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nimantane ekache māņavā gulaṁ, dadhina bhuñjinsu ekache khirena. " One day the pupils were invited to cat jaggery with curd and milk (Vol. I., 123).

Study hour. The study hour commenced early in the morning when the boys were roused from sleep by the crowing of a cock. The cock, it appears, was domesticated in every educational institution for serving the purpose of a clock. The Akalaravi Jātaka (Vol. I, 119) describes how the students had to suffer in their studies by the untimely crowing of a cock.

"Māņavā tassa atirattim vassankale sippam sikkantā vāva arunuggamanā sikkhitum na sakkonti, niddāyamānā gahitaṭṭhānampi na passanti, atipabhāte vassitakāle sajjhāyassa okāsaṁ eva na labhanti.”

This means -When the students were roused by its crowing at midnight, they could not continue studies till the rising of the sun; for feeling drowsy they could not even see the portion (of the book) on which they had received lessons. When it fell a-crowing in broad day, they could not get an opportunity for repeating their lessons.

It is apparent from the above statement that the students had two periods assigned to them for private study, one in which they learnt with the help of books and the other in which they recapitulated their lessons. The two things, it seems, had to be finished before noon.

Achariyo or the Chief Preceptor.-The Achariyas or chief preceptors are all described in the Jatakas as teachers of worldwide fame (disāpāmokkho). They were honoured and respected by kings and the people. Some of the enlightened royal courts, e.g., Videha, Benares and Pañchala retained them as royal chaplains. The Sarabhanga Jātaka (Vol. V, 522) says that Prince Jotipala who satisfied his Achariya in Takshasila by his proficiency in learning, was presented by him with his own sword, bow, quiver and coat of mail. This fact indicates either the Achariyo was himself a warrior, a Kshatriya or a Brahmin who taught both the art of war and the art of peace.


It has already been pointed out that the usual number of students which learnt under an Achariyo was limited to 500. In teaching these pupils, the Achariyo was helped by other teachers who in the Jatakas are called "pitthiachariyo or assistant teachers. The Anabhirati Jātaka already noticed, mentions that a Brahmin youth having mastered the three Vedas under Bodhisatto became his assistant teacher and taught sacred verses to others "Tassa (Bodhisattassa) santike eko brāhmaṇamāṇavaka tayo vede pagune akasi, ekapadepi nikkaṁkho pitțiachariyo hutvā mante vāchesi (Vol. II, 185).

Besides the assistant teachers, the Achariyo was also helped in teaching by his chief pupils who are called "Jeṭṭhantevāsiko". In the Mahadhammapala Jātaka (Vol. IV, 447) an Achariyo is mentioned to have delegated his work during his absence to Dhammapala who was the chief pupil among his 500 students. Calling Dhammapala to his presence, the Achariyo said "Tam yava mamāgamanā ime māņave sippaṁ vāchehi." Till my return you instruct these pupils in sippa.

Courses of Study.-The three Vedas and the eighteen Sippas are repeatedly spoken of as the subject taught in the University. The three Vedas are evidently the Rig, the Sama and the Yaju which possibly included all their branches. The Atharva Veda was not recognized as a Veda in the age of the Jātakas. We do not know of what did the 18 sippas consist. They are everywhere collectively mentioned as "aṭṭhārasasippāni". Only a few names, such as "Issapasippa" (science of archery), Hatthi sutta (Elephant Text) and Manta (sacred text) occur in the Jātakas. From the story of Jivaka, in the Vinaya Piṭaka, it appears that the study of medicine and surgery was included in the curriculum of the University.

Most of the references in the Jātakas point to the students' taking the sippa or the science course. The Vedic or theological studies are found to have been taken up by very few. In the majority of cases, the reference is to "having mastered the sippas, sabbasippāni uggaṇhitvā " without any mention of the Vedic studies.

This fact indicates that technical education was

more in vogue in the time of the Jātakas than Vedic or theological studies.

It is also apparent from some passages in the Jātakas that in addition to the ordinary course, a student was allowed to take up a special course in one of the sippas. In the Asadisa Jātaka (Vol. II, 181) we are told that Bodhisatta became peerless in the science of archery in addition to learning the three Vedas and the 18 sippas. "Bodhisatto solasavassakāle Takkasilam gantvä disāpāmokkhassa achariyassa santike tayo Vede aṭṭhārasa sippāni ca uggaṇhitva issāpasippe asadiso hutvā Bārāṇasim pacchāgami". "At the age of 16, Bodhisatta went to Takshaśila and learnt the three Vedas and 18 sippas under a famous teacher. Having become peerless in the science of archery he came back to Benares.” Another reference to the same effect is found in Volume III, 374, which states "Eko Bārāṇasi Brāhmaṇamāṇavo Takkasilayo sabbasippāni uggaṇhitvā dhanukamme nippahattim patto Culladhanuggahapandita nama ahosi". A certain Brahmin student of Benares learnt all the sciences in Takshasila, and having acquired proficiency in archery was known as the clever Little archer. Moreover, students are described as going up to the University for specializing in one subject only. Thus in the Susima Jātaka (Vol. II, 163) the son of the King's Chaplain goes to Takshasila for mastering the "Hatthi sutta" (Elephant Text) only. Again in the Anabhirati Jātaka already quoted, a Brahmin youth is represented as learning only" manta" (sacred text) in Takshaśilā. Jivaka, we know from the Vinaya Piṭaka, went to Takshasila only for studying medicine and surgery.

