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one is coming. I shall kill it for you and let you dine on it. Don't cry out so loudly for it will be scared away by the noise.” The tiger heard these words and was overcome with fear. He dropped his tail on the ground and slunk away in a state of alarm, A monkey saw him in this abject mood and stopped him." It is marvellous indeed isaid the monkey) that so noble a beast should turn away so ignominously from a mere jackal." Said the tiger :-" It is no jackal but a very dangerous customer who has installed himself in

my cave.

I dare not face him." Said the monkey :-" The voice you

heard the voice of a female jackal.

jackal. If

If you have any misgivings on that score let us go together to the cave and as a proof of my good faith I am willing to have my tail fastened on to yours”. So they tied their tails together and proceeded towards the cave. Seeing them the jackal's wife shouted :-"You lazy monkey, I ordered you to bring in seven tigers but you are fetching me only one. You are an absolute noodle ; I shall dismiss you from my service." When he heard this the tiger thought that the monkey was only a secret agent in the service of the strange occupant of the cave and that he had been shamefully betrayed. The tiger ran for his life over boulders of stone, across deep crevices and through thorny bushes. Happily for the monkey the knot worked loose before the tiger had gone far and he managed to escape with only a few bruises. As a result of this unfortunate incident the two friends became sworn enemies, and mutually vowed vengeance against each other. The tiger went out in search of the monkey. The monkey was found pounding the seeds of the Soso apple (Marking nut) * in a certain place. “Well, what are you doing, monkey dear ? " asked the tiger; and the reply was : "You had dragged me over the rocks and through thorny bushes and I am preparing an ointment to heal my bruises." The tiger:-" Will you please give me some so that I may also apply the remedy to my wounds for I too have received injuries." The monkey:-"You

* It is said that the juice extracted from this fruit causes irritation and roduces sores.

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may take as much of it as you like for I have got enough and to spare.” Saying this the monkey left the place and the tiger rubbed the oil of the marking nuts over his body. The oil produced a burning sensation and the tiger roared in agony, Said the tiger:- This is the second time that the wily old monkey has attempted to kill me. I must make a clean job of him this time.” He searched again for the monkey and found him on a tree where there was a bee-hive. “What are you doing, old monkey ? ” asked the tiger. The monkey replied: --" I am repairing my drum (Vandal) for there will be a dance at the king's palace and I shall have to attend the function as a musician." As a kind of scenic make-believe the monkey uttered a sound (dātur medangtur) in imitation of māndal music and at the same time gave a mimetic reproduction of a drummer's performance. The tiger:-“Will you please let me just play a bit on your drum?" The monkey:-“ No ; you will break it.” The tiger :-"No, no, Mr. Monkey, I will use the utmost care and I will not break your drum.The monkey :

-Very well, let me step aside for a moment and then you will play on it at your pleasure.” The monkey then bid himself in the tree and the tiger climbed up and mistaking the bee-hive for a drúm uttered " dätur medangturand struck the hive so that all the bees fell upon him and stung him and the tiger ran away suffering terrible agony. Now the tiger said to himself : “The monkey has thrice tried to take my life. I shall surely have my revenge this time.” He went again in search of the monkey. This time he found his enemy seated on a dry tree under which there was a heap of dry leaves “What are you doing, monkey dear pis' asked the tiger. “I am exposing my wounds to the beneficent rays of the sun up here and they are healing up fast under this treatment.The tiger:-“Will you please let me go and sit there se that my wounds may be cured also.” The monkey complied with his request and climbed down and the tiger went up and perched himself on the tree. When he was seated the monkey rubbed two pieces of dry twigs and started a fire. The dry leaves were soon ablaze and the fire involved the tree and the poor tiger was burnt to death.

30.--THE DEVOTION OF A FISHERMAN'S WIFE. There lived in a certain village a married couple. The husband went every day into the jungles and caught fish and crabs in the hillstreams. To avoid drenching his loincloth which was the only wearing apparel he possessed be used to keep it on the river-bank while engaged in fishing. While he was thus engaged one morning his hand was caught in a hole by a crab and while he was struggling to extricate it a huge tiger who was the king of the forest arrived there with his retinue consisting of a number of smaller tigers. The king beheld a pair of berries dangling from a stem and ordered one of his followers to go and examine them and to report if they were ripe. The follower carried out his command and reported that the berries would be ripe by the following morning. The king then departed with his cortege. As the fisherman was very late in returning home owing to this une toward event his wife grew anxious about his safety in a place known to be infested with wild animals and she went into the jungle to look for him. He met her on his way home and told her that his end was near for the great tiger would come again next morning when he would be fishing in the river and would for a certainty devour him.

