for conveying it by an aqueduct to Bridgetown, about eight miles distant. Its descent being in that case above eight hundred feet, it might easily be conveyed to the top of any building in the city. Porey Spring is famed for its fruit-trees, chiefly of the orange species, which are considered superior to any other in the island. Apes' Hill Gully at the northern angle of the parish presents, from the point where the road enters this ravine, a highly picturesque scene, to which the buildings at Gregg's Farm greatly contribute.

The summit of the hill at Grand View affords another lovely prospect, in which Bridgetown with the port and the garrison of St. Anne, form the principal objects.

The Parish of St. Peter.-Area 8330 acres ; population 8343; number of sugar-plantations 44. This parish is considered very fertile, and the plantations on the first table-land are productive. The low tract along

Lyell's Principles of Geology, seventh edition, p. 707.

1

the seashore is only sparingly cultivated with sugar-cane. It forms the ninth according to its superficial area, and the seventh with respect to its population. It is distinguished by similar features as the parish of St. James, but the mural precipices are not so bold; the second point of Black Bess is only 501 feet above the sea. The eastern line of the parish skirts the high land, and the summit of Four hills reaches 904 feet in height.

Speightstown or Spikestown, which belongs to this parish, is the most considerable place next to Bridgetown. Its church is one of the seven blown down during the hurricane in 1831, although it escaped in 1780; it has been rebuilt in a half Grecian style of architecture, with which the interior corresponds. The town consists of about 150 houses; a long street runs parallel with the seashore, upon which abuts another, stretching from the foot of Dover Hill towards the sea: these are the two principal streets; there are a few minor ones. The roadstead is equally exposed as Carlisle Bay; it was formerly much frequented, and a great deal of sugar was exported directly to Europe: it appears to have been chiefly visited by vessels from Bristol, and from this circumstance it received the name of Little Bristol. The practice however is now to send the produce by droghers to Bridgetown, and the place, which was already falling into decay when Oldmixon wrote, has much decreased since: the greater number of houses, many of which are built in a style bespeaking former opulence, are now in a dilapidated condition. The town possesses a very neat Wesleyan chapel. There is daily communication with Bridgetown by droghers and small sailing-vessels: many of the inhabitants earn their livelihood by fishing, chiefly during the time when the flying-fish are in season; indeed it may almost be said that these fish form the principal food of the inhabitants during that period.

In the neighbourhood of Speightstown is the police-station and the house of correction of the District E, comprising the parishes of St. Peter and St. Lucy. The buildings stand on an eminence, which has been named Dover Hill; a little further to the north is a signal station, which corresponds by means of Granade Hall and Gun Hill with Bridgetown.

All Saints' Chapel, on the main road to Scotland District, is said to be the oldest church in the island, and has never been entirely destroyed during any hurricane, although it has suffered damage. During Sir Jonathan Atkins's and Sir Richard Dutton's government, the parish was styled St. Peter and All Saints, and Oldmixon writes of it thus: "This chapel is so large and beautiful, that it is dignified with the name of a church, but it belongs to the St. Peter's parish1." It is a great pity that some of the old tombstones should have been used in lieu of flagstones during its repair.

The Mansion House, on the plantation called St. Nicholas' Abbey, on

1 Oldmixon, vol. ii. p. 83.

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