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मगाचार्यो ह्यमराचार्यश्व किराते बुद्धस्थापका: । तृषाचार्यो सिद्धाचार्यपूच चोने सिंहल एव हि ॥ १२५५

भहाबुद्वमतं द्वाभ्यां स्थापितं जलधे : कु है । उपदोपे च वातापिसं मानवेषु च ॥ ११५६ ॥

ब्रह्मगिरे : सकाश च हिंलागिरेलटे ।

मोडे चोदयनाचार्या च शंकराचार्यतो नृप ॥ ११५७ मुण्डनविश्रान् तोरभुक्तौ तथा भट्टात्पराजिता: । ग्रपरे चत्वारो चना : जिनमार्गविचचणाः ॥ ११५८ ॥

व्यास्त्रवतत्त्व' कल्यायतत्त्व' ग्रागमतत्त्वमेव च । ज्ञानतत्त्व' नौवतत्त्व' संवेदनतत्त्वमेव च ॥ ११५६ ॥

गिरितत्त्व' व्यवहारतत्त्व' च पतितत्त्व सुशोभन: । नवत्त्वादिता: सर्व बुद्धमार्गीयमानवा: ॥ ११६०

चत्र वरी कालिका च दुष्टानां फलदायिनी । महाकाली रक्तप्रिया शांजिनधर्मिण: ॥११६१ दुरितारापानि दण्डकारियो ।

श्यामा तपोवनच्या च कोकटस्यैव पूर्वगे ॥ १९६२ #

शांता शांतजने जैने व्यवहारे सुखप्रदा ।

भृकुटि : कानपूरा च संकटोचारियो मता ॥ १९६३ ॥

गिरिनार गिरौ पूज्या विदा च सुनारकाः।

व्यवहारफ तदात्रो मानिनो मानवर्धिनी ॥ ११६४

जिनमार्गरतानां च शोकचयविनाशिनी ।

व्यशोका सर्वदा लोहे सेनानां गृहाति ॥ ११३५ ॥

विद्यााचो विदिता च वाक्येषु विदशम्य व

रता तहकारिणो च दिवातिकमानव ॥ ११६६ ॥

angat fun zunifundatą geam'z i

पातयामास रभसा प्राखिनां हितकारिणी ॥ १९६७ ॥

zięùalfaai fam' aet zegafuât i

Cant magde afdft oder zwą 1. 3365 ||

Gafat forrenatui zanzi èemant i

६वे नष्टे च निर्वाणं जावते च प्रभावत: ॥ ११६ ॥

सर्वेषां मानवानां च जिनमतपारगामिनाम् ।

म्टतेषु मरणं मोचएवाच देहाद्भिन्नो न जोबक: ॥ ११७० #

All the 24 Śāsana-devatās are mentioned here. It says that Bhücandra preached Buddhism in Magadhi at Picalavana and Lakramoca in Ceylon.

After 2400 years from the commencement of the Kali Yuga when Suta was expounding the Bhagavata at Naimişaranya Buddhadeva was born in Kikața as the son of Śuddhodhana and Māyādevi. He preached that there is no soul beyond this body and that death itself is Nirvana. He had many followers, some of whom went to Ceylon, some to China, some to Kiratadeśa and some to the eastern peninsula. At one time they defeated in argument all the great scholars of Madhyadesa, but later on they were themselves defeated by Samkarācāryya, Udayanācāryya and Kumarila Bhatta and Mandana Misra.

The author Ramkavi here confounds the Bauddhas, Jainas and the Carvākas, and says that the Bauddhas had 2 Sasanadevatās and believed in Navatattva. But his description of Ceylon and the monasteries is full, though not at all accurate. The author says that Kartika was the God much worshipped in Ceylon, but he was cursed by his wife and in consequence he was banished from Ceylon and replaced by Buddha.

Sahadeva's Digvijaya relates to the western countrics and as Nakula's task was easily accomplished and Sahadeva's task was very hard, Yudhisthira commanded that they should lead a joint

expedition. In this expedition the countries conquered are:Arab, Persia, Bulk, Turkistan, Badaksan as well as Burma, the two Chinas and Siam.

Bhima's conquest commences from the north of Punjab. He carries his victorious arms to Amṛtesvara (perhaps Amaranath), Jambu, Sialkot, Lahore, Sarayupāra, Gandak and the countries comprised in the modern provinces of Bengal and Bihar. In these two provinces Rāmkavi seems to follow the lead of Jagamohan, making his description fuller, more modern and more interesting.

