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मगाचार्यो यमराचार्यप्रव किराते बुवस्यापका: । वृषाचार्यो सिद्धाचा पूच चोने सिंहल एव हि ॥ १९५५ । महायुद्धमतं दाभ्यां स्थापित जलधे : कुा । उपहोपे च वातापिसं मानवेषु च ॥ ११५६ ।। ब्रह्मगिरे : सकाश च हिंमलातमिरेलटे। मोडे चोक्ष्यगाचार्या च शंकराचार्यतो नृप ॥ ११५७ ॥ मुरडनविधान् तोरभुक्तौ तथा भट्टापराजिताः । अपरे चत्वारो जना : जिगमार्गविचक्षणाः ॥ ११५८ ॥

बाखवतत्त्व कल्यायतत्त्व ग्रागमतत्त्वमेव च । ज्ञानतत्त्व' जीवतत्त्व संवेदनतत्त्वमेव च । ११५६ ॥

रितत्त्व व्यवहारतत्त्वच पतितत्त्व सुशोभन : । नवतत्त्वान्विता : सर्व बुद्धमार्गोयमानबा : ॥ ११६० । चकवरो कालिका च दुष्टानां फलदायिनी । महाकाली र प्रिया शनणां जिनधर्मिण : ॥ ११६१ ॥ दुरितारिपचातिबनो पापिनां दराडकारिणी । स्यामा तपोवनम्या च को कटस्थ व पूर्वगे ॥ ११६२ ॥ शांता शांतजने जैने यवहारे सुखदा । भृकुटि : कानपूरा च संकटोद्धारिणो मता ॥ ११६३ ॥ शिरिनारगिरी पूज्या पिशदा च सुतारकाः। व्यवहारफ जदात्री मानिनो मानवधिनी ॥ ११६४ ।। जिनमार्गरतानां च शोकत्रयविनाशिनी । छायोका सर्वदा लोहे बनानां सहाभिगी ।। १९६५ : विद्यादाची विदिता च वाक्य घु विदशम्य च । रता कलहकारियो च वदिवासिकमानव ॥ ११६६ ॥

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अम्बुली भिन्न न्हधर्मामिातवान बुद्धवमस ।
पातयामास रभसा प्राणिनां हितकारिणी । १९६७ ॥
कंदर्पयोषितां नित्व' सदा मदनवर्धिनी ।
नानां ग्राम्यधर्मस्य वर्धिनी सर्बदा नृणाम् ॥ १९६८ ॥
faatat fortamat Eatat e Tati
हे मष्टे च निर्वाणं जायते च प्रभावत : । १९६६ ॥
सर्वेषां मानवानां च जिनमतपारगामिनाम् ।
मोसु मरणं मोक्षरवाच देहाझिनो न जोबक : ॥ ११७० ॥

All the 24 Śāsana-devatās are mentioned here. It says that Bhūcandra preached Buddhisın in Māgadhi at Picalavana and Lakramoca in Ceylon.

After 2400 years fro:n the commencement of the Kali Yuga when Sūta was expounding the Bhāgavata at Naimişāraṇya Buddhadeva was born in Kikata as the son of Śuddhodhana and Māyādevi. He preached that ther, is no soul beyond this body and that death itsolf is Nirvāņa. He had many followers, some of whom went to Ceylon, sone to China, some to Kirātadesa and some to the eastern peninsula. At one time they defeated in argument all the great səholars of Madhyadesa, but later on they were themselves defeated by Sainkarācāryya, Udayanācāryya and Kamarila Bhatta and Mandana Miśra.

The author Rāmkavi here confounds the Banddhas, Jainas and the Cārvākas, and says that the Bauddhas ha:) 21 Sasanadevatás and believed in Navatattva. But liis description of Ceylon and the monasteries is full, though not at all accurate. The author says that Kārtika was the God much worshipped in Ceylon, but he was cursed by his wife and in consequence he was banished from Ceylon and replaced by Buildlia.

Sahadeva's Digvijaya relates to the western countries and as Nakula's task was easily accomplished and Sahadeva’s task was very hard, Yudhisthira commanded that they should lead a joint

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expedition. In this expedition the countries conquered are:Arab, Persia, Bulk, Turkistan, Badaksan as well as Burma, the two Chinas and Siam.

Bhima's conquest commences from the north of Punjab. He carries his victorious arms to Amộteśvara (perhaps Amaranath), Jambu, Sialkot, Lahore, Sarayupāra, Gandak and the countries comprised in the modern provinces of Bengal and Bihar. In these two provinces Rāmkavi seems to follow the lead of Jagamohan, making his description fuller, more modern and more interesting.

