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the circumference of the trunk, whence their name of EXOGENS," as for example the Oak and other forest-trees in and out of Europe.

A few of the species which compose this class do not possess an ovary, style and stigma, and their reproduction occurs in a similar manner as in zoology among reptiles. In every other respect they resemble Exogens; and they form a group which has been named GYMNOGENS, and which precede the former in the classification. The fir-trees or Pinacea, and the sago-palms or Cycadeacea, belong to this class.

The classes which constitute the vegetable kingdom are therefore, according to Lindley's latest system,—

ASEXUAL, OR FLOWERLESS PLANTS.

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SEXUAL, OR FLOWERING PLANTS.

Fructification springing from a thallus Fructification springing from a stem; wood of stem arranged in a confused manner, youngest in the centre; cotyledon single; leaves parallel-veined,

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Wood of stem arranged in a concentric or uniform
manner, youngest at the circumference; cotyle-
dons two or more; seeds quite naked
Seeds enclosed in seed-vessels

permanent; root much like the stem internally. IV. ENDOGENS. Leaves net-veined, deciduous; root with the wood in a solid concentric circle

V. DICTYOGENS.

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I. THALLOGENS.

II. ACROGENS.

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III. RHIZOGENS.

VI. GYMNOGENS.

VII. EXOGENS.

THE CRYPTOGAMOUS OR FLOWERLESS PLANTS OF BARBADOS.

CLASS I. THALLOGENS.

ALLIANCES I., II., III.

The lowest forms of vegetable structure, the study of which presents difficulties even to the botanist in Europe, who is armed with increased power of sight and the assistance of learned works, is rendered infinitely more so under the tropics. I shall satisfy myself therefore merely with mentioning that this class comprises the Sea-weeds or ALGALES, the Mushrooms or FUNGALES, and the Lichens or LICHENALES.

The seas and rivers are filled with the representatives of the Algal Alliance. They are plants ascending from the simplest structure to a very compound state, and doubts exist as to the vegetable nature of some

of these forms, which at one period of their existence have the power of moving from place to place. "It seems incontestable, notwithstanding the denial of Mohl and others, that many of the Conferva tribe, especially of the genera Conferva, Ulva and their near allies, produce in their tubular threads reproductive bodies, or spores, which after a time acquire a power of rapid and quasi voluntary motion while in the inside of their mother; that by degrees, and in consequence of their constantly tapping against the soft side of the cell that holds them, they escape into the water; that when there they swim about actively just like animalcules; and at last retreating to a shady place, attach themselves to a stone or some other body, lose their locomotive quality, and thenceforward germinate and grow like plants1." The floating scum-like substance common in ponds and pools of standing waters is a plant belonging to the tribe Rivularide of the order Confervaceæ.

The higher organic bodies of this difficult class are the sea-weeds, which clothe with vegetation the bottom of the sea at the depths of thousands of feet, as the plants of higher orders cover the earth, and which in some instances, as in Macrocystis pyrifera, are said to acquire a length of from 500 to 1500 feet.

If I mention the Morel, the Truffle, and the Champignon, the reader will have at once a representation of the second alliance or Fungales. Barbados possesses some species of the genera Agaricus, Boletus, Cyathus, and Tremella. The mouldiness which we observe occasionally upon bread, preserves, and cheese arises from parasitical fungi of the order Physomycetes, chiefly of the genus Mucor. The gelatinous slippery substance which spreads after rains over rocks and the ground in broad foliaceous membranaceous bodies, is Tremella belonging to the order Hymenomycetes.

The Lichens or Lichenales are perennial plants which spread over the surface of the earth, rocks, and trees. They are generally attached in the form of lobed and foliaceous patches of various colours, varying from a bright yellow to purple and scarlet. They are met with all over the world, from the icy poles to the equator; but the finest species are found under the humid and hot atmosphere of tropical countries. I found a new species attached to the rocks near the summit of Chalky Mount, which Dr. Taylor has described as Endocarpon flavidum2. Some of the Lichens are employed as dyes, others are nutritious and medicinal.

1 Annales Sc. Nat. 2 ser. vol. vi.

2 The detailed description is as follows:

:

Endocarpon flavidum, Tayl. Thallo areolato, sulphureo, illimitato; squamis contiguis, lævibus, subrotundis, subcrenatis, fertilibus, convexis; porsi subsolitariis, marginatis, nucleo basi subnudo.

Sandstone rocks; on Chalky Mount, Barbados. (Sir R. Schomburgk.)
Patches, probably several inches wide; individual scales scarcely of an inch in

CLASS II. ACROGENS.

ALLIANCES IV., V.