Arjuna's Digvijaya is given within a small compass and he sometimes coalesces with Bhima. The author is not very distinct in his geography or in his bearings. If Indraprastha is to the starting point of the four brothers it is inexplicable how Sahadeva conquers the countries on the Vitasta and Sindhu while Bhima conquers Jammu and Sialkot. Peshwar is given as the capital of Sivi Rājā.

Rāmkavi gives a date of his compilation in a chronogram, "Randhrabdhinetracandraistu ganite vatsare", i.e., 1370 of some unknown era.

These are the works written by human beings for the use of human beings and for terrestrial objects, but there are other works affiliated to the Purāņas. But before taking them up I should examine the question whether the above four works were written in imitation of Abul Fazal's Ain-i-Akbari and my answer is in the negative. Vidyapati certainly belonged 150 years before Abul Fazal. And Vikrāma-Vaijala, the author or patron of VikramaSagara cannot come later than Abul Fazal, because in the first half of the sixteenth century Jagamoban extensively used Vikrama-Sagara. Jagamohan and Rāmkavi may have borrowed something from Abul Fazal, but that borrowing must be very slight as his point of view of writing these works was entirely different from that of Abul Fazl's. These are in no sense State documents; they are intended for the use of Hindu people describing as they do specially the places of pilgrimage and the rules of performing ceremonies.

The great work of a Pauranic nature is the Brahmakhaṇḍa of the Bhaviṣya Purāņa. It also professes to give the description of the fifty-six countries to the east and west of Bengal and Bihar, and it is very full from Benares to Manipur. As a Purāņa it is a great moral admonitor, and it vehemently criticizes the particular vices prevailing in prevailing in particular parts of the country. Though it is supposed to be written by Vyasadeva at the end of the Dvāpara Yuga, it is a very modern compilation. It gives the story of Vidya and Sundara at Burdwan which has been popularized by Bharatacandra whose poem, entitled “ Vidyā Sundara" was completed in the year 1753. There are other indications also that it is a very late compilation. It speaks of the last Muhammadan capital of Bengal as "Morasidabad” a name which it got from Murshid Kuli Khan in 1704. It is very likely that an old Pauranic work has received several revisions or has been seriously interpolated.

It is a pity that we get only fragments. The order in which the countries have been described is not to be found anywhere. The jumps from Varendra to Dravida from Heramba to Rintambore appear to be inexplicable, so until good manuscripts come out of the search instituted by this Society, you may get interesting extracts from these fragments, but the hope of properly editing the book will be a far distant contingency if it be not hopeless altogether.

II. The Brihadratha Chronology

(Cir. 1727-727 B.C.).

By K. P. Jayaswal, M.A. (Oxon.).

I.-The post-War Kings.

1. The Purāņas divide the Brihadratha dynasty of Magadha, like any other dynasty, into two main chronological groups: (1) those who flourished before the Maha-Bhārata War and (2) those who flourished after the War. On the basis of the calcula

A new datum: 700 years for the post-Maha Bhārata Briha drathas.

tions set forth in my paper on the Śaiśunāka and Maurya chronology1 for the dates of the Saiśunākas and the Maha-Bharata War, I came to the conclusion that the post- Maha-Bhārata Brihadrathas covered 697 years. Now I find a confirmation of that conclusion in a Puranic datum which was not accessible to me when I wrote my above paper (1913). This datum is found in a rare manuscript of the Matsya Purana, at present in the India Office Library (No. 334; Jackson collection).+

2. The Purāņas (the Vayu, Brahmaṇḍa and Matsya) after chronicling the reigns of the Magadha Sovereigns from Sahadeva 'who fell in the Bharata war' up to Ripuñjaya give the following line to close the Brihadratha dynasty :

हात्रिंशच्च नृपा ह्येते भवितारो वृहद्रथाः पूर्ण वर्ष - सहस्र वै तेषां राज्य भविव्यति ॥

1 J.B.O.R.S., I. 111-112. The accession of Mahā-Nanda falls in 409 B.C., and the birth of Parikshit or the end of the Maha-Bharata War (1015+ 409) in 1424 B.C.

2" The Purāņas give 1,000 years to Brihadiathas. But the post-Mahā-Bhārata Brihadrathas are only 32 and there are 12 pre-Mahā-Bhārat、 princes of the Brihadratha dynasty. The Śaiśunāka dynasty commences in 727 B.C. on the extinction of the Prihadrathas. To the credit of the post-Maha-Bhārata Brihadrathas thus there would be only (1424-717) 697 years". J.B.O.R.S., I, 111-12.

Pargiter, Purāṇa Text, p. xxxii.

Pargiter, P.T., p. 17.

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