Arjuna's Digvijaya is given within a small compass and he sometimes coalesces with Bhima. The author is not very distinct in his geography or in his bearings. If Indraprastha is to the starting point of the four brothers it is inexplicable how Sahadeva conquers the countries on the Vitasta and Sindhu while Bhima conquers Jammu and Sialkot. Peshwar is given as the capital of Sivi Rājā.

Rāmkavi gives a date of his compilation in a chronogram, “Randhrābdhinetracandraistu gaạite vatsare ", i.e., 1370 of some unknown era.

These are the works written by human beings for the use of human beings and for terrestrial objects, but there are other works affiliated to the Purāņas. But before taking them up I should examine the question whether the above four works were written in imitation of Abul Fazal's Ain-i-Akbari and my answer is in the negative. Vidyāpati certainly belonged 150 years before Abul Fazal. And Vikrāma-Vaijala, the author or patron of Vikram Sāgara cannot come later than Abul Fazal, because in the first half of the sixteenth century Jagamoban extensively used Vikrama-Sāgara. Jagamohan and Rāmkavi


have borrowed something from Abul Fazal, but that borrowing must be very slight as his point of view of writing these works was entirely different from that of Abul Fazl’s. These are in no sense State documents ; they are intended for the use of Hindu people describing as they do specially the places of pilgrimage and the rules of performing ceremonies.

The great work of a Pauranic nature is the Brahmakhaņda of the Bhavişya Purāņa. It also professes to give the description of the fifty-six countries to the east and west of Bengal and Bihar, and it is very full from Benares to Manipur. As a Purāņa it is a great moral admonitor, and it vehemently criticizes the particular vices prevailing in particular parts of the country. Though it is supposed to be written by Vyāsadeva at the end of the Dvāpara Yuga, it is a very modern compilation. It gives the story of Vidyā and Sundara at Burdwan which has been popularized by Bharatacandra whose poem, entitled “ Vidyā Sundara” was completed in the year 1753. There are other indications also that it is a very late compilation. It speaks of the last Muhammadan capital of Bengal as “ Morasidabad” a name which it got from Murshid Kuli Khan in 1704. It is very likely that an old Pauranic work has received several revisions or has been seriously interpolated.

It is a pity that we get only fragments. The order in which the countries have been described is not to be found anywhere. The jumps from Varendra to Dravida from Heramba to Rintambore appear to be inexplicable, so until good manuscripts come out of the search instituted by this Society, you may get interesting extracts from these fragments, but the hope of properly editing the book will be a far distant contingency if it be not hopeless altogether.


II.-The Brihadratha Chronology

(Cir. 1727-727 B.C.).

By K. P. Jayaswal, M.A. (Oxon.).

1.-The post-War Kings. 1. The Purāņas divide the Bșihadratha dynasty of Magadha, like any other dynasty, into two main chronological groups : (1) those who fourished before the Maha-Bharata War and (c) those who flourished after the War. On the basis of the calcula

tions set forth in my paper on the

Śaisunáka and Maurya chronology A new datum: 700 years for for the dates of the Saisunākas and the post-Mahi Bhārata Briba.

the Maha-Bharata War, I came to the drathas.

conclusion that the post-liaha-Bhārata Bșihadrathas covered 697 years.' Now I find a confirmation of that conclusion in a Puranic datum which was not accessible to me when I wrote my above paper (1913). This datum is found in a rare manuscript of the Matsya Purana, at present in the India Office Library: (No. 334 ; Jackson collection).4

2. The Purāṇas (the Vayu, Brahmānda and Matsya) after chronicling the reigns of the Magadha Sovereigns from Sahadeva

who fell in the Bhārata war 'up to Ripuðjay a give the following line to close the Brihadratha dynasty :

दाविंशच नृपा ह्य ते भवितारो सहद्रथाः पूर्ण वर्ष-सहस्र वै तेषां TTY' ufafan

1J.B.0.2.S., 1. 111-112. The accession of Maha-Nanda falls in 409 B.C., and the birth of Parikshit or the end of the Maha-Bhārat.. War (1015 + 409) in 1424 B.C.

3« The Purāņus give 1,000 years to Brihadiathas. But the post-Mabă-Bharata Bțihadrathus are only 32 ani there are 12 pre-Mahā-Bhārati princes of the Bșihadratha dynasty. The Saišanāka dynasty commences in 727 B.c. on the ostinction of the Prihadrathas. To the credit of the post. Vaha-Bhārata Brihadrathas thus there would be only (1424–717) 697 years ”. J.B.O.R.S., I, 111-13.

Pargiter, Purāņa Text, p. xxxii.
Pargitor, P.T., p. 17.


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