It should, however, be noted in this connection that these sciences were not simply theoretical. The frequent reference to the fact that stulents after completing their education had to give proof of what they had learnt, suggests that they hid to do the practical side as well. The Tilamutthi

Jataka tells us that when Brahmadat takumara returned to Benares after finishing education in Takshaśilā, he had to give to his parents a practical demonstration of his knowledge of the "sippas," which he had acquired there. "So Baranasim gantvā

mātāpitāro vanditva sippaṁ dassesi." Jivaka too, who studied medicine in Takshaśilā, had to acquaint himself with the practical uses of the herbs and drugs which could be found within 6 or 7 miles of Takshasila. The several cases of difficult operations which he performed, just after leaving Takshaśila suggests that he had a good practical training in surgery at Takshaśilā (Chirvarakhandhaka, Vinaya Piṭaka).

Tours undertaken for further education.-We are further told that students, after the completion of studies, used to go on tours over the country for mastering all the practical sciences of the time (Sabbasamayasippāni). This fact is so often referred to in the Jātakas [] that it seems to have been considered a necessary part of education. The Setaketu Jātaka (Vol. III, 377) mentions how Setaketu having mastered all the "sippas" from a famous teacher in Takshaśilă, wandered about the country learning all the practical sciences of the time. "Takkasilato nikkhamitvā sabbasamayasiṛpāni sikkhanto vichari." Again the Darîmukha Jātaka (Vol. III, 378) describes how two friends having acquired all the sciences in Takshaśilā travelled through towns and villages with the intention of learning all the practical sciences of the time and making themselves acquainted with the manners and customs of the countries.

"Takkasilaṁ gantvā sabbasippāni uggaṇhitvā sabbasamayasippañ cha 'sikkhissāma, desachārittañ cha jānis āmā” ti gā manigamadisu charantā Bārāṇasiṁ

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pavimsu." Jātakas, it appears light (?) and lucky observed in giving

Lectures. From some passages in the that lectures were delivered at night and days (Sallahukena nakkhattena) were instructions. The Tilamutthi Jātaka says: "Dhamman tevāsikā divā āchariyassa kammaṁ katvā rattiṁ sippaṁ ugganhanti". The resident pupils did work for the achariyo during the day and learnt sippas at night. In the Susima Jātaka (Vol. II, 163) Bodhisatto who went to study in Takshaśilā is stated to have said to his teacher, "Ajja ekarattaṁ may haṁ

[1] J. I. 80; J. 1II. 377.
J. III, 336; J. III, 378.

yeva okāsam karotha." Be pleased to give me your time for this night only. [1]


Text Books.-From the frequent use of the expression Sippam Vachesi " which means "Causing to read the sippas," it is apparent that students used to learn sippas with the help of books.

A passage in the Akālarāvi Jātaka, already quoted, viz., “niddayamānā gahitaṭṭhānaṁ pi na passanti, " feeling drowsy they could not even see the portion (of the book) on which they had received lessons, confirms the above statement. A direct reference to the existence of books (poṭṭhakam), occurs in Tundila Jātaka (Vol. III, 388) wherein Bodhisatta is represented as preparing a book of judgment for deciding cases. "Bodhisatta vinicchaya poṭṭahakam likhāpetvā imam poṭṭhakaṁ olokentā attham kareyyatha". Bodhisatta caused a case-law book to be written and said, "By observing this book you should decide

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Besides, the repeated mention of the use of writing in the Jātākas, [2] both in private and official correspondence, leaves no doubt that it was quite a common thing in the age of the Jatakas. When it is observed that the art of writing was used in every sphere of daily life, there can be no reason to doubt, that it was equally employed for preserving the traditional learning of the times.

Nature study for the feeble-minded.-In addition to theoretical lectures and practical training, nature study was sometimes prescribed for those who were intellectually weak among students. In the Nangalisa Jataka (Vol. I, 123), we are told that a Brahmin youth who used to learn the scriptures from

[] I am indeb.ed to Mr. K. P. Jayaswal, M.'A., (Oxon.) for drawing my attention to the fact that Mula deva, a renowned professor of arts, used to deliver lectures at night.

(2) J. I. 125.

J. II. 214.

J. II. 181.

J. III. 301.
J. IV. 482.

J. IV. 467.

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