The simple structure of the plants of the former class is now replaced by organs of a more complicated nature. The species arranged under this class have stomates or breathing-pores, and in the greater number there are distinct stems and leaves; there is however no trace of flowers, as understood in the general sense. The productive bodies of Acrogens, which are analogous to the seeds of the higher classes of plants, are called spores. The Mosses, or Muscal Alliance, which forms the lowest in Lindley's arrangement, have no spiral vessels, no veins to their leaves, and the species which compose it are of small stature. The information which I possess respecting the Barbados species of this alliance is too imperfect to enable me to state their generic name. I pass therefore to the Lycopodales or Club-mosses, of which Barbados possesses two species, namely

Lycopodium cernuum, L. 2 and L. taxifolium, Sw. 4 Bog-moss. Soufre végétal.

The sixth Alliance in the general order of plants is formed by Ferns or Filicales, no doubt the most gigantic of the Acrogens, vieing in height and appearance in some instances with the noble Palms, and especially distinguished by the elegant forms of their leaves. They have always been a favourite tribe, to which the most celebrated botanists have given their greatest attention, and in England no one more in modern times than Sir William Hooker.

"The reproductive organs consist of spore-cases arising from the veins upon the under-surface of the leaves or from their margin. The spores are arranged without order in the spore-cases."

The island of Barbados possesses very few ferns. In Jamaica they form the ninth portion of the phænogamous plants; in Barbados I know only of fifteen species, which belong to the order Polypodiacea. They

are

Acrostichum longifolium, Willd. 4.

calomelanos, Willd. 4 Maiden-hair, Hughes.

Polypodium Phyllitidis, Willd. 4 Hart's Tongue, Polypody.

aureum, Willd. 4 Agnus Scythicus, Hughes. Golden Polypody. serpens, Willd. 4 Gliding Polypody.

diameter. No hypothallus present. Nucleus contained in a colourless and transparent fine membrane or coat; very large, or equalling the scales in diameter; having a number of slightly incurved cylindraceous thecæ arising from the lowest point, each containing innumerable minute sporules like opake points in a gelatinous mass. This species may be distinguished from the Irish Endocarpon sulphureum, Tayl., which it greatly resembles, by the greater size of the scales of the latter, which are, too, more elevated and variously contorted, not smooth on the surface.

Adiantum pumillum, Swtz. Black Maiden-hair, Hughes. Dwarf Maiden

hair.

tenerum, Willd. 4 Tender Maiden-hair.
Pteris lanceolata, Willd. 4. Lanceolate Brake.
Blechnum occidentale, Willd. 4 American Blechnum.
Aspidium heracleifolium, Willd. 4 Parsnip-leaved Shield-fern.
macrophyllum, Willd. 4 Large-leaved Shield-fern.

patens, Willd. 4 Fern-like Plant, Hughes. Downy Shield-fern.
auriculatum, Willd. 2 Eared Shield-fern.

Davallia aculeata, Swtz. 4 Prickly Davallia.
Cyathea arborea, Willd. ↳
arbre.

Mountain Fern, Hughes. Tree Cyathea. Fougère

CLASS III. RHIZOGENS.

ALLIANCE VI.

Parasitical plants destitute of true leaves, in room of which they have cellular scales. Their stem is an amorphous fungous mass, sometimes ramified, and only imperfectly supplied with spiral vessels. They are brown, yellow, or purple, and no instance of green colour is known among them. They are furnished with flowers, genuine stamens and carpels, and live mostly parasitically on the roots of other plants. To this curious class, of which I am not aware that there is a single representative in Barbados, belongs the remarkable Rafflesia, which is known to produce the largest flower in the vegetable kingdom.

THE PHANEROGAMOUS OR FLOWERING PLANTS OF BARBADOS.

It has been my aim to present in the following enumeration of plants, which are indigenous, naturalized or cultivated in Barbados, as complete a list as the notes which I had collected during my sojourn in Barbados would permit me. Lindley's arrangement, as developed in his 'Vegetable Kingdom,' has been strictly followed; and those generic and specific names have been used which are now generally adopted by botanists of the present day. The name of the authority from whom the systematic name has been derived follows an abbreviation; then comes the sign used for the habits of plants. When the plant is not indigenous, I have stated the native country from which it originally came; all others, where no such country is mentioned, are considered as indigenous. Where the plant has been identified with any of those described by Hughes in his 'Natural History of Barbados,' or by Browne or Long in their Histories of Jamaica, they have been given; but where not otherwise mentioned, the English name has been quoted from 'Loudon's Encyclopædia of Plants.' Then follows the popular or vernacular name by which the plant is known in the island, and frequently the common name in the

adjacent French or other foreign colonies has been added in italics. The Catalogue is followed by indexes of vernacular names in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, and an Index of Genera.

A List of the principal Abbreviations of Authors employed in the Catalogue

of Plants.

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