“ Be not anxious, my dear,” said the devoted wife," for I will find means for your deliverance”. Next morning she volunteered to go into the jungle and catch fish in the river and prevailed upon her husband to stay at home. While she was catching fish in nature's garb there came the king of tigers with his myrmidons. Lashing his tail in fury the king of the forest turned on his followers and said :--" You have made a fool of me. The fruits were ripe but you did not let me taste them yesterday. Now they are gone and nothing remains but the stem. The king in his rage killed all his followers and went away from the place so that the fisherman's wife returned home in safety.*

• Another version has a different ending. The woman on being interrogated said tbat the berries, beirg overripe bad dropped into the river and had been carried down stream by the carrent, and thereupon the king and his followers went in search of them along the course of the river and thus enabled the woman to get away.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTRIBUTIONS,

1.-Dates of Skanda-Gupta and His

Successors.

By H. Panday, B.A.

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The January (1918) number of the Hindustan Review contains a very interesting and learned discussion on the dates of Skanda-Gupta and his successors by Mr. Panna Lall, M. A., B, SC., L.L B., I.C.S.

The chronology of the Imperial Gupta dynasty which was the accepted one as late as 19141 assigned a reign of some twenty-five years to Skanda-Gupta (455-480 A.C.) 2 and placed his successors, Pura-Gupta, Narasimha-Gupta and Kumāra-Gupta II between 450 and 550 A.C. Since then, however, fresh discoveries have been made and a fresh adjustment of dates became necessary. In his Catalogue of Gupta coins in the British Museum Mr. Allan has proved that three more names must be added to the list of the known successors of Skanda-Gupta, namely, Prakāśāditya, Dvādaśāditya, and Ghatotkacha-Gupta ; but no change in the accepted date of Skanda-Gupta's death (180 A.C.) was proposed. So strong was the belief in the correctness of this chronology amung scholars generally that when in the excavations at Sārpāth during 1914-15, a fresh discovery was made in the shape of an inscription of a Buddhist monk Abhayamitra mentioning the name of Kumāra-Gupta as the reigning sovereign and dated in the 151th year of the Gupta era, together with another of the same monk mentioning Buddha-Gupta as Ruler of the Land and dated in 157 G.E., it was explained away by expressing a belief or conjecture as to the existence of a third Kumāra-Gupta ! The

See V. Smith Early History of India (3rd Ed.) pp. 308-311. ? Ibid ; also Allan, Catalogue of Gupta Coins, p. cxxvii.

a

a

a

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importance of Mr. Panna Lall’s paper lies in its indepenilent and satisfactory solution of the problem raised by the lasi-meu ioned discovery. It is a contribution to history of which any scholar may well be proud, inasmuch as the author has not had the monopoly of a chance 'find’ but bases his conclusion on examination of materials already available.

Mr. Panna Lall has tried in this paper to prove :

(1) That the reign of Skanda-Gupta ended in 467 A.C. and that he was followed by Pura-Gupta (167-169), NarasimhaGupta (469-473), Kumāra-Gupta II (473-177) and BuddhaGupta (477-494); Prakāśāditya, Dvādaśāditya and GhatothkachaGupta being also relegated to the period between 469 and 477 A.C.

(2) That the Kumāra-Gupta of the Sárnāth inscription is identical with (a) the Kumāra-Gupta, son of Narasimha-Gupta Bālāditya of the Bhițri Seal and (6) the Kumāra-Gupta mentioned in the Mandasor inscription of 529 M.E. (473 A.C.).

With regard to the first Mr. Panna Lall rests his arguments mainly on the following facts :(a) the absence of any recorded date for Skanda-Gupta

after 467 A.C.; (6) the discovery of inscriptions dated in 474 and 477 A.C.

at Sārnāth, in the very heart of Gupta dominions,

mentioning the names of other kings, (c) the untrustworthiness of the legend recorded by Hiuen

Tsang asoribing the defeat of Mihirgula to Bālāditya

of Magadha. It was due to a mistaken reading of the date on a silver coin of Skanda-Gupta (160 for 145 G.E ) : that this emperor was assigned a long reign extending to 480 A. C. The error was corrected by Allan" but its effect on the chronology of this period was not then recognized. The credibility of the legend recorded by Hiuen Tsang according to which the credit for the discomfiture of the Hūņa tyrant was given to Bālāditya, a Buddhist king

J.R.A.S., 1889, page 133. Allan, Gupta, Coins, page 133.

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